In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds is a science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells, first serialized in 1897 by Pearson's Magazine in the UK and by Cosmopolitan magazine in the US; the novel's first appearance in hardcover was in 1898 from publisher William Heinemann of London. Written between 1895 and 1897, it is one of the earliest stories to detail a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race; the novel is the first-person narrative of both an unnamed protagonist in Surrey and of his younger brother in London as southern England is invaded by Martians. The novel is one of the most commented-on works in the science fiction canon; the plot has been related to invasion literature of the time. The novel has been variously interpreted as a commentary on evolutionary theory, British imperialism, Victorian superstitions and prejudices. Wells said that the plot arose from a discussion with his brother Frank about the catastrophic impact of the British on indigenous Tasmanians. What would happen, he wondered, if Martians did to Britain what the British had done to the Tasmanians?
The Tasmanians however lacked the lethal pathogens to defeat their invaders. At the time of publication, it was classified as a scientific romance, like Wells's earlier novel The Time Machine; the War of the Worlds has been both popular and influential, spawning half a dozen feature films, radio dramas, a record album, various comic book adaptations, a television series, sequels or parallel stories by other authors. It was most memorably dramatized in a 1938 radio program that caused public panic among listeners who did not know the Martian invasion was fictional; the novel has influenced the work of scientists, notably Robert H. Goddard, inspired by the book, invented both the liquid fuelled rocket and multistage rocket, which resulted in the Apollo 11 Moon landing 71 years later, yet across the gulf of space, minds that are to our minds as ours are to those of the beasts that perish, intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regarded this earth with envious eyes and drew their plans against us.
The narrative opens by stating that as humans on Earth busied themselves with their own endeavours during the mid-1890s, aliens on Mars began plotting an invasion of Earth because their own resources are dwindling. The narrator is invited to an astronomical observatory at Ottershaw where explosions are seen on the surface of the planet Mars, creating much interest in the scientific community. Months a so called "meteor" lands on Horsell Common, near the narrator's home in Woking, Surrey, he is among the first to discover that the object is an artificial cylinder that opens, disgorging Martians who are "big" and "greyish" with "oily brown skin", "the size of a bear", each with "two large dark-coloured eyes", lipless "V-shaped mouths" which drip saliva and are surrounded by two "Gorgon groups of tentacles". The narrator finds them "at once vital, inhuman and monstrous", they emerge, have difficulty in coping with the Earth's atmosphere and gravity, retreat into their cylinder. A human deputation approaches the cylinder with a white flag, but the Martians incinerate them and others nearby with a heat-ray before beginning to assemble their machinery.
Military forces arrive that night to surround the common, including Maxim guns. The population of Woking and the surrounding villages are reassured by the presence of the British Army. A tense day begins, with much anticipation of military action by the narrator. After heavy firing from the common and damage to the town from the heat-ray which erupts in the late afternoon, the narrator takes his wife to safety in nearby Leatherhead, where his cousin lives, using a rented, two-wheeled horse cart. On the road during the height of the storm, he has his first terrifying sight of a fast-moving Martian fighting-machine, he discovers the Martians have assembled towering three-legged "fighting-machines", each armed with a heat-ray and a chemical weapon: the poisonous "black smoke". These tripods have wiped out the army units positioned around the cylinder and attacked and destroyed most of Woking. Sheltering in his house, the narrator sees a fleeing artilleryman moving through his garden, who tells the narrator of his experiences and mentions that another cylinder has landed between Woking and Leatherhead, cutting off the narrator from his wife.
The two try to escape via Byfleet just after dawn, but are separated at the Shepperton to Weybridge Ferry during a Martian afternoon attack on Shepperton. One of the Martian fighting-machines is brought down in the River Thames by artillery as the narrator and countless others try to cross the river into Middlesex, as the Martians retreat back to their original crater; this gives the authorities precious hours to form a defence-line covering London. After the Martians' temporary repulse, the narrator is able to float down the Thames in a boat toward London, stopping at Walton, where he first encounters the curate, his companion for the coming weeks. Towards dusk, the Martians renew their offensive, breaking through the defence-line of siege guns and field artillery centred on Richmond Hill and Kingston Hill by a widespread bombardment of the black smoke; this includes the narrator's younger brother, a medical student unnamed, who flees to the Essex coast after the sudden, predawn order to evacuate London is given by the authorities, a terrifying and harro
Los Angeles Basin
The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges. The basin is connected to an anomalous group of east-west trending chains of mountains collectively known as the California Transverse Ranges; the present basin is a coastal lowland area, whose floor is marked by elongate low ridges and groups of hills, located on the edge of the Pacific plate. The Los Angeles Basin, along with the Santa Barbara Channel, the Ventura Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel Basin, lies within the greater southern California region. On the north and east, the lowland basin is bound by the Santa Monica Mountains and Puente, Repetto hills. To the southeast, the basin is bordered by the San Joaquin Hills; the western boundary of the basin is marked by the Continental Borderland and is part of the onshore portion. The California borderland is characterized by north-west trending offshore basins; the Los Angeles Basin is notable for its great structural relief and complexity in relation to its geologic youth and small size for its prolific oil production.
Yerkes et al. identify 5 major stages of the basin's evolution that begins in the Upper Cretaceous and ends in the Pleistocene. This basin can be classified as an irregular pull-apart basin accompanied by rotational tectonics during the post-early Miocene. Before the formation of the basin, the area that encompasses the Los Angeles basin began above ground. A rapid transgression and regression of the shoreline moved the area to a shallow marine environment. Tectonic instability coupled with volcanic activity in subsiding areas during the Middle Miocene set the stage for the modern basin; the basin formed in a submarine environment and was brought back above sea level when the rate of subsidence slowed. There is much discussion in the literature about the geologic time boundaries when each basin forming event took place. While exact ages may not be clear, Yerkes et al. provided a general timeline to categorize the sequence of depositional events in the LA Basin's evolution and they are as follows: During pre-Turonian, metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks are present that serve as the two major basement rock units for the LA Basin.
Large-scale movement along the Newport–Inglewood zone juxtaposed the two bedrock units along the east and west margins. During this phase, the basin was above sea level; the hallmarks of this phase were successive shoreline regression cycles. Deposition of older marine and non-marine sediments began to fill the basin. Towards the end of this phase, the shoreline began to retreat and deposition continued. After the deposition of the pre-Turonian units, there was a large emergence and erosion that can be observed as a major unconformity at the base of the middle Miocene units. Emergence did not occur in all sections of the basin. During this time, the basin was covered by a marine embayment. Rivers sourced in the highlands brought large amounts of detritus to the northeastern edge of the basin. During this period, the Topanga formation was being deposited; the present form and structural relief of the basin was established during this phase of accelerated subsidence and deposition which occurred during the late Miocene and continued through the early Pleistocene.
Clastic sedimentary rocks from the highland areas moved down the submarine slopes and infilled the basin floor. Subsidence and sedimentation most began in the southern portion basin. Subsidence and Deposition occurred without interruption, until the late Pliocene; until the rate of deposition overtook the rate of subsidence, the sea level began to fall. Towards the end of this phase, the margins of the basin began to rise above sea level. During the early Pleistocene, deposition began to outpace subsidence in the depressed parts of the basin and the shoreline began to move southward; this phase had movement along the Newport–Inglewood fault zone that resulted in the initiation of the modern basin. This movement caused the southwestern block to be uplifted relative to the central basin block; the central part of the basin continued to experience sediment deposition through the Pleistocene from flooding and erosional debris from the surrounding mountains and Puente Hills. This infill was responsible for the final retreat of the shoreline from the basin.
Deposition in the Holocene is characterized by non marine gravel and silt. This phase includes the late stage compressional deformation responsible for the formation of the hydrocarbon traps. Four major faults are present in the region and divide the basin in the central, northwest and northeast structural blocks; these blocks not only denote their geographic location, but they indicate the strata present and major structural features. The southwestern block was uplifted prior to the middle Miocene and is composed of marine strata and contains two major anticlines; this block contains the steeply-dipping Palos Verdes Hills fault zone. The middle Miocene volcanics can be seen locally within the southwest block; the northwestern block consists of clastic marine sediments of Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene age. Middle Miocene volcanics are present; this block has a broad anticline, truncated by the Santa Monica fault zone. The central block contains both marine and non-marine clastic rock units interbedded with volcanic rocks that are late Cretaceous to Pliocene in age.
Pliocene and Quaternary strata are most visible within the central block. Structurally, there is a synclinal trough; the northeastern block contains fine to coarse grained clastic marine rocks of Cenozoic age. Locally, middle Mi
Brea is a city in Orange County, California. The population as of the 2010 census was 39,282, it is located 33 miles southeast of Los Angeles. The city began as a center of crude oil production, was propelled by citrus production, is now an important retail center because of the large Brea Mall and the redeveloped Brea Downtown. Brea is known for its extensive public art program which began in 1975 and continues today with over 140 artworks in the collection placed and located throughout the city. Brea's public art program has been used as a model and inspiration for many public art programs across the United States; the area was visited on July 29, 1769 by the Spanish Portolá expedition – the first Europeans to see inland parts of Alta California. The party camped near a large native village and a small pool of clean water. A historical marker dedicated to his visit stands in Brea Canyon just north of town; the village of Olinda was founded in present-day Carbon Canyon at the beginning of the 19th century and many entrepreneurs came to the area searching for "black gold".
In 1894, the owner of the land, Abel Stearns, sold 1,200 acres to the west of Olinda to the newly created Union Oil Company of California, by 1898 many nearby hills began sporting wooden oil-drilling towers on the newly discovered Brea-Olinda Oil Field. In 1908 the village of Randolph, named for railway engineer Epes Randolph, was founded just south of Brea Canyon for the oil workers and their families. Baseball legend Walter Johnson grew up in Olinda at the start of the 20th century where he worked in the surrounding oil fields as a youth; the villages of Olinda and Randolph grew and merged as the economy boomed, on January 19, 1911, the town's map was filed under the new name of Brea, from the Spanish language word for natural asphalt. With a population of 752, Brea was incorporated on February 23, 1917, as the eighth official city of Orange County; as oil production declined, some agricultural development took place lemon and orange groves. In the 1920s, the Brea Chamber of Commerce promoted the city with the slogan “Oil and Opportunity.”
In 1950 Brea had a population of 3,208. The citrus groves gave way to industrial parks and residential development. In 1956, Carl N. Karcher opened the first two Carl's Jr. restaurants in Anaheim and Brea, California. The opening of the Orange Freeway and the Brea Mall in the 1970s spurred further residential growth, including large planned developments east of the 57 Freeway in the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s. In the late 1990s, a 50-acre swath of downtown Brea centered on Brea Boulevard and Birch Street was redeveloped into a shopping and entertainment area with movie theaters, sidewalk cafes, a live comedy club from The Improv chain, numerous shops and restaurants, a weekly farmer's market, it is locally signed as Downtown Brea. Sunset magazine named Brea one of the five best suburbs to live in the Western United States in early 2006. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.1 square miles. 12.1 square miles of it is land and 0.26% is water. It is bordered by unincorporated Orange County and Los Angeles County to the north and east, La Habra to the west, Fullerton to the southwest, Placentia to the south, Yorba Linda to the southeast.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Brea has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. Brea is governed by a council-manager system; the five member City Council is elected for four-year terms in elections every two years to fill alternately two and three seats. The Council is made up of the Mayor Pro Tem and three Councilmembers; the Council elects a Mayor from the current councilmembers to serve a one-year term as Mayor. The City Council hires a City Manager to advise the Council; the Council appoints members of the Planning Commission. Fire protection for Brea is provided by the Brea Fire Department and law enforcement is provided by the Brea Police Department. Within Carbon Canyon, in the Olinda neighborhood of Brea, is situated Olinda Landfill, a major waste management facility serving a large part of Orange County. Management of the city and coordination of city services is provided by: In the California State Legislature, Brea is in the 29th Senate District, represented by Republican Ling Ling Chang, in the 55th Assembly District, represented by Republican Phillip Chen.
In the United States House of Representatives, Brea is in California's 39th congressional district, represented by Democrat Gil Cisneros. The 2010 United States Census reported that Brea had a population of 39,282; the population density was 3,243.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Brea was 26,363 White,549 African American, 190 Native American, 7,144 Asian, 69 Pacific Islander, 3,236 from other races, 1,731 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9,817 persons; the Census reported that 39,213 people lived in households, 69 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 14,266 households, out of which 5,043 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,132 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,605 had a female householder with no husband present, 632 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 569 unmarried
Interstate 605 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California, running about 27 miles in length from Seal Beach to Duarte. The San Gabriel River Freeway parallels the San Gabriel River for most of its alignment, hence its name, one of the few Southern California freeways not named after a city along its route. Though this does not include the improvements with the interchange with I-105, reconstruction of I-10 between I-605 and I-405, the addition of an HOV lane between I-405 and I-10, I-605 is one of the only remaining freeways that kept its original alignment throughout its run through Los Angeles County since it first opened; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 605 as " Route 1 near Seal Beach to Route 405. Route 405 to Route 210 near Duarte." However, the portion in subsection A has yet to be constructed. The southern terminus of I-605 is at the San Garden Grove Freeways in Seal Beach. From there, it runs north through the Gateway Cities of the Los Angeles Basin.
It shifts north-northeast, crossing the Whittier Narrows and across the San Gabriel Valley. I-605 ends at its junction with the Foothill Freeway, in Duarte, a small city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. I-605 follows most of the length of the San Gabriel River from the San Diego Freeway in Seal Beach to the Santa Fe Dam. Dry riverbed and flood basins are visible from many portions of the route near the northern terminus. In the mid 2000s, a HOV lane was added for motorists with two or more people to use between I-405 and I-10; the HOV lane ends at Interstate 10. There are no plans to extend it to Interstate 210 at this time. With the addition of the HOV lane, the left shoulder was eliminated to avoid massive costs to widen the freeway; the highway suffers from traffic jams especially the junction with I-5. Newer signs with exit numbers replaced the older signs between the Orange County line and Interstate 10 in 2016, with the completion of the I-605 and I-10 junction improvement.
Guide signs along I-605 never included destinations such as "Seal Beach" or "Irwindale" since its opening. Rather, cardinal directions, a simple "THRU TRAFFIC" designation in place of control cities, are used on signs along I-605 itself. I-605 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-605 from I-405 to I-10 is known as the San Gabriel River Freeway, as named by Senate Bill 99, Chapter 1101 in 1967. In 1957, the number for this route was proposed as I-13, as it is positioned midway between I-5 and I-15; that number was rejected, as was the second proposed number, I-102. The designation I-605 was accepted in 1958. Interstate 605 began construction in 1963 and the first section was opened in 1964 from Interstate 405 to Pomona Freeway CA 60; the newest section was opened in 1971 was signed as SR 243. There are plans to extend it to SR 1 further south in Orange County as SR 605, but strong community opposition means that it is unlikely that the alignment will be built.
California Roads portal Greater Los Angeles portal California @ AARoads.com - I-605 Caltrans: Route 605 highway conditions California Highways: I-605
San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains are a mountain range located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, United States. The mountain range is part of the Transverse Ranges and lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east; this range lies in, is surrounded by, the Angeles National Forest, with the San Andreas Fault as the northern border of the range. The highest peak in the range is Mount San Antonio referred to as Mt. Baldy. Mount Wilson is another famous peak, famed for the Mount Wilson Observatory and the antenna farm that houses many of the transmitters for local media; the observatory may be visited by the public. On October 10, 2014, President Obama designated the area the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. To date, The Trust for Public Land has protected more than 3,800 acres of land in the San Gabriel Mountains, its foothills and the Angeles National Forest. Much of the range features rolling peaks.
The range lacks craggy features, but contains a large number of canyons and is very rugged and difficult to traverse. The San Gabriel Mountains are in effect a large fault block, uplifted and dissected by numerous rivers and washes; the highest elevation, Mount San Antonio at 10,064 feet, rises towards the eastern extremity of the range which extends from the Cajon Pass on the east, where the San Gabriel Mountain Range meets the San Bernardino Mountain Range, westward to meet the Santa Susanna range at Newhall Pass. North of San Fernando, the San Gabriel Mountains crest abruptly up to 4,000 feet. Pacoima and Big Tujunga Canyons cut through the range just east of San Fernando, carrying runoff into the San Fernando Valley. Little Tujunga Canyon Road bridges the range in this area, connecting the San Fernando Valley to the Santa Clara River valley in the north. Towering over Big Tujunga Canyon north of Big Tujunga Reservoir is Mount Gleason, which at 6,502 feet, is the highest in this region of the San Gabriels.
South of the gorge are the southern "foothills" of the mountains, which rise abruptly 4,000 feet above the Los Angeles Basin and give rise to the Arroyo Seco, a tributary of the Los Angeles River. Southeast of Big Tujunga Canyon, the southern front range of the San Gabriels grows in elevation, culminating in notable peaks such as Mount Wilson at 5,710 feet. On the north the range is abruptly dissected by the canyon of the West Fork San Gabriel River. Further north the range slopes up into the towering main crest of the San Gabriels, a sweeping arc-shaped massif 30 miles in length that includes most of the highest peaks in the range: Waterman Mountain, at 8,038 feet. On the north slopes of the San Gabriel crest, the northern ranks of mountains drop down incrementally to the floor of the Mojave Desert in a much more gradual manner than the sheer southern flank; the Angeles Crest Highway, one of the main routes across the San Gabriels, runs through this area from west to east. Little Rock, Big Rock and Sheep Creeks drain off the northern part of the mountains, forming large alluvial fans as they descend into the Mojave.
To the east, the San Andreas Fault cuts across the range, forming a series of long and narrow depressions, including Swarthout Valley and Lone Pine Canyon. South of Mount San Antonio, San Antonio Creek drains the mountains, cutting the deep San Antonio Canyon. East of San Antonio Canyon, the range loses elevation, the highest peaks in this section of the mountain range are in the south, rising above the Inland Empire cities of Claremont and Rancho Cucamonga. However, there are still several notable peaks in this region, including Telegraph Peak, at 8,985 feet, Cucamonga Peak, at 8,859 feet, Ontario Peak, rising 8,693 feet. Lytle Creek, flowing southeast, drains most of the extreme eastern San Gabriels; the range terminates at Cajon Pass, through which runs Interstate 15, beyond which rise the higher San Bernardino Mountains. The Range is bound on the north by the Antelope Valley and the Mojave Desert and to the south by the communities of greater Los Angeles area. In the western portion of the San Gabriel Mountain Range, the Sierra Pelona Ridge stretches from Soledad Canyon, formed by the Santa Clara River.
The Sierra Pelona Ridge includes Liebre Mountain, Sawmill Mountain, Grass Mountain, Redrock Peak, Burnt Peak, most of, part of the Angeles National Forest, but features several rural communities. Melting snow and rain runoff on the south side of the San Gabriels' highest mountains give rise to its largest river, the San Gabriel River. Just to the west of Mount Hawkins, a north-south divide separates water running down the two main forks of the river and their tributaries; the West Fork, beginning at Red Box Saddle, runs 14 miles eastward, the East Fork, starting north of Mount San Antonio, flows 18 miles south and west through a steep and precipitous gorge. The two meet at San Gabriel Reservoir, turn south, boring through the southern portion of the San Gabriels, emptying out of the mountains near Azusa into the urban San Gabriel Valley, to the Pacific Ocean near Seal Beach. San Gabriel Mountains peaks within the Angeles National Forest include: Mount San Antonio, 10,064 ft Pine Mountain, 9,648 ft Dawson Peak, 9,575 ft