Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India on the north by Bangladesh, on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is the northwesternmost point of Sumatra, it is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are Countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in Southeast Asia; the Bay of Bengal was called the Chola Lake. The Bay of Bengal occupies an area of 2,172,000 square kilometres. A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the Ganges-Hooghly, the Padma, the Brahmaputra-Jamuna, the Barak-Surma-Meghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri. Among the important ports are Chennai-Ennore, Colombo, Kolkata-Haldia, Paradip, Port Blair, Tuticorin and Dhamra. Among the smaller ports are Gopalpur Port and Payra; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Bengal as follows: On the east: A line running from Cape Negrais in Burma through the larger islands of the Andaman group, in such a way that all the narrow waters between the islands lie eastward of the line and are excluded from the Bay of Bengal, as far as a point in Little Andaman Island in latitude 10°48'N, longitude 92°24'E and thence along the southwest limit of the Andaman Sea.
On the south: Ram Sethu and from the southern extreme of Dondra Head to the north point of Poeloe Bras. The bay gets its name from the historical Bengal region. In ancient scriptures, this water body may have been referred to as'Mahodadhi' while it appears as Sinus Gangeticus or Gangeticus Sinus, meaning "Gulf of the Ganges", in ancient maps; the other Sanskrit names for Bay of Bengal are'Vangopasagara' simply called as'Vangasagara' and'Purvapayodhi'. Today in Bengali and Odia it is known as "Bongoposagor". Many major Rivers of India and Bangladesh flow west to east before draining into the Bay of Bengal; the Ganga is the northernmost of these. Its main channel enters and flows through Bangladesh, where it is known as the Padma River, before joining the Meghna River. However, the Brahmaputra River flows from east to west in Assam before turning south and entering Bangladesh where it is called the Jamuna River; this joins the Padma where upon the Padma joins the Meghna River that drains into Bay of Bengal.
The Sundarbans mangrove of forest of Bangladesh is a forest at the delta of the Padma and Meghna rivers lies in West Bengal and in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra at 2,948 km is the 28th longest River in the world, it originates in Tibet. The Hooghly River, another channel of the Ganga that flows through Calcutta drains into Bay of Bengal; the Padma–Meghna-Jamuna rivers deposit nearly 1000 million tons of sediment every year. The sediment from these three rivers form the Bengal Delta and the submarine fan, a vast structure that extends from Bangladesh to south of the Equator, is up to 16.5 kilometres thick, contains at least 1,130 trillion tonnes of sediment, which has accumulated over the last 17 million years at an average rate of 665 million tons per annum. The fan has buried organic carbon at a rate of nearly 1.1 trillion mol/yr since the early Miocene period. The three rivers contribute nearly 8% of the total organic carbon deposited in the world's oceans. Due to high TOC accumulation in the deep sea bed of the Bay of Bengal, the area is rich in oil and natural gas and gas hydrate reserves.
Bangladesh can reclaim land and economically gain from the sea area by constructing sea dikes, causeways and by trapping the sediment from its rivers. Further southwest of Bangladesh, the Mahanadi, Godavari and Kaveri Rivers flow from west to east in South Asia and drain into the Bay of Bengal. Many small rivers drain directly into the Bay of Bengal; the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar flows into the Andaman Sea of the Bay of Bengal and once had thick mangrove forests of its own. Indian ports on the bay include Paradip Port, Kolkata Port, Haldia Port, Visakhapatnam, Pondicherry, Dhamra and Bangladeshi ports on the Bay are Chittagong, Payra Port; the islands in the bay are numerous, including the Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands and Mergui Archipelago of India and Myanmar. The Cheduba group of islands, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are active. Great Andaman is the main archipelago or island group of the Andaman Islands, whereas Ritchie's Archipelago consists of smaller islands.
Only 37, or 6.5%, of the 572 islands and islets of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are inhabited. The lithosphere of the earth is broken up into. Underneath the Bay of Bengal, part of the great Indo-Australian Plate and is moving north east; this plate meets the Burma Microplate at the Sunda Trench. The Nicobar Islands and the Andaman Islands are part of the Burma Microplate; the India Plate sub
Villianur, or Villianour, is a town in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India. It is the headquarters of the Villianur taluk of Puducherry District. Kameeswarar temple is the major landmark in the town. Villianur is located at a distance of 9 kilometres south of Puducherry Municipality, it forms a part of the Puducherry urban agglomeration.. Puducherry Overview shows a remarkable contrastblend of a serene ambience. Due to the tranquil atmosphere and the strategic Location of Puducherry, tourists flock to this place as a retreat from the tiring life. If you travel to Puducherry this season you will be captivated by the tourist attractions of Puducherry; when you go for sightseeing in Puducherry you will find that the Villianur Temple in Puducherry gathers is one of the popular tourist attractions. The Villianur Temple in Puducherry is called named after the place, thus the famous temple of Sri Gokilambal Thirukameswarer, is located at "Villanur" in Puducherry. The Villianur Temple is strategically situated in 10 km away from the Puducherry main town.
It has a huge 15 meters tall temple chariot, taken out on a procession during the Brahmotsavam, the annual festival of Puducherry. You can see this gorgeous festival during the month of May to June along with the appearance of full moon. Thousands of devotees come here for this ten-day festival. Brahm Villianur Temple Car Festival is an ancient ritual about the deity Thirukamemswara Kukilambal; the God is taken out for the demonstration in the well-decorated chariot. The devotees pull this chariot and it is regarded as the holiest tradition of pulling the holy chariot; this festival has typical Hindu customs where the devotees of Villianurof Villianur Temple in at Puducherry offer curd, sandal and sandals to the crowd. The devotees believe. Since 2014, Sri Gokilambal Thirukameswarar temple is undergoing a renovation without archeological supervision which raises question about eventual loss of historical data; the renovation work is supposed to end in 2017. Towards south 1 km from villianur,a rural village URUVAIARU situated in the banks of the river uruvairu,a beautiful SAI BABA TEMPLE is situated in the banks of the river URUVAIARU devotees from all over the world come to worship SAI BABA granting all the wishes of the true devotees,the grand weekly pooja is felicitated on every THURSDAYS.devotees used to offer the needy with food in the name of SAI BABA if their wishes were granted,the green natural surrounding makes the SAI BABA temple calm and exotic location of purity.
According to the 2001 census, Villianur had a population of 104,000. It is the third largest town in Puducherry District after Ozhukarai. "Archeologists should have a say in Villianur temple" "Villianur - Profile of Villianur". Government of Pondicherry. Our Lady of Lourdes Shrine, Villianur
Ariyankuppam is one of 5 Communes in Pondicherry district in the Indian territory of Puducherry. It is the only commune under Puducherry Taluk. Other communes are under Bahour Taluk. Ariyankuppam Commune consists of 9 Panchayat Villages. Ariyankuppam holds two vital tourist spots of Puducherry namely: Aricamedu, An Archaeological Site Chunnambar Boat House Department of Revenue and Disaster Management, Government of Puducherry
Nettapakkam is one of five Communes in Pondicherry district in the Indian territory of Puducherry. Nettapakkam Commune comes under Bahour Taluk Of Puducherry District. Bahour is another commune under Bahour Taluk; the following are 11 panchayat villages under Netapakkam Commune, viz. Department of Revenue and Disaster Management, Government of Puducherry
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Cuddalore District is one of the districts of the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The city of Cuddalore is the district headquarters. According to the 2011 Census, Cuddalore district had a population of 2,605,914 with a sex-ratio of 987 females for every 1,000 males. From ancient times the old town has been a seaport. Through the centuries, Cuddalore has been subject to a number of foreign powers including the Netherlands, Portugal and more the British. In the 1600s, the French and English came to Cuddalore for business; the French established a settlement at Pondicherry and the British at Cuddalore. The French and English, while engaged in the Seven Years' War, fought the naval "Battle of Cuddalore" on 29 April 1758, it was an indecisive battle between a British squadron, under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and a French squadron, under Comte d'Aché and the newly appointed Governor General Comte Thomas Lally. Cuddalore surrendered to French troops on 29 April 1758. From 1789 to 1794, there was further unrest in Cuddalore due to the War of American Independence and the Second Anglo-Mysore War culminating in the siege of Cuddalore, after which the town was returned to Britain as part of a peace treaty.
In 1782, during the Second Anglo Mysore war, the French troops allied with Tipu Sultan and won over the British, after which Cuddalore became a chief port against the French. In 1783, General James Stuart led his troops to fend off French troops. There were five different naval actions off the coast during the same year, all of which were indecisive; some streets in Cuddalore retain British names such as Clive street, Wellington street, Sloper Street, Canning Street, Rope Street, Lawrence road and Imperial road. The Cuddalore Central Prison, opened in 1865, is an important landmark. Subramanya Bharathi and other political leaders served prison terms there; the siege of Cuddalore in 1783 in sea Tsunami waves that followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake near Sumatra hit the eastern coast of India on 26 December 2004 at 0832h, resulting in 572 casualties. Several fishing hamlets disappeared, while Silver Beach and the important Cuddalore Port were devastated. Fort St. David survived without damage.
In 2012, Cyclone Thane caused widespread damage to buildings. The district has an area of 3,564 km², it is bounded on the north by Viluppuram District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Nagapattinam District, on the west by Perambalur District. The district is drained by Gadilam and Pennaiyar rivers in the north and Kollidam River in south. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Cuddalore one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the six districts in Tamil Nadu receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to 2011 census, Cuddalore district had a population of 2,605,914 with a sex-ratio of 987 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 279,950 were under the age of six, constituting 147,644 males and 132,306 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 29.32% and.6% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 79%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.
The district had a total of 635,578 households. There were a total of 1,169,880 workers, comprising 136,035 cultivators, 325,599 main agricultural labourers, 19,151 in house hold industries, 356,486 other workers, 332,609 marginal workers, 29,135 marginal cultivators, 213,813 marginal agricultural labourers, 12,876 marginal workers in household industries and 76,785 other marginal workers; the district has a population density of 702 inhabitants per square kilometre. Cuddalore District comprises 13 Blocks, 5 Municipalities and 18 Town Panchayats. Cuddalore district consists of the following urban cities: Cuddalore Kurinjipadi Chidambaram Panruti Virudhachalam Neyveli Nellikuppam The district contributes to the Tamil Nadu state production of cashew nut and jack fruit. Natraja Temple at Chidambaram Bhuvaraha kshetra or Bhuvaraga temple Srimushnam and Shri Nitheeswara temple Sri Virudhagireeswarar Temple, Virudhachalam Thiru ArutPrakasa Vallalar Deiva Nilayam, Vadalur aka vallalar nilayam at vadalur Pataleeswarar temple, a Hindu temple, built during the 7th century and dated a millennium earlier is the most prominent landmark in Cuddalore.
The name, Thirupathipuliyur, is associated with the legend behind the temple. The temple is revered in the verses of 7th century Saiva saints Appar and Tirugnanasambandar in their works in Tevaram; the Devanathaswami Temple, located in Thiruvanthipuram, is another Hindu pilgrimage site located in the outskirts of Cuddalore. Silver Beach at Devanampatinam Veerattaneswarar Temple, near Panruti Pichavaram, one of the world's largest mangrove forests Veeranam Lake, Kattumannarkoil Wellington Lake, Keezhseruvai Village, Tittakudi taluk. Cuddalore district is prone to natural calamities having experienced landfalls of major cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal region. Apart from the cyclones, 2004 Tsunami caused massive damages to life and property in Cuddalore and its adjacent Nagapattinam district. Cyclone Thane which made landfall here caused major loss to property. Cuddalore district was among those most affected by the flooding. Six of the district's 13 blocks suffered extensive damage during the floods in November.
The resumption of heavy rainfall from 1 December again inundated the Cuddalore municipality and the district, displacing tens of thousands of people. Rains continued through 9 December. Despite the state government and individuals sending re