India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The North Island officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres, it has a population of 3,749,200. Twelve main urban areas are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Hamilton, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island. Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite articles, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use North Island without the. According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up; this great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui. The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish; until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole; the sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, the southern part being the North Island temperate forests.
The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas. Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters. Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki Manawatu-Wanganui Hawkes Bay Wellington The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city and the capital, accounting for nearly half of it. There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more: Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards. Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions. Bay of Islands Bay of Plenty Hauraki Gulf Hawke Bay Ninety Mile Beach North Taranaki Bight South Taranaki Bight Lake Taupo Waikato River Whanganui River Coromandel Peninsula Northland Peninsula Cape Palliser Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Egmont National Park Tongariro National Park Waipoua Kauri Forest Whanganui National Park and many forest parks of New Zealand Mount Ruapehu Mount Taranaki Volcanic Plateau Waitomo Caves Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu List of islands of New Zealand Media related to North Island, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons North Island travel guide from Wikivoyage
Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas and part of the pantropical chinaberry family, Meliaceae. The three species are: Honduran or big-leaf mahogany, with a range from Mexico to southern Amazonia in Brazil, the most widespread species of mahogany and the only true mahogany species commercially grown today. Illegal logging of S. macrophylla, its destructive environmental effects, led to the species' placement in 2003 on Appendix II of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the first time that a high-volume, high-value tree was listed on Appendix II. West Indian or Cuban mahogany, native to southern Florida and the Caribbean dominant in the mahogany trade, but not in widespread commercial use since World War II. Swietenia humilis, a small and twisted mahogany tree limited to seasonally dry forests in Pacific Central America, of limited commercial utility; some botanists believe.
While the three Swietenia species are classified as "genuine mahogany", other Meliaceae species with timber uses are classified as "true mahogany." Some may not have the word mahogany in their trade or common name. Some of these true mahoganies include the African genera Entandrophragma; some members of the genus Shorea of the family Dipterocarpaceae are sometimes sold as Philippine mahogany, although the name is more properly applied to another species of Toona, Toona calantas. Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty and color, used for paneling and to make furniture, musical instruments and other items; the leading importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain. It is estimated that some 80 or 90 percent of Peruvian mahogany exported to the United States is illegally harvested, with the economic cost of illegal logging in Peru placed conservatively at $40–70 million USD annually, it was estimated that in 2000, some 57,000 mahogany trees were harvested to supply the U.
S. furniture trade alone. Mahogany is the national tree of Belize. A mahogany tree with two woodcutters bearing an axe and a paddle appears on the Belizean national coat of arms, under the national motto, Sub umbra floreo, Latin for "under the shade I flourish."Specific gravity of mahogany is 0.55. The natural distribution of these species within the Americas is geographically distinct. S. mahagoni grows on the West Indian islands as far north as the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and parts of Florida. In the 20th century various botanists attempted to further define S. macrophylla in South America as a new species, such as S. candollei Pittier and S. tessmannii Harms. But many authorities consider these spurious. According to Record and Hess, all of the mahogany of continental North and South America can be considered as one botanical species, Swietenia macrophylla King; the name mahogany was associated only with those islands in the West Indies under British control. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it could be a corruption of'm'oganwo', the name used by the Yoruba and Ibo people of West Africa to describe trees of the genus Khaya, related to Swietenia.
When transported to Jamaica as slaves, they gave the same name to the similar trees. Though this interpretation has been disputed, no one has suggested a more plausible origin; the indigenous Arawak name for the tree is not known. In 1671 the word mahogany appeared in print in John Ogilby's America. Among botanists and naturalists, the tree was considered a type of cedar, in 1759 was classified by Carl Linnaeus as Cedrela mahagoni; the following year it was assigned to a new genus by Nicholas Joseph Jacquin, named Swietenia mahagoni. Until the 19th century all of the mahogany was regarded as one species, although varying in quality and character according to soil and climate. In 1836 the German botanist Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini identified a second species while working on specimens collected on the Pacific coast of Mexico, named it Swietenia humilis. In 1886 a third species, Swietenia macrophylla, was named by Sir George King after studying specimens of Honduras mahogany planted in the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta, India.
Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, are therefore protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asian countries at the time of the restrictions imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now grown and harvested in plantations in those countries. A small percentage of global supply of genuine mahogany comes from these Asian plantati
Counties Manukau Rugby Football Union
The Counties Manukau Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union in Southern Auckland and the Franklin district of New Zealand. Nicknamed the Steelers their colours are red and black horizontal bands; the Steelers moniker is a reference to the Glenbrook steel factory, in the area. The union is based in Pukekohe, plays at Navigation Homes Stadium; the union was preceded by the South Auckland sub-union of the Auckland Rugby Football Union, the sub-union being founded in 1926. This became a full union, with the name South Auckland Counties, in 1955; the name was shortened to Counties just a year later. The name Counties Manukau was adopted in 1995; the history of Counties has been much about adventurous football and taking risks, this was the case as the team strove to establish an identity and tradition. Counties' first game was against Auckland in Waiuku in 1955, which they lost 95–3, led by Barry Baxter. In that inaugural year the team defeated an Wellington XV twice, the first 19 – 6 on Bledisloe Park, where the union's first All Black, Pat Walsh scored twice.
Barry Bracewell, coach from 1961–63 and 1967–75, adopted a style in conflict with the ethos of the day of forward dominance and percentage safety from the backs. Bracewell, Tauroa after him, selected mobile forwards and loose forwards with exciting backs with attacking game plans; the Counties team of this era had many highlights. The first was winning the NPC championship in 1979, with wins over Waikato, North Auckland, Thames Valley, Bay of Plenty, Poverty Bay, South Canterbury, Taranaki, Otago and Southland beating Victoria and Argentina that year. Winning the Inter-Dominion Championship against Queensland in Brisbane was another achievement, while the 1982 team beat Australia 15 – 9, which included greats such as David Campese. In 1982, playing Canterbury not only for the Ranfurly Shield but the NPC championship, with Counties ahead 15 – 12 with only minutes remaining, Robert Kururangi intercepted a Canterbury pass and was about to score when the referee dubiously judged him offside, awarding Canterbury the penalty which Robbie Deans kicked to win the championship and retain the shield.
The previous season the shield challenge against Waikato ended in a draw after Counties conceded two late and controversial penalties. The third Ranfurly Shield agony came three years in 1985 against Auckland, when Counties, down 3 – 12, were denied what appeared to be a legitimate try to Dave Trombik after the referee received some subtle persuasion by Auckland skipper Andy Haden. In the game Warren McClean scored a try for Counties, making the final score 9–12, with Counties on the losing side. Counties improved during the mid-1990s. A forward packing containing Errol Brain, Jim Coe, Glen Marsh, Junior Paramore, with backs including Tony Marsh, Blair Feeney, Jonah Lomu, Joeli Vidiri and Dean Sheppard, proved one of the best Counties side making the NPC finals twice, in 1996 and 1997, losing to Auckland and Canterbury respectively. A highlight of that period came in 1997 during the semi-final in Hamilton. Behind at one stage 9–33, stung by a ground announcement advertising tickets for a home Waikato final next week, Counties fought back with a 43–40 win.
After a steady decline since Counties lost a promotion-relegation match in 2001, dropped to the second division, where Counties could not retain their best players and lost the likes of Stephen Donald, Sitiveni Sivivatu, Casey Laulala, Kieran Read to other unions. In 2006 Counties was selected to rejoin the top sides in the new Air New Zealand Cup Premier Division, they still retain their exciting attacking style of rugby. Success has been limited. Former All Black captain Tana Umaga joined Counties as player/coach in 2010 and was appointed head coach in December 2011. In 2013, after 24 previous unsuccessful Ranfurly Shield challenges – including two draws – the Umaga-coached Counties-Manukau team gave Steelers fans something to celebrate when captain Fritz Lee lifted the Ranfurly Shield for the first time in the province's history following a dramatic 27–24 win over Hawkes Bay; the Counties Manukau Steelers squad for the 2018 Mitre 10 Cup is: Counties players in the All Blacks Players who have played 100 or more games for the union In 2006 the Steelers finished the first round 5th in Pool B with 9 points, including a win over Southland.
They finished 3rd in Repechage A including a draw with Manawatu. In 2007 the Steelers finished 14th from a draw with North Harbour. In 2008 the Steelers finished 13th including wins over Auckland and Manawatu. In 2009 the Steelers finished 14th with 12 points, including wins over Northland. In 2010 the Steelers finished 9th with 31 points, including wins over Otago, Manawatu, Tasman and North Harbour. In 2011 the Steelers finished 4th in the Championship with 22 points, including wins over Manawatu, Tasman and North Harbour. In 2012 the Steelers finished 1st in the Championship regular season with 34 points, including wins over Southland, North Harbour, Bay of Plenty, Otago and Northland, they went on to win the Championship title, defeating Southland 48–23 in the semi-finals and Otago 41–16 in the final. The Championship victory gives the Steelers a place in the 2013 Premiership. In 2013 the Steelers finished 4th in the Premiership regular season with 28 points, including wins over North
Mt. Zion (film)
Mt. Zion is a 2013 New Zealand film written and directed by Tearepa Kahi, starring Stan Walker and Temuera Morrison; this film marks the acting debut for singer Stan Walker. The world premiere of the film was held at the Event Cinema at Manukau on 4 February 2013. Stan Walker as Turei Temuera Morrison as Dad Miriama Smith as Layla Darcy Ray Flavell-Hudson Will Hall Kevin Kaukau as Booker Troy Kingi Graham Ryan David Wikaira-Paul The movie was filmed in Pukekohe. Turei's family are hard-working potato farm workers in rural New Zealand. A talented musician, Turei dreams of his band being the support act for Bob Marley's 1979 tour, but it's a dream that challenges the traditions and values of his upbringing and will set him at odds with his family - his father, a true man of the land. Russell Baillie from New Zealand Herald gave the film 4/5 saying it is a smart, finely-observed, heartfelt drama of good humour and decent tunes against an authentic local setting. Jake Wilson from Sydney Morning Herald gave it 1 and a half stars saying the film doesn't have the charm or skill for a big feelgood success and'Walker only relaxes when he sings'.
The soundtrack was released on 15 March 2013. Included on the album are six original recordings from Small Axe, a host of reggae classics from 10cc, Peter Tosh, Third World, Jimmy Cliff and the Maytals, as well as hits from iconic Kiwi artists Prince Tui Teka, Max Merritt & The Meteors, Herbs. "Take It Easy" - Stan Walker "Mt Zion" - Small Axe "Heat Wave" - Small Axe "Dreadlock Holiday" - 10cc " Don't Look Back" - Peter Tosh "Now That We Found Love" - Third World "The Harder They Come" - Jimmy Cliff "Funky Kingston" - Toots and the Maytals "Burning Spear" - Marcus Garvey "I Can See Clearly Now" - Johnny Nash "Hoki Mai" - Prince Tui Teka "Soul Deep" - Small Axe "Lion Trail" - Small Axe featuring Troy Kingi "Maunga Hiona" - Small Axe featuring Che-fu "Azania" - Herbs "I Need Your Love" - Golden Harvest "Slippin' Away" - Max Merritt & The Meteors "Army" - Small Axe "Basket" - Small Axe In New Zealand the album debuted at #11, before peaking at #1 on 18 February 2013. Trailer hosted a New Zealand Herald Mt. Zion on IMDb
The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile regulations. Supercars events take place in all Australian states and the Northern Territory, with the Australian Capital Territory holding the Canberra 400. An international round is held in New Zealand, while events have been held in China, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. A Melbourne 400 championship event is held in support of the Australian Grand Prix. Race formats vary between each event with sprint races between 100 and 200 kilometres in length, street races between 125 and 250 kilometres in length, two-driver endurance races held at Sandown and the Gold Coast; the series is broadcast in 137 countries and has an average event attendance of over 100,000, with over 250,000 people attending major events such as the Adelaide 500. The vehicles used in the series are loosely based on four-door saloon cars. Cars are custom made using a control chassis, with only certain body panels being common between the road cars and race cars.
To ensure parity between each make of car, many control components are utilised. All cars must use a 5.0-litre aspirated V8 engine. Only for Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores, the New Generation V8 Supercar regulations, introduced in 2013, opened up the series to more manufacturers. Nissan were the first new manufacturer to commit to the series with four Nissan Altima L33s followed by Erebus Motorsport with Mercedes-Benz E63 AMGs and Garry Rogers Motorsport with Volvo S60s; the concept of a formula centred around V8-engined Fords and Holdens for the Australian Touring Car Championship had been established as early as mid-1991. With the new regulations set to come into effect in 1993, Ford and Holden were both keen to know the details of the new formula by the end of 1991, putting pressure on the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport to provide clarity on the matter. However, CAMS was waiting to see what the FIA did with its proposed international formula for 2.5 and 2.0-litre touring cars.
The new rules for the ATCC were announced in November 1991 and indicated that the V8 cars would be faster than the smaller engined cars. During 1992, CAMS looked at closing the performance gap between the classes, only to have protests from Ford and Holden, who did not want to see their cars beaten by the smaller cars. In June 1992, the class structure was confirmed: Class A: Australian-produced 5.0-litre V8-engined Fords and Holdens. Class B: 2.0-litre cars complying with FIA Class II Touring Car regulations. Class C: aspirated two-wheel drive cars complying with 1992 CAMS Group 3A Touring Car regulations; this class would only be eligible in 1993. Both the Ford EB Falcon and Holden VP Commodore ran American-based engines which were restricted to 7,500 rpm and a compression ratio of 10:1; the Holden teams had the option of using the Group A-developed 5.0-litre Holden V8 engine, although this was restricted to the second tier'privateer' teams from 1994 onwards, forcing the major Holden runners to use the more expensive Chevrolet engine.
The V8s were first eligible to compete in the endurance races of 1992. The distinctive aerodynamics package, consisting of large front and rear spoilers, was designed with this in mind, to give the new cars a better chance of beating the Nissan Skyline GT-Rs in those races; the new rules meant that cars such as the turbocharged Nissan Skyline GT-R and Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth were not eligible to compete in 1993, while cars such as the BMW M3 were. However, the M3 received few of the liberal concessions given to the new V8s and had an extra 100 kilograms added to its minimum weight so, with the Class C cars eligible for 1993 only, the German manufacturer's attention switched to the 2.0-litre class for 1994. Cars from all three classes would contest the 1993 Australian Touring Car Championship as well as non-championship Australian touring car events such as the Bathurst 1000. However, for the purposes of race classification and points allocation, cars competed in two classes: Over 2,000cc.
Under 2,000cc. The 2.0-litre class cars competed in a separate race to the V8s. This was changed for the second round of 1993 after there were only nine entrants in the 2.0-litre class for the first round at Amaroo Park. With the new regulations intended to be a parity formula, there were protests by the Holden teams that the Fords had an aerodynamic advantage after they won the opening three rounds, beating the Commodore comprehensively. After round five at Winton, Holden was granted a new front and rear wing package; the BMWs were allowed a new splitter and a full DTM-specification rear wing. Disparity between the Fords and Holdens continued to be a talking point during the next few years, with various concessions given to each manufacturer to try and equalise the two cars. From 1995, the 2.0-litre cars, now contesting their own series as Super Touring cars, became ineligible for the Australian Touring Car Championship. They did not contest the endurance races at Sandown and Bathurst, leaving these open to the 5.0-litre Ford and Holden models.
The Australian Vee Eight Super Car Company – a joint venture between the Touring Car Entrants Group of Australia, sports promoters IMG and the Australian Motor Sports Commission – was formed in November 1996 to run the series. This set the foundation for the large expansion of the series during the following years; the category adopted the name'V8 Supercars' at this time, though the cars themselves were much unchanged. A new television deal with Network Ten and Fox Sports was organised, although this had follow-on effects for the Bathurst 1000 in the
Māori King Movement
The Māori King Movement or Kīngitanga is a movement that arose among some of the Māori tribes of New Zealand in the central North Island in the 1850s, to establish a role similar in status to that of the monarch of the British colonists, as a way of halting the alienation of Māori land. The Māori monarch operates in a non-constitutional capacity with no legal or judicial power within the New Zealand government. Reigning monarchs retain the position of paramount chief of several tribes and wield some power over these within Tainui where the monarchy is exclusively associated; the current Māori monarch, Tūheitia Paki, was elected in 2006 and his official residence is Tūrongo House at Tūrangawaewae marae in the town of Ngāruawāhia. Tūheitia is the seventh monarch since the position was created and is the continuation of a dynasty that reaches back to the inaugural king, Pōtatau Te Wherowhero; the use of the title of "Māori King" has been challenged by various Māori leaders, namely by those of the north.
In his discourse, David Rankin, a leader of the Ngāpuhi iwi of Northland, explains that the monarch is not the king of all Māori. The argument states that by the kīngitanga claiming ownership of such a title, the rangatiratanga and mana of iwi not associated with the movement is thereby diminished, infringing therefore upon their identity and autonomy as Māori and iwi; the movement arose among a group of central North Island iwi in the 1850s as a means of attaining Māori unity to halt the alienation of land at a time of rapid population growth by European colonists. The movement sought to establish a monarch who could claim status similar to that of Queen Victoria and thus allow Māori to deal with Pākehā on equal footing, it took on the appearance of an alternative government with its own flag, councillors and law enforcement. But it was viewed by the colonial government as a challenge to the supremacy of the British monarchy, leading in turn to the 1863 invasion of Waikato, motivated by a drive to neutralise the Kīngitanga's power and influence.
Following their defeat at Ōrākau in 1864, Kīngitanga forces withdrew into dense forest in an area of the North Island that became known as the King Country. From the early 1850s, North Island Māori came under increasing pressure to satisfy the demand of European settler farmers for arable land. While Māori cultivated small areas, relying on extensive forests for berry and roots, settlers expanded their production capacity by burning forest and fern and planting grass seed in the ashes; some influential chiefs including Te Rauparaha opposed land sales in the 1840s, the view became more widespread in the following decade, as Pakeha outnumbered Māori and the colonial government's Native Land Purchase Department adopted unscrupulous methods to take ownership, which included offers to chiefs or small groups of owners. Deals with individual Māori or groups that did not represent majority interests dragged Māori into disputes with one another; as the white frontier encroached further on their land, many became concerned that their land, race, would soon be overrun.
From about 1853 Māori began reviving the ancient tribal runanga or chiefly war councils where land issues were raised and in May 1854 a large meeting—attracting as many as 2000 Māori leaders—was held at Manawapou in south Taranaki where speakers urged concerted opposition to selling land. The meetings provided an important forum for Te Rauparaha's son, Christian convert Tamihana Te Rauparaha, who in 1851 had visited England where he was presented to Queen Victoria. Tamihana Te Rauparaha had returned to New Zealand with the idea of forming a Māori kingdom, with one king ruling over all tribes, used the runanga to secure the agreement of influential North Island chiefs to his idea; the kotahitanga or unity movement was aimed at bringing to Māori the unity, an obvious strength among the Europeans. It was believed that by having a monarch who could claim status similar to that of Queen Victoria, Māori would be able to deal with Pākehā on equal footing, it was intended to establish a system of law and order in Māori communities to which the Auckland government had so far shown little interest.
A Bible is traditionally used during the crowning of a monarch. Several North Island candidates who were asked to put themselves forward declined. After declining—he was unwilling to undertake new ventures at his age and was described by a European visitor as blind and decrepit, "on the brink of his grave"—Te Wherowhero agreed in September 1857 to accept the kingship and in June 1858 he was crowned at Ngāruawāhia adopting the name Pōtatau Te Wherowhero or Pōtatau. In his acceptance speech Pōtatau stressed the spirit of unity symbolised by the kingship and called on his people to "hold fast to love, to the law, to faith in God." Over time the King Movement came to have a flag, a council of state, a code of laws, a "King's Resident Magistrate", police, a surveyor and a newspaper, Te Hokioi, all of which gave the movement the appearance of an alternative government. The lives of his followers were given new purpose with the lawmaking and lengthy meetings and debates. Historian Michael King noted: "In the eyes of his supporters, the chiefs who had raised him up had made him a repository for their own mana and tapu and for that of their lands.
Pōtatau was now a man of intensif