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Puerto Rico Trench

The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The oceanic trench, the deepest in the Atlantic, is associated with a complex transition between the Lesser Antilles subduction zone to the south and the major transform fault zone or plate boundary, which extends west between Cuba and Hispaniola through the Cayman Trough to the coast of Central America; the trench has a maximum depth of 8,376 metres or 5.20 miles. This constitutes the single deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean; this point is referred to as the Milwaukee Deep, with the Brownson Deep naming the seabed surrounding it. However, more the latter term has been used interchangeably with the former to refer to this point; the exact point was identified by the DSSV Pressure Drop using a state-of-the-art Kongsberg EM124 multibeam sonar in 2018, directly visited and its depth verified by the manned submersible Deep-Submergence Vehicle DSV Limiting Factor piloted by Victor Vescovo. Scientific studies have concluded that an earthquake occurring along this fault zone could generate a significant tsunami.

The island of Puerto Rico, which lies to the south of the fault zone and the trench, suffered a destructive tsunami soon after the 1918 San Fermín earthquake. The Puerto Rico Trench is located at a boundary between two plates that pass each other along a transform boundary with only a small component of subduction; the Caribbean Plate is moving to the east. The North American Plate is being subducted by the Caribbean Plate obliquely at the trench while to the southeast, the South American Plate is being more directly subducted along the Lesser Antilles subduction zone; this subduction zone explains the presence of active volcanoes over the southeastern part of the Caribbean Sea. Volcanic activity is frequent along the island arc southeast from Puerto Rico to the coast of South America. Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic do not have active volcanoes; the Puerto Rico Trench has produced earthquakes greater than magnitude 8.0 and is considered capable of continuing to do so.

According to NASA, beneath the trench is a mass so dense it has a gravitational pull on the surface of the ocean, causing it to dip somewhat. It has a negative effect on the accuracy of navigational instruments. Knowledge of the earthquake and tsunami risks has not been widespread among the general public of the islands located near the trench. Since 1988, the Puerto Rican Seismic Society has been trying to use the Puerto Rican media to inform people about a future earthquake that could result in a catastrophic tragedy. Following the 2004 tsunami that affected more than forty countries in the Indian Ocean, many more people now fear the consequences that such an event would bring to the Caribbean. Local governments have begun emergency planning. In the case of Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands, the United States government has been studying the problem for years, it is developing tsunami warning systems. On 11 October 1918, the western coast of Puerto Rico was hit by a major earthquake which caused a tsunami.

The 1918 earthquake was caused by an old left-lateral strike-slip fault near the Mona Passage. In 1953, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, was affected by the Santo Domingo earthquake; the actual subduction zone has not ruptured in over 200 years, a major concern to geophysicists, as they believe it may be due for a major event. Puerto Rico has always been an area of concern to earthquake experts because, apart from the 1918 episode, there are frequent tremors in and around the island, indicating activity. A 1981 tremor was felt across the island, while another in 1985 was felt in the towns of Cayey and Salinas; the January 13, 2014 M 6.4 earthquake north of Puerto Rico occurred as a result of oblique-thrust faulting. Preliminary faulting mechanisms for the event indicate it ruptured either a structure dipping shallowly to the south and striking east-west, or a near-vertical structure striking northwest-southeast. At the location of this earthquake, the North America plate moves west-southwest with respect to the Caribbean plate at a velocity of 20 mm/yr, subducts beneath the Caribbean plate at the Puerto Rico Trench.

The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with the event occurring on this subduction zone interface." Several exploration cruises carried out by USGS in the Puerto Rico Trench have for the first time mapped the entire trench using ship mounted multibeam bathymetry. The seafloor was visited for the first time by French bathyscaphe Archimède in 1964 and by a robotic vehicle in 2012; the most conspicuous aspect of the footage was the swarm of benthic amphipods. Some of these amphipods were collected by bait bags attached to the vehicle and were brought to the surface for further analysis; the samples recovered were Scopelocheirus schellenbergi, a species of lysianassid amphipod that have so far only been found in ultradeep trenches in the Pacific. Two invertebrate creatures were observed in the video. One soft dark individual, estimated to be 10–20 cm long, has been identified by Dr. Stace E. Beaulieu of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a sea cucumber, tentatively assigned to genus Peniagone.

The other individual, a small crustacean, is tentatively identified as a munnopsid isopod, based on morphology and similar walking and jumping movements observed for other hadal munnopsid isopods. Because these individual were not collected, it is not p

Role of music in World War II

World War II was the first conflict to take place in the age of electronically mass distributed music. Many people in the war and the need to listened to radio and long playing records en masse. By 1940, 96.2% of Northeastern American urban households had radio. The lowest American demographic to embrace mass distributed music, Southern rural families, still had 1 radio for every two households. Similar adoption rates of electronically mass distributed music occurred in Europe. During the Nazi rule, radio ownership in Germany rose from 4 to 16 million households; as the major powers entered the war, millions of citizens had home radio devices that did not exist in the First World War. During the pre-war period, sound was introduced to cinema and musicals were popular. Therefore, World War II was its relationship to warfare. Never before was it possible for not only single songs, but single recordings of songs to be so distributed to the population. Never before had the number of listeners to a single performance been so high.

Never before had states had so much power to determine not only what songs were performed and listened to, but to control the recordings not allowing local people to alter the songs in their own performances. Though local people still sang and produced songs, this form of music faced serious new competition from centralized electronic distributed music. "Lili Marlene" was the most popular song of World War II with both British forces. Based on a German poem, the song was recorded in both German versions; the poem was a hit with troops in the Afrika Korps. Mobile desert combat required a large number of radio units and the British troops in the North African Campaign started to enjoy the song so much that it was translated into English; the song was a propaganda tool. American troops had regular access to radio in all but the most difficult combat situations, not only did soldiers know specific songs, but specific recordings; this gave a nature to American troops music during WWII, not as much songs sung around a fire or while marching, but listened to between combat on Armed Forces Radio.

"Amor" - Andy Russell with Al Sack & His Orchestra "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate The Positive" - Johnny Mercer "Bésame Mucho" - Andy Russell with Al Sack & His Orchestra "Be Careful, It's My Heart" - Composer: Irving Berlin - From: Movie Holiday Inn "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" - Andrews Sisters" "Comin' In On A Wing And A Prayer" - The Song Spinners "Der Fuehrer's Face" - Spike Jones and his City Slickers "Remember Pearl Harbor" - Sammy Kaye "Don't Fence Me In" - Bing Crosby and The Andrews Sisters "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" - Duke Ellington & His Orchestra "Don't Sit Under The Apple Tree" - Composer: Lew Brown, Sam H. Stept, Charlie Tobias "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye" - Composer: Cole Porter - From: musical Seven Lively Arts "G. I. Jive" - Johnny Mercer "I Don't Want To Walk Without You" - Harry James & His Orchestra Composer: Frank Loesser and Jule Styne - From: Movie Sweater Girl, performed by Betty Jane Rhodes "I Wonder" - Louis Armstrong I'll Be Seeing You - The Ink Spots/Bing Crosby Words by Irving Kahal, music by Sammy Fain "I'll Get By" - Ink Spots "I'll Walk Alone" - Martha Tilton "It's Been A Long, Long Time" - Harry James & His Orchestra "Long Ago" - Jo Stafford Composer: Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern - From: Musical "Cover Girl" "Kiss The Boys Goodbye" - Composer: Frank Loesser and Victor Schertzinger - From: Movie "Kiss The Boys Goodbye" "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition" - Composer: Frank Loesser "Sentimental Journey" - Les Brown & His Orchestra.

In Sounds of War: Music in the United States during World War II, it is made clear that music composed had various purposes, but more it mentions the tension that grew between institutions in order to find the right way to use music for U. S overall interest. Examples can be seen throughout the different types of songs being produced and publicized during this time. Songs like I'll Be Seeing You and Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition were songs that kept the citizens back in the U. S calm and hopeful for the return of their loved ones. On the other hand, these songs had other effects on the soldiers fighting abroad. For them songs like these homesickness. With the war brewing through the 1940s, initiatives to help the soldiers continue fighting arose. With drafting numbers reaching close to 500,000, the Army along with other Defense institutions began to make military bands which would serve the purpose of boosting morale in the home front, while at the same time keeping patriotism and nationalism at an all-time high.

The first patriotic war song of WWII in the U. S. was "God Bless America," written by Irving Berlin for a World War I wartime revue, but was withheld and revised and used in World War II. There were many oth

Wyre Dock railway station

Wyre Dock railway station served Fleetwood in Lancashire, England from 1885 to 1970. Wyre Dock passenger station was constructed in 1885, on the Fleetwood Branch Line from Poulton-le-Fylde, about half a mile from the Fleetwood main terminus; the station stood about a quarter mile from Wyre Dock itself. There had been a branch line for freight only to Wyre Dock since its construction in 1877, to support the distribution of fish. Fleetwood locomotive depot was located on the east side of the line south of the station, it was closed by British Railways in 1965. Fleetwood's main terminus was closed on 18 April 1966, as a result of the Beeching Cuts, Wyre Dock was renamed "Fleetwood" station, as the terminus of the Fleetwood Branch Line. However, all passenger services between Poulton-le-Fylde and Fleetwood were withdrawn after the last train on 30 May 1970, the station was demolished. Light industry developed in the area, and, in the 1990s, the new A585 Amounderness Way bypass was built on the former railway bed.

Suggitt, G. Lost Railways of Lancashire, Countryside Books, Newbury, ISBN 1-85306-801-2 Welch, M. S. Lancashire Steam Finale, Runpast Publishing, Cheltenham, ISBN 1-870754-61-1 Poulton and Wyre Railway Society, working towards restoring passenger services to Fleetwood

The night of churches

The night of churches or The long night of churches is an annual religious and cultural festival, organized by various Christian Churches. The main idea is that visitors can see sights without obligation and for free, meet believers among many denominations; the first long night of churches took place in Germany in 2003. Since it has been organized every year and expanded to more and more cities. Three years there were 70 churches open in Hannover, receiving about 47,000 visitors. In 2005 the long night of churches took place in Austria. Four years the Diocese of Brno in the Czech Republic joined. In the following years the event has expanded to more European countries. Christian culture Christian evangelism Lange Nacht der Kirchen - Austria Noc kostolov - Slovakia Noc kostelů - Czech Republic Kirikute Öö - Estonia

Season of Death

"Season of Death" is an episode from the third season of the Australian television series Farscape, written by Richard Manning and directed by Ian Watson. Events continue from the previous episode; the Diagnosan wakes up, only momentarily felled by Scorpius, not killed as it had seemed. The Moyans, in space, arrive to help. Zhaan shares determines that he is not; the "mind" Scorpius, in conversation with John, wants John to kill himself because he doesn't want to be stuck in John's head. John wants to oblige—he doesn't want to live if Aeryn is dead. D'Argo tells him in no uncertain terms that Aeryn would want him to live, that she gave her life to save him; the Diagnosan restores John's speech, using some neural tissue from one of three compatible bodies from the species called "Interons" that are in storage. Grunschlk is confronted by Braca—he was in Braca's pay and told Scorpius when John arrived. Scorpius puts a receiver in Grunschlk's head. Fearing he would be betrayed by Scorpius, Grunschlk began a re-animation procedure for a frozen Scarran left behind by the Scarrans in case Scorpius returned.

The Scarran kills the Diagnosan. John and D'Argo try to escape from the Peacekeepers, only to come face to face with the Scarran, while they are unarmed. Meanwhile, Zhaan notices that Aeryn is not dead, only dead. Stark realizes what she's going to do and tries to dissuade her, but she knocks him out and shares unity with Aeryn. Over Aeryn's protests, Zhaan gives her some of her life force. Aeryn rescues Zhaan and Stark from the PKs, rescues John and D'Argo from the Scarran, using D'Argo's qualta blade that he'd left with her body. Seeing her, John assumes he's gone mad, or is hallucinating. Aeryn explains that it was Zhaan, she "did a unity thing." He reaches out and sees the place where he cut the lock of her hair, is overcome with emotion—they have a joyful reunion and escape the planet with Talyn's help. Talyn blows up a transport that he thinks Scorpius is on, but Scorpius is safely on the planet, escapes with the neural chip. Grunschlk having been put into a stasis tube by the now dead Scarran is left to his frozen fate.

John insists the two remaining Interons be brought onto Moya. On Moya and John confess their love for each other, have a passionate embrace... which Aeryn breaks, telling John they must not act on their feelings, too much is at stake. As the episode draws to a close, Zhaan is in a weakened state, dying. According to David Kemper, Richard Manning's title for the episode, "Season of Death", was a "prescient" choice and "became the title of the...overarching series."Farscape's production staff were pleased with how the episode turned out. Writer Justin Monjo stated, "It's full of surprises and we are all excited about it. I would say its bigger and better than ever." The episode's writer, Richard Manning, on the other hand, was critical of some aspects of the episode. "I found a line I want to change...'She did a Unity thing' / I don't think that's what was written / A "Unity thing" sounds like some kinda dance" He acknowledged the difficulties involved in resurrecting Aeryn: "'it's such a fine line between stupid and clever' / I agree that it's good to leave some of'em dead / elsewise it doesn't mean much" Composer Guy Gross references the music from "Die Me, Dichotomy" in this episode, reprising Aeryn's "Requiem", but changing it from a minor key to a major key.

As of this episode, Farscape's opening credits were re-edited with a new introductive voice-over from Ben Browder, reworked theme music, new footage of the cast: they now show Paul Goddard, Lani Tupu and Wayne Pygram as cast regulars after Gigi Edgley. Episodes now bear their titles onscreen after the credits. Composer Guy Gross said of the new title music: "The music for the season three opener was created over a 3 week period, it was decided that rather than create a new arrangement of the previous theme, I would compose an original theme that made gentle musical references to the old theme. As a result the credits read:'theme composed by Guy Gross, adapted from the original theme by Subvision'."Thomas Holesgrove played both Tocot and Plomek during the fight scene between the two. Two separate takes were filmed with Holesgrove working opposite stunt players, who were edited out of the final scene; the episode was well received by critics alike. Fan surveys rank the episode among Farscape's best.

Critics, responded favorably to the episode. Television Without Pity rated the episode "A", stating, "I defy anyone to sit through this episode without feeling drained afterward, and yet, we'll all be hurtling through the rest of season three,'cause it hurts so good." SCI FI Wire rated the episode "A", stating, "The season premiere ties up the cliffhangers nicely and heads the show in an effective new direction." A TV Guide feature highlighted the episode while pointing to the show's "intelligent stories, witty dialogue and out-of-this-world production values." "Season of Death" earned a 1.9 Nielsen rating. Hugh Keays-Byrne as Grunchlk Matthew Newton as Jothee David Franklin as Lieutenant Braca Thomas Holesgrove as Diagnosan Tocot and Plonek the Scarran Aaron Catalan as Officer Kobrin

Hamid Arasly

Hamid Mammadtaghi oglu Arasly was an Azerbaijani literary critic, Doctor of Sciences in Philology, an academic at the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. He is acknowledged as one of philologists of Azerbaijan. Hamid Arasly has conducted extensive critical research of the works of well-known Azerbaijani poets such as Nizami Ganjavi, Fuzûlî, Imamaddin Nasimi, he has authored multiple works on Azerbaijani literary history. One of his most important contributions to his field is the release of the first full-text Russian edition of the Book of Dede Korkut in 1939, his period of activity corresponds with heightened repression in the Soviet Union. In 1936, using the eastern manuscripts he had been collecting for a few years, Hamid Arasly created the Manuscripts Bureau within the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. However, a year some of the manuscripts preserved in the bureau were found to be against the principles of Soviet ideology; the academic was subsequently fired from his position.

He has been pressured by the Soviet authorities for his publication of the Book of Dede Korkut. The Book, a collection of epic stories describing the lifestyle of the nomadic Turkic peoples and their pre-Islamic beliefs, was criticized by the Soviet government for promoting bourgeois nationalism; the publication of dastans did not wholly cease during that period. Hamid Arasly was born on 23 February 1902 to a priest father, his father was one of the clerical intellectuals of his time. He started his studies at the Ganja Teachers' Gymnasium in 1922. After graduating from there in 1926, he worked in a village school for 3 years where he gained experience as a teacher and principal. In 1929, he was admitted to the Faculty of Linguistics and Literature at the Azerbaijan State Pedagogic Institute, he graduated early in 1931 and went back to Ganja to assume the position of Deputy Chair of the Ganja Education Bureau. After a year, Hamid Arasly went to Baku to start his doctoral studies there working as the Director of Eastern Department of the new Library of the National Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR.

There, he started collecting significant Eastern manuscripts. In 1936, he officialized this pursuit of his, creating the Manuscripts Bureau within the National Academy of Sciences; that year, he became a member of the Union of Azerbaijani Writers. In 1938, it was revealed that some of the manuscripts he collected were against the principles of Soviet ideology; because of this, he was fired from the Manuscripts Bureau. He started to teach at Azerbaijan State University in the same year. In 1943, he defended his thesis, named "Azerbaijani literature in XVII - XVIII centuries", earned the title Candidate of Sciences - corresponding to a western-style PhD. Starting in 1944, he worked as the Head of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the National Academy of Sciences. In 1954, he received the title Doctor of Sciences and became a professor of literature and philology. Between 1960 and 1968, he was the chairman of the Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature. Hamid Arasly was recipient of numerous honorary titles, such as Honored Scientist of Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan.

He became a full member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1968. Hamid Arasly was the author of research works on many of the great Azerbaijani poets and scholars such as Nizami Ganjavi, Imamaddin Nasimi, Saib Tabrizi, Molla Panah Vagif, Molla Vali Vidadi, he made great contributions towards the study of Nizami and Fuzûlî's heritage. For example, Arasly prepared a full collection of Fuzuli's poems - his Works, he was engaged in substantial research on Kitabi Dede Korkut and Azerbaijani folklore in general. For the first time, in 1939, Arasly published the Book of Dede Korkut in Latin alphabet, he has conducted a critical review of the dastan, asserting that Azerbaijani is the closest language to, spoken in the book. Hamid Arasly was one of the main authors of a two-volume “A Brief History of Azerbaijani Literature” and three-volume “History of Azerbaijani Literature”, he was authored some works focused on the relation between Azerbaijani literature with Persian, Turkish and Turkmen literature