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Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration

The Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration was one of the alphabet agencies of the New Deal established by the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Created on May 28, 1935, the PRRA's first directors included American journalist and politician Ernest Gruening and Puerto Rican educator and politician Carlos Chardón. Falling under the authority of the Department of the Interior and the Farm Security Administration its primary goals were to establish long term economic stability in Puerto Rico during the Great Depression through job creation, land distribution, public works projects, as well as environmental and health initiatives; the agency was liquidated on February 15, 1955. By time the Great Depression arrived in 1929, working class Puerto Rican citizens rural agricultural laborers, were facing economic hardship. After Spain ceded sovereignty of Puerto Rico to the United States following the 1898 Spanish–American War the island became economically dependent on the United States through an unbalanced colonial trade relationship that favored U.

S. sugar, tobacco and fruit companies. By 1910, four U. S. sugar corporations held near monopolies on sugar cane cultivation and sugar production had multiplied by 331%. By 1921, the United States Tobacco Trust held monopolies on cigarette and cigar markets in Puerto Rico, giving them an economic advantage over small scale tobacco farmers. While American companies expanded and profited and other agricultural workers saw little to no change in wages between 1898 and 1920 and Puerto Rican laborers experienced a poor standard of living. Malnutrition, poor sanitation, lack of sewage systems, dangerous working and living conditions led to high mortality rates due to workplace accidents and diseases such as dysentery, diarrhea and tuberculosis. In the years preceding the depression, negative developments in the island and world economies perpetuated an unsustainable cycle of subsistence for many Puerto Rican workers; the 1920s brought a dramatic drop in Puerto Rico's two primary exports, raw sugar and coffee, due to a devastating hurricane in 1928 and the plummeting demand from global markets in the latter half of the decade.

1930 unemployment on the island was 36% and by 1933 Puerto Rico's per capita income dropped 30%. Average wages for employed agricultural workers in 1931 ranged from 23 cents per day for children, 25 cents per day for women, 60 cents per day for men, a number that varied due to the seasonal nature of their employment. Since the majority of Puerto Rico's arable land was reserved for export crops, 98% of Puerto Rican family income was spent on food and other necessities, which were imported from the United States and sold at inflated prices. In 1930, agricultural exports to U. S. comprised 94.3% of total Puerto Rican exports and food accounted for 33% of total imports by 1935. High unemployment rates and low wages at the start of the Great Depression led to increased labor unrest in Puerto Rico, which alarmed American officials and business interests. Beginning in August 1933 and lasting through the next two years, numerous violent strikes broke out among 16,000 workers in the textile, tobacco and sugar industries and boycotts were called against American petroleum and electric corporations.

American officials were alarmed by the radical labor organizing leadership of Puerto Rican nationalists Albizu Campos and Jose Enamorado Cuesta who called for independence from the United States. These factors combined with the economic fallout of the depression prompted the Roosevelt Administration to create relief and reconstruction policies aimed at Puerto Rico; the first New Deal agency created to improve conditions in Puerto Rico was the Puerto Rico Emergency Relief Administration in 1933. The PRERA worked under the authority of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and through matching grants would provide direct relief funding and the creation of jobs through public works initiatives. Under its directors, the Roosevelt appointee James Bourne, the island's governor, the American Robert H. Gore, the PRERA received only $770,000 from the federal government due to oversights in application processes. By the fall of 1933, the PRERA was unable to keep up with the flood of relief applications from Puerto Ricans, which totaled 50,000 per month.

Adding to the program's relative ineffectiveness was the 1933 implementation of an agricultural tax under the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The tax was leveled on surplus crops and served to increase food prices for Puerto Rican families who were at a financial breaking point; the PRERA's primary successes came with its implementation of disease control measures, the building highway infrastructure, in its distribution of food to needy families. In 1934, recognizing a need for long term economic recovery and reform, a proposal was crafted by assistant secretary of agriculture, Rexford G. Tugwell, University of Puerto Rico rector Carlos Chardón, Puerto Rican Liberal Party senator Luis Muñoz Marín. Entitled Plan Chardón, it called for the restructuring and decolonization of the Puerto Rican economy through the government acquisition of private U. S. sugar company land and mills. The acreage and production sites were to be taken under a enforced land tenure measure written into the 1900 Foraker Act and the 1917 Jones Act.

The 500-acre law, which stipulated that corporations operating in Puerto Rico were forbidden from owning more than 500 acres of land, was circumvented by proxy landownership and absenteeism. Unde

Battle of Turtucaia

The Battle of Turtucaia known as Tutrakan Epopee in Bulgaria, was the opening battle of the first Central Powers offensive during the Romanian Campaign of World War I. The battle lasted for five days and ended with the capture of the fortress of Turtucaia and the surrender of its Romanian defenders. By August 1916 the Central Powers found themselves in an difficult military situation - in the West the German offensive at Verdun had turned into a costly battle of attrition, in the East the Brusilov Offensive was crippling the Austro-Hungarian Army, in the South the Italian Army was increasing the pressure on the Austro-Hungarians, while General Sarrail's Allied expeditionary force in northern Greece seemed poised for a major offensive against the Bulgarian Army; the Romanian government asserted that the moment was right for it to fulfill the country's national ambitions by aligning itself with the Entente, declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire on 27 August 1916. Three Romanian armies invaded Transylvania through the Carpathians, pushing back the much smaller Austro-Hungarian First Army.

In a short time the Romanians occupied Orsova, Petrozsény, Brassó, reached Nagyszeben on their way to the river Maros, the main objective of the offensive. In response the German Empire declared war on Romania on 27 August, with Bulgaria following suit on 1 September. On the next day the Bulgarian Third Army initiated the Central Powers' first major offensive of the campaign by invading Southern Dobruja. Tutrakan was a Roman fort. During the reign of Emperor Diocletian it developed into one of the largest strongholds of the Danubian limes. In the 7th century it became part of the Bulgarian Empire, until the latter was subjugated by the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century; when the Ottomans entered their period of decline they relied on the Danube as their main defensive barrier in the Balkans. The enormous width of the river, proved insufficient to defend against the armies of the Russian Empire, which crossed it several times in its lower stretch during the numerous Russo-Ottoman Wars. To counter this constant threat the Ottoman military created the fortified quadrilateral Ruse–Silistra–Varna–Shumen, hoping to prevent any invaders from crossing the Balkan Mountains and threatening Constantinople.

Tutrakan was situated on the northern side of the quadrilateral, on a stretch where the Danube was narrow, across from the mouth of the navigable Argeş River. This made it an excellent spot for a crossing and prompted the Ottomans to fortify it with a large garrison. With the liberation of Bulgaria after the Russo-Turkish War, Tutrakan became an integral part of the country, but Bulgarian national ambitions were directed in general towards Macedonia and Thrace, the defense of the Danube was neglected; as a result of the Second Balkan War and the entire Southern Dobruja region were ceded to Romania in 1913 - Tutrakan being renamed to Turtucaia. The Romanian General Staff took measures to strengthen the defences of the town, designing it to serve as a bridgehead in the event of war with Bulgaria. Intensive construction work lasted for more than two years under the guidance of Belgian military engineers; the surrounding terrain was favorable for a bridgehead, as the heights overlooking the town formed a plateau 7 to 10 kilometres wide, rose as high as 113 meters over the Danube, were surrounded by numerous wide ravines.

The basic defense consisted of three concentric lines of trenches anchored on the river. The most forward of these were small outposts designed for surveillance. To the west, around the village of Staro Selo, the outer fortifications were of a more extensive character; the main defensive line was constructed on the edge of the plateau in order to keep enemy artillery away from any bridge that could be built to Turtucaia. The line stretched for 30 kilometers and had as its heart fifteen "centers of resistance", forts numbered from one to 15 and bearing the names of local settlements - "Turtucaia", "Staro Selo", "Daidâr", "Sarsânlar" etc; each of these incorporated two shelters for 50 to 70 soldiers, with roofs supported by iron rails or wooden boards, on top of which a two-meter layer of earth was laid. Their profile was low, rising only about 60 centimeters, thus ensuring reasonable protection against field artillery shells. Spaced from 1.2 to 2.2 kilometers apart, the individual forts were linked by shallow trenches and machine gun nests, which were in turn connected via communication trenches to the rear of the main defensive line.

The intervening spaces were further covered by rifle and machine gun positions in the flanks of the forts. The "centers of resistance" were well protected by barbed wire obstacles that reached a depth of 10 to 15 meters, but they were placed some 50 metres away from the firing line and thus could not be defended with hand grenades. A hundred meters in front of the main line the Romanians had built three rows of pitfalls and barbed wire that ran continuously from fort 15 to fort 3. Most of the artillery was placed in the main defensive line, although several pieces, along with trenches and machine guns, were placed on the nearby islands of the Danube in order to support the Romanian Danube Flotilla, tasked with providing artillery cover on the western approaches to the fortress; some four kilometers from the main defensive line and three kilometers from Turtucaia itself lay the secondary defensive line of the fortress. It consisted of a single line of trenches with few prepared machine gun nests or obstacles, no artillery at all.

With their attention focused entir

Carlos Canseco

Dr. Carlos Canseco González was a Mexican physician and philanthropist. In January 2002 he was honored as one of the "Public Health Heroes of the Americas" by the Pan American Health Organization. Carlos Canseco graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico with a doctorate in medicine and specialized in allergology at the Northwestern University and in clinic immunology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, United States. Back in Mexico he taught the first course of allergology at the University of Nuevo León and raised money to build the first Children's Hospital in Monterrey. In 1950 he co-founded the Monterrey Football Club and joined Rotary International, a philanthropic organization he chaired worldwide in 1984; as president of Rotary International and inspired by Francisco Balmis he launched an international campaign to eradicate polio by using an aerosol vaccination he co-developed with Albert Sabin in 1982. Dr. Canseco served as Nuevo León's state secretary of health and has received honorary degrees from several universities including the Seoul National University in South Korea.

On October 7, 2004 he received the Belisario Domínguez Medal from the Mexican Senate. Dr. Canseco died on January 2009 in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Leaving a legacy of knowledge and development in the Northern Capital. List of the Public Health Heroes by the Pan American Health Organization

Pine Mountain (Victoria)

Pine Mountain is a gigantic monolith, said to be 1.5 times bigger than Uluru, situated in the Burrowa-Pine Mountain National Park in Australia. The base of Pine Mountain is located 10 km southeast of the small town of Walwa, Victoria, a 440 km drive northeast of Melbourne or 115 km east of Albury-Wodonga; the mountain is part of the Burrowa-Pine Mountain National Park which offers a large number of 4wd and walking tracks, waterfalls and camping areas and numerous lookouts. The park's remote and rugged character is a major attraction for visits and contains Mount Burowa which is. Pine Mountain is argued to be the largest monolith in Australia at 1.5 times bigger than Uluru. The gigantic red granite monolith was uplifted to its present height of 1062 m more than 2 million years ago. Since erosion has highlighted the steep eastern side, established several creeks, in the upper area, created small rock pools which contain shrimp and tadpoles despite annual drying, large granite marbles 2-3.5 m in diameter.

The Mountain offers a diverse range of vegetation types. It is of great botanical significance due to its number of threatened plant species. Over 200 native plants have been identified on the mountain, 19 of which are rare or local to the area. Rare plant species include Pine Mountain Grevillea, Fan Grevillea, Broad-leafed Hopbush and Phantom Wattle. Other vegetation includes Black Cypress-pines and Kurrajongs which fringe the steep granite outcrops. Animal life is abundant and varied. Black wallabies, eastern grey kangaroos and wombats and gliders are numerous; the lyre bird is seen but heard. Over 180 species of birds have been recorded in the park. From the west side base there is a scenic walking track which traverses large granite outcrops and leads to the summit of Pine Mountain. Access to the walking track is achieved along a 5 km dry weather only 4WD track from the entrance of the park; the walk is difficult and requires a high level of Australian bush craft skills, mountaineering experience, advanced navigational skills, a high level of physical fitness.

The walk to the summit is long and strenuous with a number of steep rock climbs and descents, it is advised that only fit persons attempt this walk, rock climbing skills and experience are advised to complete this walk. The weather is capable of changing rapidly so it is necessary to be prepared with warm and waterproof clothing, high energy food supplies and sufficient water; the reasonably worn walking track is 8 hrs return. It is marked out with numerous markers on cairns; the track is sometimes poorly defined so it is necessary that a map and compass is carried, are used by a properly trained and experienced user. The summit area offers panoramic views of the surrounding Murray River Valleys and the Snowy Mountains, NSW. For the less adventurous there is a small walk of 2 km, 1hr return, to Rocky Knob. Burrowa-Pine Mountain National Park List of mountains in Victoria Protected areas of Victoria Walwa, Victoria Burrowa-Pine Mountain National Park Website

New Hampshire Route 11

New Hampshire Route 11 is a 108.223-mile-long east–west state highway in New Hampshire, running across the central part of the state. Its western terminus is at the Vermont state line in Charlestown, where it continues west as Vermont Route 11; the eastern terminus is at the Maine state line in Rochester, where it crosses the border with U. S. Route 202 and continues as Maine State Route 11, its number is derived from its original 1925 designation as New England Interstate Route 11. The highway follows a southwest to northeast alignment from the Vermont state line until reaching Lake Winnipesaukee turns southeast for the remainder of its routing to the Maine state line. There are 4 auxiliary routes, labeled 11A through 11D. NH 11 begins on the western bank of the Connecticut River, where VT 11 crosses from Springfield, into Charlestown, New Hampshire, just feet from its intersection with US 5. Just north of the town center, the highway joins NH 12 north towards Claremont. NH 11 and NH 12 are cosigned for 9.9 miles.

NH 12A, a western bypass of downtown Claremont, splits off just south of the city line. In downtown Claremont NH 11 leaves NH 12 and NH 103 joins eastbound, starting a longer 13.0-mile concurrency. The two highways cross the Sugar River and meet the southern terminus of NH 120 before continuing east towards Newport. In downtown Newport, NH 11 and 103 join NH 10 before turning east again to leave town; the two routes continue east for another 3.2 miles. NH 11 continues east into Sunapee until reaching the town center, where it meets NH 103B, a connector to the Mount Sunapee Resort. NH 11 turns northward along the western side of Lake Sunapee and rounds the northern end of the lake at Georges Mills, turning back to the east. NH 11 enters the town of New London, meets the northern terminus of NH 103A and turns onto Interstate 89 south. NH 11 runs along I-89 for 3.0 miles before departing at exit 11. After leaving I-89, NH 11 continues east. Continuing east into Andover, the highway meets the southern terminus of NH 4A joins US 4 for 2.7 miles.

NH 11 splits off, continuing northeast into Franklin. The road meets NH 3A near the west bank of the Pemigewasset River, NH 11 turns south along NH 3A into downtown Franklin. Upon reaching the town center, NH 3A ends while NH 11 turns east joining US 3 and NH 127 to cross the Pemigewasset where it meets the Merrimack River. NH 127 splits off to the north US 3 and NH 11 continue east across the Winnipesaukee River, paralleling it into Tilton. In the center of Tilton, the road intersects with NH 132 just feet north of the Northfield town line. NH 132 joins US 3 and NH 11 as the road turns northeast, continuing to parallel the Winnipesaukee River's west side; the highway interchanges with Interstate 93 near the western terminus of NH 140 NH 132 splits off to the north. Continuing northeast, US 3 and NH 11 cross skirt the northern tip of Belmont. Just before reaching the city line with Laconia, US 3 and NH 11 split off onto the Gilford-Laconia Bypass, a freeway bypass of those two towns; the freeway bypasses downtown Laconia to the south, interchanging with NH 106 and NH 107 before crossing into Gilford, where the road turns due north and interchanges with NH 11A.

The freeway ends 1.5 miles to the north, near Laconia Airport, NH 11 splits off from US 3 after a 17.6-mile concurrency. After splitting from US 3, NH 11 intersects with two of its "child" routes, NH 11C and NH 11B, as it heads towards Lake Winnipesaukee; the highway crosses into the town of Alton. NH 11 intersects the eastern terminus of NH 11A before continuing south along the west side of Alton Bay; this section of the highway has of Lake Winnipesaukee as a whole. NH 11D provides local residential access along this semi-limited access section. NH 11 descends into Alton village and intersects with NH 28A, which runs up the eastern side of the bay. NH 11 and NH 28A are cosigned through the downtown area, passing the eastern terminus of NH 140 before meeting NH 28 at a large roundabout, where NH 28A ends. NH 11 continues southeast through New Durham without any major intersections before continuing into Farmington. NH 11 bypasses downtown Farmington with NH 75 and NH 153 providing local access.

The highway crosses into the city of Rochester. NH 11 as a standalone route ends at its interchange with the Spaulding Turnpike and US 202, where it leaves its surface alignment and joins the Turnpike at exit 15. NH 11 exits the Turnpike at exit 16 with US 202 after less than 1⁄4 mile and interchanges with NH 125, which provides local access to downtown Rochester. US 202 and NH 11 continue through the district of East Rochester before crossing the Salmon Falls River into Lebanon, Maine. US 202 continues across the border while NH 11 becomes Maine State Route 11, signed as a north-south highway. New Hampshire Route 11A is a 12.852-mile-long east–west state highway. Its western terminus is at US NH 11 in Belmont, just west of the Laconia city line, its eastern terminus is in the town of Alton at NH 11. Its western section in downtown Laconia is overlapped by the unsigned US 3 Business and NH 107. NH 11A passes through the center of the town of Gilford. Gunstock Mountain Resort, a ski area, is along the route.

New Hampshire Route 11B known as "NH 11 Business", is a 5.185-mile-

Akira Matsu

Akira Matsu is a Japanese politician of the New Komeito Party, a member of the House of Councillors in the Diet. A native of Kanagawa Prefecture and former member of Takarazuka Revue, she was elected to the House of Councillors for the first time in 1995 as a candidate for the New Frontier Party, she lost her re-election in July 2007 but in September 2007 took over the seat in the house, vacated when Yutaka Kobayashi, a member of the house, resigned. Her husband Tomoo Nishikawa is a former Representative of Japan. 政治家情報 〜松 あきら〜. ザ・選挙. JANJAN. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-18. Official website