Public relations is the practice of deliberately managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment; this differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. Public relations is the idea of creating coverage for clients for free, rather than marketing or advertising, but now, advertising is a part of greater PR Activities. An example of good public relations would be generating an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the client to be advertised next to the article; the aim of public relations is to inform the public, prospective customers, partners and other stakeholders and persuade them to maintain a positive or favorable view about the organization, its leadership, products, or political decisions. Public relations professionals work for PR and marketing firms and companies, public officials as PIOs and nongovernmental organizations, nonprofit organizations.
Jobs central to public relations include account coordinator, account executive, account supervisor, media relations manager. Public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organization's target audience, the media, relevant trade media, other opinion leaders. Common responsibilities include designing communications campaigns, writing news releases and other content for news, working with the press, arranging interviews for company spokespeople, writing speeches for company leaders, acting as an organisation's spokesperson, preparing clients for press conferences, media interviews and speeches, writing website and social media content, managing company reputation, managing internal communications, marketing activities like brand awareness and event management Success in the field of public relations requires a deep understanding of the interests and concerns of each of the company's many stakeholders; the public relations professional must know how to address those concerns using the most powerful tool of the public relations trade, publicity.
Ivy Lee, the man who turned around the Rockefeller name and image, his friend, Edward Louis Bernays, established the first definition of public relations in the early 1900s as follows: "a management function, which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies and interests of an organization... followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance." However, when Lee was asked about his role in a hearing with the United Transit Commission, he said "I have never been able to find a satisfactory phrase to describe what I do." In 1948, historian Eric Goldman noted that the definition of public relations in Webster's would be "disputed by both practitioners and critics in the field."According to Bernays, the public relations counsel is the agent working with both modern media of communications and group formations of society in order to provide ideas to the public's consciousness. Furthermore, he is concerned with ideologies and courses of actions as well as material goods and services and public utilities and industrial associations and large trade groups for which it secures popular support.
In August 1978, the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations defined the field as "the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest." Public Relations Society of America, a professional trade association, defined public relations in 1982 as: "Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other." In 2011 and 2012, the PRSA solicited crowd supplied definitions for the term and allowed the public to vote on one of three finalists. The winning definition stated that: "Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics." Public relations can be defined as the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics. Public relations is to speak out its advocacy in public, it builds up a talking platform to achieve its goals and protect the interests of people.
Public relations rather has historical roots. Most textbooks consider the establishment of the Publicity Bureau in 1900 to be the founding of the public relations profession. However, academics have found early forms of public influence and communications management in ancient civilizations, during the settling of the New World and during the movement to abolish slavery in England. Basil Clark is considered the founder of public relations in the United Kingdom for his establishment of Editorial Services in 1924. Propaganda was used by the United States, the United Kingdom and others to rally for domestic support and demonize enemies during the World Wars, which led to more sophisticated commercial publicity efforts as public relations talent entered the private sector. Most historians believe public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe when they created European subsidiaries as a result of the Marshall plan.
The second half of the 1900s is considered the professional development building era of public relations. Trade associations, PR news magazines, international PR agencies, academic principles f
Nilutamide, sold under the brand names Nilandron and Anandron, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It has been studied as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and to treat acne and seborrhea in women, it is taken by mouth. Side effects in men include breast tenderness and enlargement, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes. Nausea, visual disturbances, alcohol intolerance, elevated liver enzymes, lung disease can occur in both sexes. Nilutamide can cause respiratory failure and liver damage; these unfavorable side effects, along with a number of associated cases of death, have limited the use of nilutamide. Nilutamide acts as a selective antagonist of the androgen receptor, preventing the effects of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the body; because most prostate cancer cells rely on these hormones for growth and survival, nilutamide can slow the progression of prostate cancer and extend life in men with the disease.
Nilutamide was discovered in 1977 and was first introduced for medical use in 1987. It became available in the United States in 1996; the drug has been replaced by newer and improved NSAAs, namely bicalutamide and enzalutamide, due to their better efficacy and safety, is now used. Nilutamide is used in prostate cancer in combination with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue at a dosage of 300 mg/day for the first 4 weeks of treatment, 150 mg/day thereafter, it is not indicated as a monotherapy in prostate cancer. Only one small non-comparative study has assessed nilutamide as a monotherapy in prostate cancer. Nilutamide has been used to prevent the effects of the testosterone flare at the start of GnRH agonist therapy in men with prostate cancer. Nilutamide has been studied for use as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, it has been assessed in at least five small clinical studies for this purpose in treatment-naive subjects. In these studies, nilutamide monotherapy at a dosage of 300 mg/day, induced observable signs of clinical feminization in young transgender women within 8 weeks, including breast development, decreased body hair, decreased morning erections and sex drive, positive psychological and emotional changes.
Signs of breast development occurred in all subjects within 6 weeks and were associated with increased nipple sensitivity, along with decreased hair growth, were the earliest sign of feminization. Nilutamide did not change the size of the prostate gland, but was found to alter its histology, including increased stromal tissue with a significant reduction in acini and atrophic epithelial cells, indicating glandular atrophy. In addition apparent histological changes were observed in the testes, including a reduction in tubular and interstitial cells. Nilutamide was found to more than double luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels and to triple estradiol levels. In contrast, follicle-stimulating hormone levels remained unchanged. A slight but significant increase in prolactin levels was observed, levels of sex hormone-binding globulin increased as well; the addition of ethinylestradiol to nilutamide therapy after 8 weeks abolished the increase in LH, estradiol levels and suppressed testosterone levels, into the castrate range.
Both nilutamide alone and the combination of nilutamide and estrogen were regarded as resulting in effective and favorable antiandrogen action and feminization in transgender women. Nilutamide has been assessed in the treatment of acne and seborrhea in women in at least one small clinical study; the dosage used was 200 mg/day, in the study, "seborrhea and acne decreased markedly within the first month and disappeared after 2 months of treatment." Nilutamide is available in the form of 150 mg oral tablets. General side effects of NSAAs, including nilutamide, include gynecomastia, breast pain/tenderness, hot flashes, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, decreased muscle mass, decreased bone mass with an associated increase in fractures. Nausea, vomiting and insomnia may occur with nilutamide. Nilutamide monotherapy is known to induce gynecomastia in 40 to 80% of men treated with it for prostate cancer within 6 to 9 months of treatment initiation. Relative to other NSAAs, nilutamide has been uniquely associated with mild and reversible visual disturbances including delayed ocular adaptation to darkness and impaired color vision, a disulfiram-like alcohol intolerance, interstitial pneumonitis, hepatitis, has a higher incidence of nausea and vomiting compared to other NSAAs.
The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis with nilutamide has been found to be much higher in Japanese patients, warranting particular caution in Asian individuals. There is a case report of simultaneous lung toxicity in a nilutamide-treated patient. There is a risk of hepatoxicity with nilutamide, though occurrence is rare and the risk is less than with flutamide; the incidence of abnormal liver function tests has been variously reported as 2 to 33% with nilutamide. For comparison, the risk of elevated liver enzymes has been reported as 4 to 62% in the case of flutamide; the risk of hepatotoxicity with nilutamide has been described as far less tha
The Queens Own Cameron Highlanders Museum is a military museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The museum located at the Minto Armoury is dedicated to Manitoba's famous Scottish regiment, The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada, first raised in 1910; the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada served with distinction in World War I, providing 5 battalions in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. The Regiment participated in the 1942 Dieppe Raid and throughout northwest Europe in World War II; the museum displays artifacts and photographs of The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Regiment. The Museum is affiliated with the CMA, CHIN, OMMC, Virtual Museum of Canada. Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Cold Lake Air Force Museum Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum Comox Air Force Museum Great War Flying Museum Military history of Canada National Air Force Museum of Canada Organization of Military Museums of Canada Secrets of Radar Museum The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada History of the Canadian Forces Museums 1919-2004
Raj Kumar Pradhan is a former Nepalese cricketer. Raj is a leg spin bowler, he made his debut for Nepal against UAE in July 2002. He represented the Panchakanya Tej of the Nepal Premier League and Region no. 1 Biratnagar of the National League. Born in 1973, Raj Pradhan first played for Nepal at the 2002 ACC Trophy in Singapore, he made his first-class début in 2004 when he played for Nepal against the UAE and Malaysia in the 2004 ICC Intercontinental Cup. In the year he played in the ACC Trophy in Kuala Lumpur as well as ACC Fast Track Countries Tournament matches against Singapore and the UAE. In February 2005 he played in the repêchage tournament of the 2005 ICC Trophy, in which Nepal finished third after beating Qatar in a play-off, he played ACC Fast Track Countries Tournament matches against Singapore, the UAE and Hong Kong In 2006, he played in a match against Namibia in Windhoek in the 2006 ICC Intercontinental Cup. Following this he went on a tour of Pakistan with Nepal before playing in the ACC Trophy.
He represented Nepal in the 2008 ACC Trophy Elite. However, despite his impressive performance with the national team, he was forced to quit cricket in the middle and go to Qatar to earn money and support his family, he left the national team in 2009 and went to Qatar, where he played club cricket and impressed one and all with his bowling. He was offered to play for the Qatar national team but he declined the offer thinking it would be a disrespect to Nepal, returned home to play for Nepal again, he represented Nepal again after six years when he was selected in Nepal squad for the 2014 ACC Premier League. He was among the 19 players, but he left the close-camp and went Japan for foreign employment in August 2014. The following list illustrates all the matches in which Pradhan has been awarded Man of the Match while representing Nepal in international tournaments/series. Raj Pradhan's ESPNcricinfo Profile Raj Pradhan's CricketArchive Profile Raj Pradhan's Facebook Profile
NYC Ferry is a network of ferry routes in New York City operated by Hornblower Cruises. As of August 2018, there are six routes connecting 21 ferry piers in the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. NYC Ferry has a total of 28 vessels, providing half-hourly to hourly service on each of the routes; as of May 2019, two additional routes and five new piers are planned. Prior to NYC Ferry, there had been many ferries that traversed the East River and Hudson River, although by the 1960s all ferry services citywide had been discontinued due to the popularity of road and rail transit across the rivers. Ferries in New York City saw a revival in the 1990s; as a result of two studies in 2011 and 2013 that showed the impacts of these recent ferries, the city proposed its own ferry service in 2013, separate from existing New York City ferry systems such as NY Waterway, New York Water Taxi, the Staten Island Ferry. NYC Ferry was announced by the administration of Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2015, under the tentative name of Citywide Ferry Service.
It was planned to launch in two phases. The first phase launched on May 1, 2017, to the Rockaways. Routes to Bay Ridge and Astoria started in June and August of that year. A second phase, in August 2018, launched to the Lower East Soundview. Ferries to St. George, Staten Island and to Coney Island, are proposed to launch in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Single-ride trips on the system cost $2.75, with monthly and bike fares available, but there is no free transfer to other modes of transport in the city. NYC Ferry provides free shuttle buses, connecting to ferry stops in the Rockaways and Midtown Manhattan; the ferry service was expected to transport 4.5 to 4.6 million passengers annually. Higher-than-expected ridership on NYC Ferry routes in summer 2017 caused officials to order new vessels and expand the capacity of existing vessels. In spring 2018, the annual ridership estimates were revised to 9 million, double the original projection, a further expansion of the NYC Ferry fleet was announced.
Despite its crowding, the ferry has received positive reviews from passengers. However, there has been criticism over the subsidized nature of the service, NYC Ferry's low ridership compared to the city's other public transit modes; until the 19th century, when there were no fixed crossings across the city's waterways, there were many ferries traversing the area. New York's first ferries date to when the city was a Dutch colony named New Amsterdam, which comprises modern-day Lower Manhattan. A ferry across the East River, between New Amsterdam and modern-day Brooklyn, was created in 1642 by Cornelius Dircksen, "the earliest ferryman of whom the records speak." By 1654, New Amsterdam's government passed ordinances to regulate East River ferries. The first ferry to New Jersey was founded in 1661, traveling across the Hudson River from Manhattan to Communipaw. Ferries along the Harlem River, between uptown Manhattan and the Bronx, started in 1667, a ferry to Staten Island was started in 1712; the number of ferries would grow, by 1904, there would be 147 ferry services operating in New York City waters.
One of the first documented horse-powered "team" boats in commercial service in the United States was the Fulton Ferry Company, an East River ferry run that Robert Fulton implemented in 1814. The South Ferry Company, founded in 1836, merged with the Fulton Ferry Company three years and the combined companies underwent a series of acquisitions owning many of the East River ferries. However, by 1918, the construction of bridges and New York City Subway tunnels across the East River resulted in some companies, such as the New York and East River Ferry Company between Yorkville and Astoria, operating at a loss. With city ownership, many of the East River ferries were superseded by bridges, road tunnels, subway tunnels by the mid-20th century; the Yorkville–Astoria ferry, for instance, stopped in 1936 after being replaced by the Triborough Bridge. On the other side of Manhattan, there were a myriad of Hudson River ferries at one point, with boat routes running from New Jersey to twenty passenger docks in Manhattan.
However, the construction of the Holland Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel, Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, George Washington Bridge between Manhattan and New Jersey, as well as the growth of car ownership in the United States, meant that these ferries were no longer needed by the mid-20th century. As a result, in 1967, the last cross-Hudson ferry ceased operations; the Richmond Turnpike Company started a steamboat service from Manhattan to Staten Island in 1817. Cornelius Vanderbilt bought the company in 1838, it was sold to the Staten Island Railroad Company in 1864; the Staten Island Ferry was sold to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1884, the City of New York assumed control of the ferry in 1905. The ferry, which still operates, was at one point the only commuter ferry within the entire city, after the discontinuation of the Hoboken ferry in 1967. Despite the discontinuation of ferry service to New Jersey, people moved to locations along the Hudson River waterfront there. In 1986, waterfront settlements like Bayonne, Keyport, Port Liberte, Weehawken saw a reinstatement of their ferry service to Manhattan, under the operation of NY Waterway.
By 1989, around 3,000 of the settlements' combined 10,500 residents paid a $5.00 fare in each direction to board the NY Waterway ferries, despite competition from cheaper alternatives like the PATH train system. Around this time, there
Zarechensk is a rural locality in Kandalakshsky District of Murmansk Oblast, located beyond the Arctic Circle at a height of 124 meters above sea level. Population: 621. Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №538-01-ЗМО от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе, наименованиях и составе территорий муниципального образования Кандалакшский район и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №904-01-ЗМО от 26 октября 2007 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Мурманской области "О статусе, наименованиях и составе территорий муниципального образования город Кандалакша с подведомственной территорией и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №234, стр. 3, 7 декабря 2004 г