Public university

A public university is a university, in state ownership or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above.

Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government. They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board, they are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate.

The students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh; the universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities. In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered; the public universities are run by the provincial governments. Some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically.

Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee. The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government; the Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed. The Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government provide public universities, high schools and academies in each province.

The private educational institution provided by religious organizations, public organizations, some big companies. Some of Iran's prestigious universities are public. State-run universities are selective. There are nine official universities in Israel. In addition, there are a few dozen colleges and other institutes of higher learning, as well as about a dozen foreign university extensions. All are academically supervised by the Council for Higher Education in Israel; the main difference between a university and a college in Israel is that only a university can issue doctorate degrees. Theoretically, a college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to university. In Japan, public universities are universities that are not national universities but are run by local governments, either prefectural or municipal. According to the Ministry of Education, public universities have "provided an opportunity for higher education in a region and served the central role of intellectual and cultural base for the local community in the region", are "expected to contribute to social and cultural development in the region".


Altingiaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales, consisting of wind-pollinated trees that produce hard, woody fruits containing numerous seeds. The fruits have been studied in considerable detail, they occur in Central America, eastern North America, the eastern Mediterranean and tropical Asia. They are cultivated as ornamentals and many produce valuable wood. Altingiaceae now consists of the single genus Liquidambar with 15 known species; the genera: Altingia and Semiliquidambar were recognised, but these'genera' represent a rapid radiation and have been difficult to separate reliably. Semiliquidambar has been shown to be hybrids of species of Altingia and Liquidambar; this result had been expected for some time. Altingia and Liquidambar are known to be paraphyletic and a revision of the family has been prepared. Many of the species are related, distinctions between them are to be artificial; the name "Altingiaceae" has a complex taxonomic history. Some attribute the name to John Lindley, who published it in 1846.

Others say that the authority for the name is Paul F. Horaninov, who described the group in 1841. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the family Altingiaceae was not accepted. Most authors placed these genera in Hamamelidaceae and this treatment has been followed in some recent works as well. In the twenty-first century, molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that including Altingiaceae in Hamamelidaceae makes Hamamelidaceae paraphyletic; the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group recognizes four families in the lineage including Altingiaceae. Cercidiphyllaceae and Daphniphyllaceae are sister; this clade is sister to Hamamelidaceae and these three families are sister to Altingiaceae. The clade is sister to Paeoniaceae Altingiaceae. For most of the Paleogene and Neogene, they were more distributed than they are today; the stem group Altingiaceae diverged from the clade in the Turonian stage of the Cretaceous Period, about 90 mya. The crown group Altingiaceae is much more recent, originating in the Eocene, about 40 Mya

Yeshiva Gedola of Passaic

Yeshiva Gedola of Passaic is an advanced yeshiva in the Passaic Park neighborhood of Passaic, New Jersey catering to post-high-school-age men. Founded in 1973 by Rabbis Chaim Davis and Gershon Weisenfeld, further developed by Rabbi Meir Stern who replaced Rabbi Wiesenfeld when the latter became ill before the yeshiva's opening, it developed into one of the leading yeshiva gedolas in the United States and revitalized the small Orthodox community of Passaic. In 1973 Rabbi Shneur Kotler, rosh yeshiva of Beth Medrash Govoha, Rabbi Nosson Meir Wachtfogel, mashgiach ruchani of Beth Medrash Govoha, Rabbi Dov Lesser supported the idea of opening a community kollel in Passaic; these Gedolim chose Rabbi Chaim Davis, founder of the Toronto Community Kollel, Rabbi Wiesenfeld a rosh mesivta of Beth Hatalmud Rabbinical College, to head the new institution. In mid-1973, Rabbi Wiesenfeld became ill and was replaced by Rabbi Meir Stern. Rabbi Wiesenfeld died at age 49 on 24 September 1981; the Yeshiva Gedola of Passaic opened with 10 unmarried students in the yeshiva section and 10 married students in the kollel section.

By the mid-1980s enrollment had reached nearly 100 students. In 1989 the yeshiva relocated to its own campus, including a beth midrash, dining room and dormitories; the growing yeshiva, together with the installation of an eruv and a mikveh, turned Passaic into a more desirable location for Orthodox Jewish families. Passaic's close proximity to New York appealed to breadwinners who commuted to New York daily. Beginning in the mid-1980s, more and more Orthodox families began moving to Passaic; as of 2006, the Jewish community had mushroomed to 1300 families in a two-square-mile area, with a net gain of 80 families per year, making it the second fastest-growing Jewish community behind Lakewood, New Jersey. Rabbi Meir Stern, rosh yeshiva Rabbi Nosson Weissman, mashgiach ruchani Rabbi Osher Dovid May, rosh kollel Rabbi Yissochor Fishman, administrator of the Hebrew Academy of Cleveland's yeshiva high school Rabbi Daniel Mechanic and director of Project Chazon Rabbi Moshe Taub, former rabbi of Young Israel of Greater Buffalo, New York and a Rabbi in Queens New York, Rav Hamachshir of the Buffalo Vaad Hakashrut