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Puigcerdà

Puigcerdà is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France. Puigcerdà is located near the site of a Ceretani settlement, incorporated into Roman territory; the Roman town was named Julia Libyca. Puigcerdà was founded in 1178 by King Alfonso I of Count of Barcelona. In 1178 Puigcerdà replaced Hix as the capital of Cerdanya. Hix is now a village in the commune of Bourg-Madame, in the French part of Cerdagne. In the closing stages of the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War, the town was captured by a French army under the duc de Noailles but returned to Spain in the Treaties of Nijmegen. Puigcerdà was unique during the Spanish Civil War in having a democratically elected Anarchist council; the Portet-Saint-Simon–Puigcerdà railway was opened in 1929, crossing the Pyrenees to France. Puigcerdà Pool Torre del Campanar, it is the last remain of a parish church destroyed in 1936 Romanesque church of Sant Tomàs de Ventajola, known from 958 Romanesque church of Sant Andreu Vilallobent, dating to the 10th century and restored Convent of St. Dominic, founded in 1291 and finished in the 15th century Old Hospital, in Romanesque-Gothic style Pere Borrell del Caso, painter Gemma Arró Ribot, ski mountaineer José Antonio Hermida, World Champion Cross Country Mountain bike 2010 Government data pages

Council of Laodicea

The Council of Laodicea was a regional synod of thirty clerics from Asia Minor that assembled about 363–364 AD in Laodicea, Phrygia Pacatiana. The council took place soon after the conclusion of the war between the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, waged by Emperor Julian. Julian, the last Constantinian emperor, attempted a revival of paganism and resumed discrimination against Christians. After his death in battle on 26 June 363, officers of the army elected the Christian Jovian as his successor. Jovian, in a precarious position, far from supplies, ended the war with Persia unfavorably for Rome, he was soon succeeded by Valentinian I. The major concerns of the Council involved regulating the conduct of church members; the Council expressed its decrees in the form of written canons. Among the sixty canons decreed, several aimed at: Maintaining order among bishops and laypeople Enforcing modest behaviour of clerics and laypeople Regulating approach to heretics and pagans Outlawing the keeping of the sabbath and encouraging rest on the Sunday Outlining liturgical practices Restrictions during Lent Admission and instruction of catechumens and neophytes Specifying a Biblical canon The 59th canon forbade the readings in church of uncanonical books.

The 60th canon listed Canonical books, with the New Testament containing 26 books, omitting the Book of Revelation, the Old Testament including the 22 books of the Hebrew Bible plus the Book of Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah. It is believed that they may have demonized the "Second Book of Enoch", which led to its degeneration; the authenticity of the 60th canon is doubtful as it is missing from various Greek manuscripts and may have been added to specify the extent of the preceding 59th canon. The Latin version of the canons of Laodicea omit the canon list. Around 350 AD, Cyril of Jerusalem produced a list matching that from the Council of Laodicea; the council marks the first occasion in Christianity of the explicit condemnation of astrology, a matter on which theologians and legislators had not yet reached consensus. "Synod of Laodicea", The Canons with annotations, from Schaff Philip Schaff, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, "The Canons of the Councils of Ancyra, Neocæsarea and Laodicea, which Canons were Accepted and Received by the Ecumenical Synods".

Synod of Laodicea

1964 in art

The year 1964 in art involved some significant events and new works. July 28 – Fondation Maeght museum of modern and contemporary art at Saint-Paul-de-Vence in the Alpes-Maritimes of France, designed by Spanish Catalan architect Josep Lluís Sert, is opened; the prize for foreign artist at the Venice Biennale is awarded to Robert Rauschenberg. David Bailey issues Box of a collection of his photographic portraits, in London; the National Gallery purchases Rembrandt's painting Belshazzar's Feast from The Art Fund. November 9–30 – 8 Young Artists exhibition curated by Martin Ries and E. C. Goossen at the Hudson River Museum, New York, including Carl Andre; the Post-painterly Abstraction exhibition curated by art critic Clement Greenberg opens at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and subsequently travels to the Walker Art Center and the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto. Joseph Beuys – Fat Chair Pauline BotyIt's A Man's World Montague Dawson – Ariel and Taeping Barbara Hepworth – Single Form L. S. Lowry – The Black Church René MagritteThe Son of Man Ronald Moody - Savacou Norman Rockwell Growth of a Leader The Problem We All Live With Gerald Scarfe – drawing of Winston Churchill Jean TinguelyHeureka Andy Warhol Electric Chair Empire The Shot Marilyns Sleep Roy Lichtenstein – Oh, Jeff...

I Love You, Too... But... David WynneThe Beatles January 20 – Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, Spanish Catalan military and historical hyper realist painter February 3 – Valérie Belin, French photographer April 30 – Kelly Sullivan, American "FingerSmear" painter May 17 – Rob Pruitt, American post-conceptual artist June 23 – Peter Joyce, English landscape painter September 10 – Edmund de Waal, English ceramicist date unknown Paul Cadden, Scottish hyperrealist Mark Leckey, English visual artist January 1 – Paul Ninas, American painter January 17 – Đorđe Andrejević Kun, Serbian painter January 26 – Xawery Dunikowski, sculptor February 25 – Alexander Archipenko, sculptor February 27 – Orry-Kelly, costume designer March 12 – Jovan Bijelić, Serbian painter March 28 – Vlastislav Hofman, architect April 4 – Seán O'Sullivan, portrait painter April 20 – August Sander, photographer May 9 – Rico Lebrun, Italian-American painter and sculptor June 18 – Giorgio Morandi, still life painter June 24 – Stuart Davis, painter June 26 – Gerrit Rietveld and architect July 21 – Jean Fautrier and sculptor August 31 – Peter Lanyon, landscape painter November 5 – Mabel Lucie Attwell, English illustrator December 29 – Vladimir Favorsky, Russian graphic artist unknown date – Tanasko Milovich, Serbian painter 1964 in fine arts of the Soviet Union

Sports prototype

A sports prototype, sometimes referred to as a prototype, is a type of race car, used in the highest level categories of sports car racing. These purpose-built racing cars, unlike street-legal and production-based racing cars, are not intended for consumer purchase or production beyond that required to compete and win races. Prototype racing cars have competed in sports car racing since before World War II, but became the top echelon of sports cars in the 1960s as they began to replace homologated sports cars. Current ACO regulations allow most sports car series to use two forms of cars: grand tourers, based on street cars, prototypes, which are allowed a great amount of flexibility within set rule parameters. In historic racing, they are called "sports racing cars". Sometimes, they are incorrectly referred to as "Le Mans cars", whether they are competing in the Le Mans race or not. Since the 1960s, various championships have allowed prototypes to compete. However, most championships have had their own set of rules for their prototype classes.

Listed here are some of the more known types of prototypes. Group 7 Group 6 Group C Grand Touring Prototype Le Mans Prototype Le Mans Prototype Challenge Le Mans Hypercar Daytona Prototype Daytona Prototype International Group CN Sports 2000

Induction heater

An induction heater is a key piece of equipment used in all forms of induction heating. An induction heater operates at either medium frequency or radio frequency ranges. Four main component systems form the basis of a modern induction heater the control system, control panel, or ON / OFF switch. Supply frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz induction heaters incorporate a coil directly fed from the electricity supply for lower power industrial applications where lower surface temperatures are required; some specialist induction heaters operate at the Aerospace power frequency. Induction heating should not be confused with induction cooking, as the two heating systems are very physically different from each other. Notably, induction heating systems work with long metallic rods and sheets to bring them up to temperatures as high as 2500 °C for work to be done on them. An induction heater consists of three elements. Referred to as the inverter or generator; this part of the system is used to take the mains frequency and increase it to anywhere between 10 Hz and 400 kHz.

Typical output power of a unit system is from 2 kW to 500 kW. This contains a combination of capacitors and transformers and is used to mate the power unit to the work coil. Known as the inductor, the coil is used to transfer the energy from the power unit and work head to the work piece. Inductors range in complexity from a simple wound solenoid consisting of a number of turns of copper tube wound around a mandrel, to a precision item machined from solid copper and soldered together; as the inductor is the area where the heating takes place, coil design is one of the most important elements of the system and is a science in itself. Radio frequency induction generators work in the frequency range from 100 kHz up to 10 MHz. Most induction heating devices have a frequency range of 100 kHz to 200 kHz; the output range incorporates 2.5 kW to 40 kW. Induction heaters in this range are used for smaller components and applications such as induction hardening an engine valve. MF induction generators work from 1 kHz to 10 kHz.

The output range incorporates 50 kW to 500 kW. Induction heaters within these ranges are used on medium to larger components and applications such as the induction forging of a shaft. Mains frequency induction coils are driven directly from the standard AC supply. Most mains-frequency induction coils are designed for single phase operation, are low-current devices intended for localised heating, or low-temperature surface area heating, such as in a drum heater; the basic principle involved in induction heating was discovered by Michael Faraday as early as 1831. Faraday's work involved the use of a switched DC supply provided by a battery and two windings of copper wire wrapped around an iron core, it was noted that when the switch was closed a momentary current flowed in the secondary winding, which could be measured by means of a galvanometer. If the circuit remained energized the current ceased to flow. On opening the switch a current again flowed in the secondary winding, but in the opposite direction.

Faraday concluded that since no physical link existed between the two windings, the current in the secondary coil must be caused by a voltage, induced from the first coil, that the current produced was directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux. The principles were put to use in the design of transformers and generators where undesirable heating effects were controlled by the use of a laminated core. Early in the 20th century engineers started to look for ways to harness the heat-generating properties of induction for the purpose of melting steel; this early work used motor generators to create the medium frequency current, but the lack of suitable alternators and capacitors of the correct size held back early attempts. However, by 1927 the first MF induction melting system had been installed by EFCO in Sheffield, England. At around the same time engineers at Midvale Steel and The Ohio Crankshaft Company in America were attempting to use the surface-heating effect of the MF current to produce localized surface case hardening in crankshafts.

Much of this work took place at the frequencies of 1920 and 3000 Hz as these were the easiest frequencies to produce with the equipment available. As with many technology-based fields it was the advent of World War II which led to huge developments in the utilization of induction heating in the production of vehicle parts and munitions. Over time, the technology advanced and units in the 3 to 10 kHz frequency range with powers outputs to 600 kW became common place in induction forging and large induction hardening applications; the motor generator would remain the mainstay of MF power generation until the advent of high voltage semiconductors in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Early in the evolutionary process it became obvious to engineers that the ability to produce a higher radio frequency range of equipment would result in greater flexibility and open up a whole range of alternative applications. Methods were sought to produce these higher RF power supplies to operate in the 200 to 400 kHz range.

Development in this particular frequency range has always mirrored that of the radio transmitter and television broadcasting industry and indeed has used component parts developed for this purpose. Early units utilised spark gap technology, but due to limitations the approach was superseded by the use of multi-elec

Vailimia

Vailimia is a genus of Asian jumping spiders, first described by C. F. Kammerer in 2006, it was first described in 1907 from a single male about 6 millimetres long. It was thought to be close to Harmochirus, but the male pedipalp and cephalothorax drawn by Proszynski in 1984, information gained from collected specimens indicates otherwise. Subsequently, three more species have been identified, it may be a synonym for Pancorius. The genus was named Vailima after the name of the last residence of Robert Louis Stevenson and the village where it is situated. However, the name was misspelled Vailimia by Prószyński in 2003, it was subsequently renamed to Vailimia in Vailima. The original name Vailima was used by Peckham & Peckham in 1907. Most species are found in Borneo; as of August 2019 it contains four species, found in Asia: Vailimia bakoensis Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013 – Borneo Vailimia jianyuae Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013 – Borneo Vailimia longitibia Guo, Zhang & Zhu, 2011 – China Vailimia masinei – Borneo Prószyński, J..

"Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae". Wyzsza Szkola Rolniczo-Pedagogiczna, Siedlcach. 2: 1–177