The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Nationalist Party of China–Communist Party of China engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang. The Kuomintang established a "Revolutionary Committee" at Nanchang to plant the spark, expected to ignite a widespread peasant uprising. Deng Yanda, Song Qingling and Zhang Fakui were among the political leaders. Military forces in Nanchang under the leadership of He Long and Zhou Enlai rebelled in an attempt to seize control of the city after the end of the first Kuomintang-Communist alliance. Other important leaders in this event were Zhu De, Ye Ting, Liu Bocheng. Communist forces occupied Nanchang and escaped from the siege of Kuomintang forces by 5 August, withdrawing to the Jinggang Mountains of western Jiangxi. 1 August was regarded as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army and the first action fought against the Kuomintang and the National Revolutionary Army.
In Chinese, apart from the name shown above, the event is known as 1 August Nanchang Uprising, 1 August Uprising, Nanchang Rebellion, Nanchang Insurrection, or Nanchang Mutiny. The Government of the People's Republic of China and the Communist Party of China refer this as the Nanchang Uprising, while the Government of the Republic of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party refer this as the Nanchang Rebellion. Communist forces at their peak during the Nanchang Uprising totaled over 20,000, though some of them did not join the battle until a day later; the entire Communist force was organized into the 2nd Front Army, over half of it was under He Long's command. He was named Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Front Army, Ye Ting as deputy Commander-in-Chief and acting front-line Commander-in-Chief. Communist representative was Zhou Enlai, chief of staff was Liu Bocheng and Director of the Political Directorate of the 2nd Front Army was Guo Moruo; the following is the order of battle for the Communist forces: 9th Army commanded by Zhou Enlai, with Zhu De as the deputy commander and Zhu Kejing as the Communist Party representative.
11th Army commanded by Ye Ting, with Cai Tingkai as the deputy commander and Nie Rongzhen as the party representative. 10th Division commanded by Cai Tingkai 24th Division commanded by Gu Xunming/Dong Zhongming 25th Division commanded by Li Hanhun, after taking Nanchang by Zhou Shidi 20th Army commanded by He Long and Liao Qianwu as the communist representative 1st Division commanded by He Jinzhai 2nd Division commanded by Qing Guangyuan 3rd Division commanded by Zhou Yiqun The rebellion was planned to take place during the night of July 30, but due to complications with Zhang Guotao it was postponed until the next day. On the morning of 1 August 1927, at 2:00 a.m. Zhou Enlai, He Long, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Ting, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Zhu De, Chen Yi and Liu Bocheng led their troops and attacked the city of Nanchang from different directions. Four hours they took the city, capturing 5,000 small arms and around 1,000,000 rounds of ammunition. Around noon the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Nationalist Party was established.
The committee has 25 members: Deng Yanda, Zhang Fakui, Tan Pingshan, Chen Youren, Wu YuZhang, Peng Zemin, Lin Zuhan, He Long, Guo Moruo, Huang Qixiang, Yun Daiying, Jiang Hao, Zhu Huiri, Zhou Enlai, Zhang Guotao, Ye Ting, Zhang Shushi, Li Lisan, Xu Teli, Peng Pai, Su Zhaozheng, Song Qingling, He Xianning, Yu Youren and Jing Hengyi. Facing a counterattack from the Nationalists, the Communists decided to retreat south towards the province of Guangdong. Once there they would try to take over the city of Guangzhou while spreading their influence to the peasants and farms in that area. Guangzhou was the target set by the Soviet Comintern and, on August 3, Communist troops pulled out of Nanchang, their Little Long March came to an end at the beginning of October, as they came down out of the Hakka uplands and into the Chaoshan area. In Chaozhou they were defeated by Nationalist-affiliated troops. Communist forces were broken up and traveled in two general directions, one heading to Shanwei where they engaged the Nationalists in guerrilla warfare, the other to southern Hunan, where they joined a force under Mao Zedong, whose abortive Autumn Harvest Uprising had been no more successful.
The Communist forces had suffered such a decisive and disastrous defeat that only 1,000 soldiers remained as a complete unit, reforming into a regiment. Under the command of Zhu De and Chen Yi, who had faked their names, the regiment went to a local Hunan warlord and sought refuge. From this humble beginning the force grew to 10,000 strong, traveling to Jiangxi and joining Mao Zedong at Jinggangshan in April 1928. Liu Bocheng became a fugitive but was lucky enough to find other Communists who helped him and sent him to the Soviet Union for military training, while Lin Biao deserted after the defeat. However, he had
Double Ninth Festival
The Double Ninth Festival, observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the Eastern Han period. According to the I Ching, nine is a yang number. Hence, the day is called "Double Yang Festival". To protect against danger, it is customary to climb a high mountain, drink chrysanthemum liquor, wear the zhuyu plant, Cornus officinalis. On this holiday some Chinese visit the graves of their ancestors to pay their respects. In Hong Kong, whole extended families head to ancestral graves to clean them and repaint inscriptions, to lay out food offerings such as roast suckling pig and fruit, which are eaten. Chongyang Cake is popular. Incense sticks are burned. Cemeteries get crowded, each year grass fires are inadvertently started by the burning incense sticks. Once there was a man named Heng Jing, who believed that a monster would bring pestilence, he told his countrymen to hide on a hill. People celebrated Heng Jing's defeat of the monster on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month.
In 1966, Taiwan rededicated the holiday as "Senior Citizens' Day", underscoring one custom as it is observed in China, where the festival is an opportunity to care for and appreciate the elderly. Double Ninth may have originated as a day to drive away danger, but like the Chinese New Year, over time it became a day of celebration. In contemporary times it is an occasion for chrysanthemum appreciation. Other activities include flying kites, making flower cakes, welcoming married daughters back home for visiting. Stores sell rice cakes with mini colorful flags to represent zhuyu. Most people drink chrysanthemum tea. Children learn poems about chrysanthemums, many localities host chrysanthemum exhibits. Mountain climbing races are popular. In Japan, the festival is known as Chōyō but as the Chrysanthemum Festival and it is one of the Japan's five sacred ancient festivals, it is most celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month according to the Gregorian calendar rather than the lunar calendar, i.e. on September 9.
It is celebrated at both Shinto Buddhist temples. The festival is celebrated in the wish for the longevity of one's life and is observed by drinking chrysanthemum sake and eating dishes such as chestnut rice or and chestnuts with glutinous rice or. Online, Touhou Project fans celebrate September 9th as "Cirno Day" due to the number 9 being associated with the character Cirno. In Korea, the festival is known as Jungyangjeol and it is celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month. Koreans would consume chrysanthemum leaves in pancakes; as the festival is meant to celebrate and cultivate good health, outdoor activities such as carrying dogwood, climbing hills or mountains for picnics as well as gazing at chrysanthemum blossoms are carried out. There is an oft-quoted poem about the holiday, Double Ninth, Remembering my Shandong Brothers, by the Tang Dynasty poet Wang Wei: Double Seventh Festival Qingming Festival, a day to visit and clean up the cemeteries Curse of the Golden Flower, a Chinese film in which the plot takes place around the Chrysanthemum Festival
The Uyghurs or Uighurs, are a Turkic people who live in Central and East Asia. As of 2019, Uyghurs live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, where they are one of China's fifty-five officially-recognized ethnic minorities. Uyghurs practice Islam. An estimated 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in the south-western portion of the region, the Tarim Basin. Outside Xinjiang, the largest community of Uyghurs in China is in Taoyuan County, in north-central Hunan; the World Uyghur Congress estimates the Uyghur population outside of China at 1.0–1.6 million. Significant diasporic communities of Uyghurs exist in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and in Turkey. Smaller communities live in Afghanistan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, Australia and the United States. In the Uyghur language, the ethnonym is written ئۇيغۇر in Arabic script, Уйгур in Russian, Уйғур in Uyghur Cyrillic, Uyghur or Uygur in Latin. In Chinese, this is transcribed into characters as 维吾尔 / 維吾爾, romanized in pinyin as Wéiwú'ěr.
In English, the name is spelt "Uyghur" by the Xinjiang government but appears as "Uighur", "Uigur", "Uygur". The name is pronounced in English as, although some Uyghurs and Uyghur scholars have advocated for using the closer pronunciation instead; the original meaning of the term is unclear. Old Turkic inscriptions record a word uyɣur, transcribed into Tang annals as 回纥 / 回紇, it was used as the name of one of the Turkic polities formed in the interim between the First and Second Göktürk Khaganates. The Old History of the Five Dynasties records that in 788 or 809 the Chinese acceded to a Uyghur request and emended their transcription to 回鹘 / 回鶻. Modern etymological explanations for the name "Uyghur" have ranged from derivation from the verb "follow, accommodate oneself" and adjective "non-rebellious" to the verb meaning "wake, rouse, or stir". None of these is thought to be satisfactory because the sound shift of /ð/ and /ḏ/ to /j/ does not appear to have taken place by this time; the etymology therefore cannot be conclusively determined, its referent is difficult to fix.
The "Huihe" and "Huihu" seem to have been a political rather than a tribal designation or to have just been one group among several others collectively known as the Toquz Oghuz. The name fell out of use in the 15th century, but it was reintroduced in the early 20th century by the Soviet Bolsheviks to replace the previous terms "Turk" and "Turki", it is presently used to refer to the settled Turkic urban dwellers and farmers of the Tarim Basin who follow traditional Central Asian sedentary practices, distinguishable from the nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia. The Uyghurs appear in Chinese records under other names; the earliest record to a Uyghur tribe appears in accounts from the Northern Wei. They are described as the 高车 / 高車, now read as Gāochē but with the reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation *; this in turn has been connected to the Uyghur Qangqil. They were known as the Tiele. Throughout its history, the term Uyghur has taken on an expansive definition. Signifying only a small coalition of Tiele tribes in Northern China and the Altai Mountains, it denoted citizenship in the Uyghur Khaganate.
It was expanded into an ethnicity whose ancestry originates with the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842, which caused Uyghur migration from Mongolia into the Tarim Basin. This migration assimilated and replaced the Indo-European speakers of the region to create a distinct identity as the language and culture of the Turkic migrants supplanted the original Indo-European influences; this fluid definition of Uyghur and the diverse ancestry of modern Uyghurs create confusion about what constitutes true Uyghur ethnography and ethnogenesis. Contemporary scholars consider modern Uyghurs to be the descendants of a number of people, including the ancient Uyghurs of Mongolia who arrived at the Tarim Basin after the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, Iranic Saka tribes, other Indo-European peoples who inhabited the Tarim Basin before the arrival of the Turkic Uyghurs. DNA analyses indicate that the peoples of central Asia such as the Uyghurs are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. Uyghur activists identify with the Tarim mummies, remains of an ancient people who inhabited the region, but research into the genetics of ancient Tarim mummies and their links with modern Uyghurs remains problematic, both to Chinese government officials concerned with ethnic separatism, to Uyghur activists concerned that the research could affect their people's claim of being indigenous to the region.
The Uighurs are the people whom old Russian travellers called Sart, while Western travellers called them Turki, in recognition of their language. The Chinese used to call them Ch'an-t'ou but this term has been dropped, being considered derogatory, the Chinese, using their own pronunciation, now called them Weiwuerh; as a matter of fact there was for centuries no'national' name for them. The term "Uyghur" was not use
The Ghost Festival known as the Hungry Ghost Festival, Zhongyuan Jie, Gui Jie or Yulan Festival is a traditional Buddhist and Taoist festival held in certain Asian countries. According to the Chinese calendar, the Ghost Festival is on the 15th night of the seventh month. In Chinese culture, the fifteenth day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar is called Ghost Day and the seventh month in general is regarded as the Ghost Month, in which ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. Distinct from both the Qingming Festival and Double Ninth Festival in which living descendants pay homage to their deceased ancestors, during Ghost Festival, the deceased are believed to visit the living. On the fifteenth day the realms of Heaven and Hell and the realm of the living are open and both Taoists and Buddhists would perform rituals to transmute and absolve the sufferings of the deceased. Intrinsic to the Ghost Month is veneration of the dead, where traditionally the filial piety of descendants extends to their ancestors after their deaths.
Activities during the month would include preparing ritualistic food offerings, burning incense, burning joss paper, a papier-mâché form of material items such as clothes and other fine goods for the visiting spirits of the ancestors. Elaborate meals would be served with empty seats for each of the deceased in the family treating the deceased as if they are still living. Ancestor worship is what distinguishes Qingming Festival from Ghost Festival because the latter includes paying respects to all deceased, including the same and younger generations, while the former only includes older generations. Other festivities may include and releasing miniature paper boats and lanterns on water, which signifies giving directions to the lost ghosts and spirits of the ancestors and other deities; the timing and origin story of the modern Ghost Festival, however derives from the Mahayana scripture known as the Yulanpen or Ullambana Sutra. The sutra records the time when Maudgalyayana achieves abhijñā and uses his new found powers to search for his deceased parents.
Maudgalyayana discovers that his deceased mother was reborn into the hungry ghost realm. She was in a wasted condition and Maudgalyayana tried to help her by giving her a bowl of rice; as a preta, she was unable to eat the rice as it was transformed into burning coal. Maudgalyayana asks the Buddha to help him; the Theravadan forms of the festival in South and Southeast Asia are much older, deriving from the Petavatthu, a scripture in the Pali Canon that dates to the 3rd century BC. The Petavatthu account is broadly similar to that recorded in the Yulanpen Sutra, although it concerns the disciple Sāriputta and his family rather than Moggallāna; the Ghost Festival is held during the seventh month of the Chinese calendar. It falls at the same time as a full moon, the new season, the fall harvest, the peak of Buddhist monastic asceticism, the rebirth of ancestors, the assembly of the local community. During this month, the gates of hell are opened up and ghosts are free to roam the earth where they seek food and entertainment.
These ghosts are believed to be ancestors of those who forgot to pay tribute to them after they died, or those who were never given a proper ritual send-off. They have long needle-thin necks because they have not been fed by their family, or as a punishment so that they are unable to swallow. Family members offer prayers to their deceased relatives, offer food and drink and burn hell bank notes and other forms of joss paper. Joss paper items are believed to have value in the afterlife, considered to be similar in some aspects to the material world, People burn paper houses, cars and televisions to please the ghosts. Families pay tribute to other unknown wandering ghosts so that these homeless souls do not intrude on their lives and bring misfortune. A large feast is held for the ghosts on the fourteenth day of the seventh month, when people bring samples of food and place them on an offering table to please the ghosts and ward off bad luck. Lotus-shaped lanterns are lit and set afloat in rivers and out onto seas to symbolicly guide the lost souls of forgotten ancestors to the afterlife.
In some East Asian countries today, live performances are held and everyone is invited to attend. The first row of seats are always empty; the shows are always put on at night and at high volumes as the sound is believed to attract and please the ghosts. Some shows include Chinese opera, in some areas burlesque shows. Traditionally Chinese opera was the main source of entertainment but the newer shows, dramas, wars and so forth are referred to as Getai; these acts are better known as "Merry-making". For rituals and Taoists hold ceremonies to relieve ghosts from suffering, many of them holding ceremonies in the afternoon or at night. Altars are built for the deceased and priests and monks alike perform ritu
Victory over Japan Day
Victory over Japan Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect bringing the war to an end. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made – to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 – as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred ending World War II. August 15 is the official V-J Day for the UK, while the official US commemoration is September 2; the name, V-J Day, had been selected by the Allies after they named V-E Day for the victory in Europe. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, aboard the battleship USS Missouri. In Japan, August 15 is known as the "memorial day for the end of the war"; this official name was adopted in 1982 by an ordinance issued by the Japanese government. On August 6 and 9, 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively.
On August 9, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. The Japanese government on August 10 communicated its intention to surrender under the terms of the Potsdam Declaration; the news of the Japanese offer, was enough to begin early celebrations around the world. Allied soldiers in London danced in a conga line on Regent Street. Americans and Frenchmen in Paris paraded on the Champs-Élysées singing "Don't Fence Me In". American soldiers in Berlin shouted "It's over in the Pacific", hoped that they would now not be transferred there to fight the Japanese. Germans stated that the Japanese were wise enough to—unlike themselves—give up in a hopeless situation, but were grateful that the atomic bomb was not ready in time to be used against them. Moscow newspapers reported on the atomic bombings with no commentary of any kind. While "Russians and foreigners alike could hardly talk about anything else", the Soviet government refused to make any statements on the bombs' implication for politics or science.
In Chungking, Chinese fired firecrackers and "almost buried in gratitude". In Manila, residents sang "God Bless America". On Okinawa, six men were killed and dozens were wounded as American soldiers "took every weapon within reach and started firing into the sky" to celebrate. On Tinian island, B-29 crews preparing for their next mission over Japan were told that it was cancelled, but that they could not celebrate because it might be rescheduled. A little after noon Japan Standard Time on August 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito's announcement of Japan's acceptance of the terms of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast to the Japanese people over the radio. Earlier the same day, the Japanese government had broadcast an announcement over Radio Tokyo that "acceptance of the Potsdam Proclamation coming soon", had advised the Allies of the surrender by sending a cable to U. S. President Harry S Truman via the Swiss diplomatic mission in Washington, D. C. A nationwide broadcast by Truman was aired at seven o'clock p.m. on Tuesday, August 14, announcing the communication and that the formal event was scheduled for September 2.
In his announcement of Japan's surrender on August 14, Truman said that "the proclamation of V-J Day must wait upon the formal signing of the surrender terms by Japan". Since the European Axis Powers had surrendered three months earlier, V-J Day was the effective end of World War II, although a peace treaty between Japan and most of the Allies was not signed until 1952, between Japan and the Soviet Union in 1956. In Australia, the name V-P Day was used from the outset; the Canberra Times of August 14, 1945, refers to V-P Day celebrations, a public holiday for V-P Day was gazetted by the government in that year according to the Australian War Memorial. After news of the Japanese acceptance and before Truman's announcement, Americans began celebrating "as if joy had been rationed and saved up for the three years, eight months and seven days since Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941", Life magazine reported. In Washington, D. C. a crowd attempted to break into the White House grounds as they shouted "We want Harry!"In San Francisco two women jumped naked into a pond at the Civic Center to soldiers' cheers.
More thousands of drunken people, the vast majority of them Navy enlistees who had not served in the war theatre, embarked in what the San Francisco Chronicle summarized in 2015 as "a three-night orgy of vandalism, assault, robbery and murder" and "the deadliest riots in the city's history", with more than 1,000 people injured, 13 killed, at least six women raped. None of these acts resulted in serious criminal charges, no civilian or military official was sanctioned, leading the Chronicle to conclude that "the city tried to pretend the riots never happened"; the largest crowd in the history of New York City's Times Square gathered to celebrate. The victory itself was announced by a headline on the "zipper" news ticker at One Times Square, which read "*** OFFICIAL TRUMAN ANNOUNCES JAPANESE SURRENDER ***". S. Armed Forces. In the Garment District, workers threw out cloth scraps and ticker tape, leaving a pile five inches deep on the streets; the news of the war
Zheng He was a Chinese mariner, diplomat, fleet admiral, court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was born as Ma He in a Muslim family, adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle. Zheng commanded expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, East Africa from 1405 to 1433, his larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length and carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, Zheng rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing, his voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qichao's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He in 1904. A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Ceylon shortly thereafter. Zheng He was born Ma He to a Muslim family of Kunyang, Yunnan, China, he had four sisters.
Ma He's religious beliefs became eclectic in his adulthood. The Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions suggest that Zheng He's devotion to Tianfei was the dominant faith to which he adhered, reflecting the goddess' central role to the treasure fleet. John Guy mentions, "When Zheng He, the Muslim eunuch leader of the great expeditions to the'Western Ocean' in the early fifteenth century, embarked on his voyages, it was from the Divine Woman that he sought protection, as well as at the tombs of the Muslim saints on Lingshan Hill, above the city of Quanzhou."Zheng He was a great-great-great-grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who served in the administration of the Mongol Empire and was the governor of Yunnan during the early Yuan dynasty. His great-grandfather may have been stationed at a Mongol garrison in Yunnan. Zheng He's grandfather carried the title hajji, while his father had the sinicized surname Ma and the title hajji, which suggests that they had made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Peterson suggests that the Hajji of both his father and grandfather indicated that Zheng He may have had Mongol-Arab ancestry and that he could speak Arabic.
In the autumn of 1381, a Ming army invaded and conquered Yunnan, ruled by the Mongol prince Basalawarmi, Prince of Liang. In 1381, Ma Haji died in the fighting between the Ming armies and Mongol forces. Dreyer states that Zheng He's father died at age 39 while resisting the Ming conquest, while Levathes states Zheng He's father died at age 37, but it is unclear if he was helping the Mongol army or just caught in the onslaught of battle. Wenming, the oldest son, buried their father outside of Kunming. In his capacity as Admiral, Zheng He had an epitaph engraved in honor of his father, composed by the Minister of Rites Li Zhigang on the Duanwu Festival of the 3rd year in the Yongle era. Zheng He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in 1381. General Fu Youde saw Ma He on a road and approached him in order to inquire about the location of the Mongol pretender. Ma He responded defiantly by saying. Afterwards, the general took him prisoner. One source states that he was castrated at the age of 10 and was placed in the service of the Prince of Yan, while another source indicates that the castration occurred in 1385.
Ma He was sent to serve in the household of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who became the Yongle Emperor. Zhu Di was eleven years older than Ma. While enslaved as a eunuch servant, Ma He gained the confidence of Zhu Di, while Zhu Di as his benefactor would gain the allegiance and loyalty of the young eunuch. Since 1380, the prince had been governing Beiping,which was located near the northern frontier where the hostile Mongol tribes were situated. Ma would spend his early life as a soldier on the northern frontier, he participated in Zhu Di's military campaigns against the Mongols. On 2 March 1390, Ma accompanied the Prince when he commanded his first expedition, a great victory as the Mongol commander Naghachu surrendered as soon as he realized he had fallen for a deception, he would gain the confidence and trust of the prince. Ma was known as "sān bǎo" during the time of service in the household of the Prince of Yan; this name was a reference to the Three Jewels in Buddhism. There is a document saying his name could be 三保.
Ma received a proper education while at Beiping, which he would not have had if he had been placed in the imperial capital Nanjing, as the Hongwu Emperor did not trust eunuchs and believed that it was better to keep them illiterate. Meanwhile, the Hongwu Emperor purged and exterminated many of the original Ming leadership and gave his enfeoffed sons more military authority those in the north like the Prince of Yan. Ma He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi tall, had a waist, five chi in circumference, cheeks and a forehead, high, a small nose, glaring eyes, teeth that were white and well-shaped as shells, a voice, as loud as a bell, it is recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle. The young eunuch became a trusted adviser to the prince and assisted him when the Jianwen Emperor's hostility to his uncle's feudal bases prompted the 1399–1402 Jingnan Campaign which ended with the emperor's apparent death and the ascension of the Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, as the Yongle Emperor.
Arbor Day is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees. Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season; the Spanish village of Mondoñedo held the first documented arbor plantation festival in the world organized by its mayor in 1594. The place remains as Alameda de los Remedios and it is still planted with lime and horse-chestnut trees. A humble granite marker and a bronze plate recall the event. Additionally, the small Spanish village of Villanueva de la Sierra held the first modern Arbor Day, an initiative launched in 1805 by the local priest with the enthusiastic support of the entire population. While Napoleon was ravaging Europe with his ambition in this village in the Sierra de Gata lived a priest, don Juan Abern Samtrés, according to the chronicles, "convinced of the importance of trees for health, decoration, nature and customs, decides to plant trees and give a festive air.
The festival began on Carnival Tuesday with the ringing of two bells of the church, the Middle and the Big. After the Mass, coated with church ornaments, don Juan, accompanied by clergies, teachers and a large number of neighbours, planted the first tree, a poplar, in the place known as Valley of the Ejido. Tree plantations continued by Fuente de la Mora. Afterwards, there was a feast, did not miss the dance; the party and plantations lasted three days. He drafted a manifesto in defence of the trees, sent to surrounding towns to spread the love and respect for nature, he advised to make tree plantations in their localities; the first American Arbor Day was originated in Nebraska by J. Sterling Morton. On April 10, 1872, an estimated one million trees were planted in Nebraska. Birdsey Northrop of Connecticut was responsible for globalizing the idea when he visited Japan in 1883 and delivered his Arbor Day and Village Improvement message. In that same year, the American Forestry Association made Northrop the Chairman of the committee to campaign for Arbor Day nationwide.
He brought his enthusiasm for Arbor Day to Australia and Europe. Beginning in 1906, Pennsylvania conservationist Major Israel McCreight of DuBois, argued that President Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation speeches were limited to businessmen in the lumber industry and recommended a campaign of youth education and a national policy on conservation education. McCreight urged Roosevelt to make a public statement to school children about trees and the destruction of American forests. Conservationist Gifford Pinchot, Chief of the United States Forest Service, embraced McCreight’s recommendations and asked the President to speak to the public school children of the United States about conservation. On April 15, 1907, Roosevelt issued an "Arbor Day Proclamation to the School Children of the United States" about the importance of trees and that forestry deserves to be taught in U. S. schools. Pinchot wrote McCreight, "we shall all be indebted to you for having made the suggestion." Arbor Day has been observed in Australia since 20 June 1889.
National Schools Tree Day is held on the last Friday of July for schools and National Tree Day the last Sunday in July throughout Australia. Many states have Arbor Day, although Victoria has an Arbor Week, suggested by Premier Rupert Hamer in the 1980s. International Day of Treeplanting is celebrated in Flanders on or around 21 March as a theme-day/educational-day/observance, not as a public holiday. Tree planting is sometimes combined with awareness campaigns of the fight against cancer: Kom Op Tegen Kanker; the Arbor Day is celebrated on September 21. It is not a national holiday. However, schools nationwide celebrate this day with environment-related activities, namely tree planting. Arbour Day is celebrated on November 22, it is sponsored by the National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands. Activities include an annual national Arbour Day Poetry Competition and tree planting ceremonies throughout the territory. Cambodia celebrates Arbor Day on July 9 with a tree planting ceremony attended by the king.
The day was founded by Sir George W. Ross the Premier of Ontario, when he was Minister of Education in Ontario. According to the Ontario Teachers' Manuals "History of Education", Ross established both Arbour Day and Empire Day - "the former to give the school children an interest in making and keeping the school grounds attractive, the latter to inspire the children with a spirit of patriotism"; this predates the claimed founding of the day by Don Clark of Schomberg, Ontario for his wife Margret Clark in 1906. In Canada, National Forest Week is the last full week of September, National Tree Day falls on the Wednesday of that week. Ontario celebrates Arbour Week from the last Friday in April to the first Sunday in May. Prince Edward Island celebrates Arbour Day on the third Friday in May during Arbour Week. Arbour Day is the longest running civic greening project in Calgary and is celebrated on the first Thursday in May. On this day, each grade 1 student in Calgary's schools receives a tree seedling to be taken home to be planted on private property.
National Tree Planting Day is on July 20. The Arbor Day in China was founded by the famous forestry scientist Ling Dao-yang in 1915. From 1916 to 1928, Arbor Day was celebrated on the Chinese Qingming Festival, on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. In 1929, the date for Arbor Day was changed to March 12 to commemorate Sun Yat-sen. In 1979, the fourth session of the Fifth Nation