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Puffins are any of three small species of alcids in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season. These are pelagic seabirds that feed by diving in the water, they breed in large colonies on coastal cliffs or offshore islands, nesting in crevices among rocks or in burrows in the soil. Two species, the tufted puffin and horned puffin, are found in the North Pacific Ocean, while the Atlantic puffin is found in the North Atlantic Ocean. All puffin species have predominantly black or black and white plumage, a stocky build, large beaks, they shed the colourful outer parts of their bills after the breeding season, leaving a smaller and duller beak. Their short wings are adapted for swimming with a flying technique under water. In the air, they beat their wings in swift flight flying low over the ocean's surface. A significant decline in numbers of puffins in Shetland is worrying scientists; the genus Fratercula was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the Atlantic puffin as the type species.

The name Fratercula is Latin for "little brother", a reference to the black and white plumage, which resembles monastic robes. The English name "puffin" – puffed in the sense of swollen – was applied to the fatty, salted meat of young birds of the unrelated Manx shearwater known as the "Manks puffin". Puffin is an Anglo-Norman word for the cured carcasses of nestling Manx shearwaters; the genus contain three species. The rhinoceros auklet has sometimes been included in the genus Fratercula, some authors place the tufted puffin in the genus Lunda; the puffins and the rhinoceros auklet are related, together composing the subfamily Fraterculini. The oldest alcid fossil is Hydrotherikornis from Oregon dating to the Late Eocene while fossils of Aethia and Uria go back to the Late Miocene. Molecular clocks have been used to suggest an origin in the Pacific in the Paleocene. Fossils from North Carolina were thought to have been of two Fratercula species, but were reassigned to one Fratercula, the tufted puffin, a Cerorhinca species.

Another extinct species, Dow's puffin was found on the Channel Islands of California until the Late Pleistocene or early Holocene. The Fraterculini are thought to have originated in the Pacific because of their greater diversity there; this species has shown some significant sign of animal intelligence. On January, 2020, some researchers reported that, Atlantic puffins were seen using sticks as a tool to scratch themselves; the Fraterculini fossil record in the Pacific extends at least as far back as the middle Miocene, with three fossil species of Cerorhinca, material tentatively referred to that genus, in the middle Miocene to late Pliocene of southern California and northern Mexico. Although there no records from the Miocene in the Atlantic, a re-examination of the North Carolina material indicated that the diversity of puffins in the early Pliocene was as great in the Atlantic as it is in the Pacific today; this diversity was achieved through influxes of puffins from the Pacific. The puffins are stocky, short-winged and short-tailed birds, with black upper parts and white or brownish-grey underparts.

The head has a black cap, the face is white, the feet are orange-red. The bill appears large and colourful during the breeding season; the colourful outer part of the bill is shed after the breeding season, revealing a smaller and duller true bill beneath. Although the puffins are vocal at their breeding colonies, they are silent at sea, they fly high above the water 10 m as compared with the 1.6 m of other auks. Puffins breed in colonies on coasts and islands; the male Atlantic puffin builds the nest and exhibits strong nest-site fidelity. Both sexes of the horned puffin help to construct their nest. Horned puffin burrows are about 1 meter deep, ending in a chamber, while the tunnel leading to a tufted puffin burrow may be up to 2.75 meters long. The nesting substrate of the tufted and Atlantic puffins is soft soil, into which tunnels are dug; the Atlantic puffin burrow is lined with material such as grass and feathers but is unlined. The eggs of the Atlantic puffin are creamy white but the occasional egg is tinged lilac.

Where rabbits breed, sometimes Atlantic puffins breed in rabbit burrows. Puffins form long-term pair bonds or relationships; the female lays a single egg, both parents incubate the egg and feed the chick. The incubating parent holds the egg against its brood patch with its wings; the chicks fledge at night. After fledging, the chicks spend the first few years of their lives at sea, returning to breed about five years later. Puffins in captivity have been known to breed as early as three years of age. After breeding, all three puffin species winter at sea far from coasts and extending south of the breeding range. Iceland is the home to most of the Atlantic puffins with about 10 million individuals; the largest single puffin colony in the world is in the Westmann Isles of Iceland. In 2009, scientists estimated the number of nests to be 1.1 million, number of individuals there is

AIP Conference Proceedings

AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies. Alison Waldron is the current Acquisitions Editor for AIP Conference Proceedings. In addition to the series' own ISSN, each volumes receives its own ISBN. AIP Conference Proceedings publishes more than 100 volumes per year, with back-file coverage to 1970 which encompasses 1,330 proceedings volumes and 100,000 published papers. In 2010 broad subject coverage included accelerators, plasma physics, polymer science, lasers, materials science, astrophysics, mathematical physics and particle physics, statistical physics and molecular physics; this series is indexed in the following databases, amongst others Academic Search Premier Scitation Scopus Web of Knowledge Official website American Institute of Physics home page


A novella is a work of narrative prose fiction, longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. Publishers and literary award societies describe a novella's word count as falling between 15,000 and 40,000 words, although definitions vary; the English word "novella" derives from the Italian novella, feminine of novello, which means "new". The novella is a common literary genre in several European languages; the novella as a literary genre began developing in the Italian literature of the early Renaissance, principally Giovanni Boccaccio, author of The Decameron. The Decameron featured 100 tales told by ten people fleeing the Black Death, by escaping from Florence to the Fiesole hills in 1348; this structure was imitated by subsequent authors, notably the French queen Marguerite de Navarre, whose Heptaméron included 72 original French tales and was modeled after the structure of The Decameron. Not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries did writers fashion the novella into a literary genre structured by precepts and rules in a realistic mode.

At that time, the Germans were the most active writers of the novelle. For the German writer, a novella is a fictional narrative of indeterminate length—a few pages to hundreds—restricted to a single, suspenseful event, situation, or conflict leading to an unexpected turning point, provoking a logical but surprising end. Novellen tend to contain a concrete symbol, the narrative's focal point. A novella features fewer conflicts than a novel, yet more complicated ones than a short story; the conflicts have more time to develop than in short stories. Novellas may or may not be divided into chapters and are intended to be read at a single sitting, as is the short story, although in a novella white space is used to divide the sections, therefore, the novella maintains a single effect. Warren Cariou wrote: The novella is not as formally experimental as the long story and the novel can be, it lacks the subplots, the multiple points of view, the generic adaptability that are common in the novel, it is most concerned with personal and emotional development rather than with the larger social sphere.

The novella retains something of the unity of impression, a hallmark of the short story, but it contains more developed characterization and more luxuriant description. The term novel, borrowed from the Italian novella meant "Any of a number of tales or stories making up a larger work. Usage of the more italianate novella in English seems to be a bit younger; the differenciation of the two terms seems to have occurred only in the 19th century, following the new fashion of the novella in German literature. In 1834, John Lothrop Motley could still speak of "Tieck's novels", but when the term novella was used it was clear that a rather short and witty form was intended: "The brief Novella has been a prodigious favorite with the nation…since the days of Boccaccio." In 1902, William Dean Howells wrote: "Few modern fictions of the novel's dimensions…have the beauty of form many a novella embodies."Sometimes, as with other genres, the genre name is mentioned in the title of a single work. Austrian writer Stefan Zweig's Die Schachnovelle is an example of a title naming its genre.

This might be suggestive of the genre's historicization. Longer novellas are referred to as novels. D.. Less longer works are referred to as novellas; the subjectivity of the parameters of the novella genre is indicative of its shifting and diverse nature as an art form. In her 2010 Open Letters Monthly series, "A Year With Short Novels", Ingrid Norton criticizes the tendency to make clear demarcations based purely on a book's length: On a web search engine, input "novels" and "length" and you will find tables of word counts, separating out novels from novellas from the esoteric and still shorter "novelette"—as though prose works were dog show contestants, needing to be entered into proper categories, but when it comes to writing, any distinctions that begin with an objective and external quality like size are bound to be misleading. The delicate, gem-like jigsaw of Thornton Wilder's The Bridge of San Luis Ray could not be more unlike the feverishly cunning philosophical monologue of Albert Camus' The Fall, but both novels are about the same length.

Stephen King, in his introduction to Different Seasons, a collection of four novellas, has called the novella "an ill-defined and disreputable literary banana republic". Despite these problems, the novella's length provides unique advantages.

Quercus austrina

Quercus austrina, the bastard white oak or bluff oak, is an oak species, endemic to the southeastern United States from Mississippi to the Carolinas, with a few isolated populations in Arkansas. Quercus austrina can grow to a height of 45 to 60 feet with a spread of 35 to 50 feet. Leaves are narrow, with shallow rounded lobes, it tends to grow in wet habitats, such as on river bluffs, river bottoms, flatwoods, over basic substrates, such as mafic rocks, shells, or calcareous sediment. Quercus austrina specimens have been misidentified as either Q. sinuata or Q. nigra. Quercus aurstina is tolerant to clay, loam and well-drained soils, it requires a lot of sun and its drought tolerance is high

Yali High School

Yali High School known as Yali is a senior high school located in Changsha, Hunan Province in the People's Republic of China, or a group of secondary schools containing Yali School itself and several branches. It is a first-tier key school in Hunan's public school system and is one of the most selective schools in the nation. Admission is competitive, based on the score in city-wide or province-wide examinations as well as talent in science, music and the arts; the school and other three prestigious high schools in Changsha, are recognized "the Famous Four". In 2007, Yali was included in the "Top 100 Schools" list published by the Top One-Hundred Schools website in China, it topped the list of the five schools that made to the top 100 from Hunan Province Founded in 1906 by Yale-in-China, the Yali School(雅礼大学堂)was an American-owned private school during the first half of the 20th century and has been a public school since then. The name Yali 雅礼 comes from the Analects of Confucius, meaning elegance of expression and propriety of conduct, is a transliteration of Yale in the early 20th century.

Yali's school colors are blue and red. Brownell Gage, Warren Seabury, Lawrence Thurston, Arthur Williams, all graduates of Yale College in the 1890s, founded Yale-in-China, brought the mission to Changsha between 1901 and 1905. In 1906, the mission's preparatory school, or the Yali School, began operations. During the same year, Edward H. Hume, M. D. commenced the medical work in Changsha. His experiences are described in his 1946 book Doctors East, Doctors West: An American Physician's Life in China. In 1912 Yali's first graduates received degrees; the campus was expanded in 1914. By 1928, Yali started opening up its administrative and leadership roles to Chinese educators. While Yali students were known for their academic performance, they were athletes, with the school's athletic teams - soccer, track, for example - winning provincial and national tournaments. In 1938, Yali students and faculty moved to Yuanling in western Hunan to avoid bombing in Changsha during the Japanese invasion of China.

Teaching continued in Yuanling for seven years before the school returned to Changsha in 1946. In November 1948, the US government started evacuating Americans in China. Dr. Dwight Rugh became the last Yale-China representative in China. In 1951, Dr. Rugh was brought to the new gym on the Yali campus in a school-wide meeting to condemn "American Capitalist Invaders". During the same year, the municipal government of Changsha took over the administration of the Yali School and changed its name to Changsha Number Five Middle School to be integrated into the city's public school system; the School's tie with Yale-China was cut off. During the next few decades, Yali experienced political turbulence. Dwight Rugh is the father of Betty Jean Rugh, who grew up in Changsha and moved to the United States with her parents. BJ Elder published a book in 2003 titled The Oriole's Song - An American Girlhood in Wartime China, describing her childhood in Changsha on the Yali campus and the various trips she made back to China in the decades following the family's forced departure.

In 1980, known at the time still as Changsha Number Five middle School, returned to operations from a whole decade of chaos. With the new "reform and opening-up" policy instituted by Deng Xiaoping, more freedom to connect with the outside world was realized. Yali alumni from the first half of the 20th Century started working between Changsha and New Haven, seeking to re-establish the Yale-China connection. In 1985, the school revived its relationship with the Yale-China Association and was once again known as Yali; the next year, Yale-China bachelors, now known as English Language Instructors, arrived on campus and resumed teaching responsibilities in the English Department. Since 1986, Yali has reinvented itself again as an institution of secondary education in China. While following a standard curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education, it expanded its education philosophy to include extracurriculars and specialty education; the school has received provincial and national recognitions for its high quality education to young minds.

In 1992, it was recognized as one of the first Provincial Key Schools in Changsha, establishing it as a premier institution in China's public school system. Yali has reached out to institutions in many other countries and established sister school relationships internationally. In 2001, the school received a delegation from Yale University led by Yale's president, Richard Levin, in celebration of both the Centennial of Yale-China Association as well as the Tercentennial of Yale University. In 2006, Yali celebrated its own Centennial, bringing back alumni and former teachers from all parts of the world. Since 1999,Yali School have established several branches, some are complete secondary schools and some only contain junior high school. In 2006, the junior department of Yali stopped enrollment owing to certain education policy; the teachers and other staffs were moved to different Yali branches. Yali school, or called the "Yali Headquarters", is a day school located near the city-center; the main teaching building is rebuilt in 2012.

There are over 3000 students study there in 2018. The Internation


A nap is a short period of sleep taken during daytime hours as an adjunct to the usual nocturnal sleep period. Naps are most taken as a response to drowsiness during waking hours. A nap is a form of biphasic or polyphasic sleep, where the latter terms include longer periods of sleep in addition to one single period. For years, scientists have been investigating the benefits of napping, including the 30-minute nap as well as sleep durations of 1–2 hours. Performance across a wide range of cognitive processes has been tested, it has been shown that excessive daytime sleepiness can be improved by prescribed napping in narcolepsy. Apart from narcolepsy, it has not been demonstrated that naps are beneficial for EDS in other sleep disorders; the state of grogginess, impaired cognition and disorientation experienced when awakening from sleep is known as sleep inertia. This state reduces the speed of cognitive tasks but has no effects on the accuracy of task performance; the effects of sleep inertia last longer than 30 minutes in the absence of prior sleep deprivation.

Epidemiological research has suggested napping as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly people. For idiopathic hypersomnia, patients experience sleep inertia and are unrefreshed after napping. A power nap known as a Stage 2 nap, is a short slumber of 20 minutes or less which terminates before the occurrence of deep slow-wave sleep, intended to revitalize the napper; the expression "power nap" was coined by Cornell University social psychologist James Maas. The 20-minute nap increases alertness and motor skills. Various durations may be recommended for power naps, which are short compared to regular sleep; the short duration prevents nappers from sleeping so long that they enter the slow wave portion of the normal sleep cycle without being able to complete the cycle. Entering deep, slow-wave sleep and failing to complete the normal sleep cycle, can result in a phenomenon known as sleep inertia, where one feels groggy and sleepier than before beginning the nap. In order to attain optimal post-nap performance, a Stage 2 nap must be limited to the beginning of a sleep cycle sleep stages N1 and N2 18–25 minutes.

Experimental confirmation of the benefits of this brief nap comes from a Flinders University study in Australia in which 5, 10, 20, or 30-minute periods of sleep were given. The greatest immediate improvement in measures of alertness and cognitive performance came after the 10 minutes of sleep; the 20 and 30-minute periods of sleep showed evidence of sleep inertia after the naps and improvements in alertness more than 30 minutes but not to a greater level than after the 10 minutes of sleep. People who take these short naps, or catnaps, may develop a good idea of the duration which works best for them, as well as which tools, environment and associated factors help produce the best results. Power naps are effective when schedules allow a full night's sleep. Mitsuo Hayashi and Tadao Hori have demonstrated that a nap improves mental performance after a full night's sleep. A short nap preceded by the intake of caffeine was investigated by British researchers. In a driving simulator and a series of studies and Reyner looked at the effects of cold air, radio, a break with no nap, a nap, caffeine pill vs. placebo and a short nap preceded by caffeine on mildly sleep-deprived subjects.

The caffeine nap was by far the most effective in reducing driving "incidents" and subjective sleepiness. Caffeine in coffee takes up to a half-hour to have an alerting effect, hence "a short nap will not be compromised if it is taken after the coffee." A contemporary idea called polyphasic sleeping entails avoiding long periods of sleep, instead taking spaced short naps. Sara Mednick, whose sleep research investigates the effects of napping, included a chapter, "Extreme Napping", in her book Take a Nap!. In response to questions from readers about the "uberman" schedule of "polyphasic sleeping", she commented as follows: This practice rests upon one important hypothesis that our biological rhythms are adaptable; this means that we can train our internal mechanisms not only when to sleep and wake, but when to get hungry, have the energy for exercise, perform mental activities. Inferred in this hypothesis is that we have the power to regulate our mood, core body temperature and stress response everything inside this container of flesh we call home.

An Uberman feat! Naska, A. Oikonomou, E. Trichopoulou, A. Psaltopoulou, T. and Trichopoulos, D.. "Siesta in healthy adults and coronary mortality in the general population". Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 296–301. MohammadReza Zaregarizi, Ben Edwards, Keith George, Yvonne Harrison, Helen Jones and Greg Atkinson.. "Acute changes in cardiovascular function during the onset period of daytime sleep: Comparison to lying awake and standing". American J Appl Physiol 103:1332–1338. MohammadReza Zaregarizi. Effects of Exercise & Daytime Sleep on Human Haemodynamics: With Focus on Changes in Cardiovascular Function during Daytime Sleep Onset, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8484-1726-1. How to nap GIF image -- Sunday Ideas The Boston Globe. Image source dated 2008/06/14. Accessed 2009-06-16. Text reprint – Napping: the expert's guide The Guardian 27 January 2009. Accessed 2009-06-16