Arkansas's 2nd congressional district
Arkansas's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district located in the central part of the U. S. state of Arkansas and includes the state capital of Little Rock, its suburbs and surrounding areas. It is represented by Republican French Hill. George W. Bush won 51% of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain carried the district in 2008 with 53.69% of the vote while Barack Obama received 44.07%. The 2018 election was held on November 6, 2018; as of April 2015, there are five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Arkansas's 2nd congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Ray Thornton on April 13, 2016. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Arkansas Highway 300
Highway 300 is a designation for two state highway segments in Central Arkansas. The main route of 34.11 miles runs from Highway 9/Highway 10 east to Cantrell Road in Little Rock. A second segment runs 1.45 miles east from Interstate 430 as Colonel Glenn Road. The main route begins at Highway 9/Highway 10 south of Perryville and runs east along the northern edge of the Harris Brake State Wildlife Management Area. Highway 300 forms a quasi-concurrency south with Highway 216 to Antioch before continuing east through the communities of Oakgrove and Pleasant Valley to Highway 113. After a brief quasi-concurrency south with Highway 113 where it climbs Wye Mountain, the route becomes rural. Highway 300 skirts Lake Maumelle, the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, the Arkansas River, Pinnacle Mountain State Park crossing both the Big and Little Maumelle Rivers while serving many unincorporated communities including Wye, Little Italy, Monnie Springs, Natural Steps, Pinnacle before terminating at Cantrell Road in Little Rock near the base of Shinall Mountain.
Prior to this terminus, Highway 300 intersects Chenal Parkway, a divided four-lane thoroughfare, which connects the route to Little Rock's Financial Centre District. In Little Italy, Highway 300 Spur follows Ross Hollow Road eastward and terminates at its intersection with Ledwedge Road; the spur continued north along Ledwedge Road toward the community of Ledwidge near the Little Rock and Western Railway and the Arkansas River. Servicing Ledwidge was the original purpose of this branch of Highway 300. Between its northern quasi-concurrent split with Highway 113 at the base of Wye Mountain and its intersection with Roland Cutoff Road near Lundsford Corner, Highway 300 is designated as part of the Arkansas River Trail. Highway 300 reacquires this designation at its intersection with Henry Street in Roland and carries it south until it intersects Pinnacle Valley Road at Pinnacle Mountain State Park. In the 1920s, a one-lane truss bridge was built on Highway 300 to cross the Big Maumelle River; the bridge still stands in the shadow of Pinnacle Mountain, but was made obsolete by a new bridge in 1981.
Today, it is only open to pedestrians for hiking. It is visible from the current bridge; the second segment of Highway 300 runs east as Colonel Glenn Road. The route runs to Highway 5, which maintains the Colonel Glenn Road designation north and is named Stagecoach Road to the south. Highway 300 had an Average daily traffic of 15000 vehicles in 2010 near its eastern terminus. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 300 at Wikimedia Commons
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Central Arkansas known as the Little Rock metro, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Arkansas. With an estimated 2016 population of 734,622, it is the most populated area in Arkansas. Located at the convergence of Arkansas's other geographic regions, the region's central location make Central Arkansas an important population, economic and political center in Arkansas and the South. Little Rock is the state's capital, the city is home to two Fortune 500 companies, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; the site known as "little rock" along the Arkansas River was discovered by explorer Bernard de la Harpe in 1722. The territorial capitol had been located at Arkansas Post in Southeast Arkansas since 1819, but the site had proven unsuitable as a settlement due to frequent flooding of the Arkansas River. Over the years, the "little rock" remained unsettled.
A land speculator from St. Louis, Missouri who had acquired many acres around the "little rock" began pressuring the Arkansas territorial legislature in February 1820 to move the capital to the site, but the representatives could not decide between Little Rock or Cadron, the preferred site of Territorial Governor James Miller; the issue was tabled until October 1820, by which time most of the legislators and other influential men had purchased lots around Little Rock. The legislature moved the capital to Little Rock, where it has remained since. Central Arkansas is located in the Southern United States, within a subregion known as the Upper South; the South is a distinct cultural region reliant upon a plantation economy in the 18th and 19th century, until the secession of the Confederate States of America and the Civil War. The region is the point of convergence for four other Arkansas regions: the Ozarks to the north, the Arkansas River Valley to the west, the Arkansas Delta to the east, Piney Woods to the southwest.
The Arkansas River crosses the region, serves as the dividing line between Little Rock and North Little Rock. The Arkansas is an important geographic feature in Central Arkansas, requiring long bridge spans but allowing barge traffic to the Port of Little Rock and points upriver. Central Arkansas includes both the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway MSA, though the broader Little Rock CSA is considered Central Arkansas; the MSA is defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as Faulkner, Lonoke, Perry and Saline counties. The CSA definition adds the Pine Bluff metropolitan area adding Cleveland and Lincoln counties, the Searcy Micropolitan Area, which adds White County, it is the core of the broader Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area. Its economic and demographic center is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city; the Little Rock Combined Statistical area spans ten counties and had an estimated population of 905,847 in 2016. Prior to 2002, the area consisted of four core counties: Pulaski, Faulkner and Lonoke.
The area was expanded to include adjoining Perry County to the west, Grant County to the south. The city of Conway was designated as a third principal city for the MSA by 2007; as of the census of 2000, there were 610,518 people, 241,094 households, 165,405 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 75.40% White, 21.02% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.87% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $37,912, the median income for a family was $44,572. Males had a median income of $31,670 versus $23,354 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $18,305. As of the census of 2000, there were 785,024 people, 304,335 households, 210,966 families residing within the CSA; the racial makeup of the CSA was 73.97% White, 22.73% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,301, the median income for a family was $41,804. Males had a median income of $31,192 versus $22,347 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $16,898. Communities are categorized based on their populations in the 2000 U. S. Census. Little Rock Conway North Little Rock Benton Bryant Cabot Jacksonville Maumelle Pine Bluff Sherwood The Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce, the oldest association in Arkansas, has produced the following list of largest employers in Central Arkansas. Source: Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce Interstate 30 Interstate 430 Interstate 530 Interstate 630 Interstate 40 Interstate 440 U. S. Highway 64 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 270 The Clinton National Airport in Little Rock is the largest commercial airport in the state, with more than 100 flights arriving or departing each day and nonstop jet service to eighteen cities.
North Little Rock Municipal Airport, located across the Arkansas River, is designated as a general aviation reliever airport for Clinton National by the Federal Aviation Administration. Central Arkansas has several smaller municipally owned general aviation airports: Conway Airport at Cantrell Field in Conway, Saline County Regional in Benton, Grider Field in Pine Bluff; the city of
Chancellor is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancery; the word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings. Nowadays the term is most used to describe: The head of the government A person in charge of foreign affairs A person with duties related to justice A person in charge of financial and economic issues The head of a university The Chancellor of Austria, denominated Bundeskanzler for males and Bundeskanzlerin for females, is the title of the head of the Government of Austria. Sebastian Kurz is the incumbent Bundeskanzler of Austria. Chancellor or Grand Chancellor is the common translation of the Chinese title chengxiang or zaixiang, which in imperial China was the head of the government serving under the emperor.
The Chancellor of Germany or Bundeskanzler, is the title for the head of government in Germany. Bundeskanzlerin is the feminine form. In German politics, the Bundeskanzler position is equivalent to that of a prime minister and is elected by the Bundestag, every four years on the beginning of the electoral period after general elections. Between general elections, the Federal Chancellor can only be removed from office by a konstruktives Misstrauensvotum which consists in the candidacy of an opposition candidate for the office of Chancellor in the Bundestag. If this candidate gets a majority of the entire membership of the Bundestag, he or she will be sworn in as new Federal Chancellor; the current German Bundeskanzlerin is Angela Merkel of the CDU. The former German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany had the equivalent position of Reichskanzler, as the head of the executive. Between 1871 and 1918 the Chancellor was appointed by the German Emperor. During the Weimar Republic, the Chancellor was chosen by the Reichspräsident and stood under his authority.
This continued during the first two years of the Nazi regime until the death of President Paul von Hindenburg in 1934. Between 1934 and 1945 Adolf Hitler, the dictatorial head of state and government of Nazi Germany was called "Führer und Reichskanzler". In Switzerland, the Federal Chancellor is not the political head of government, but rather its administrative head as the Chief of Staff of the Swiss Federal Government, he or she is elected by the Swiss Federal Assembly to head the Federal Chancellery — the general staff of the seven-member executive Federal Council, the Swiss federal government. The Chancellor participates in the meetings of the seven Federal Councilors with a consultative vote and prepares the reports on policy and activities of the council to parliament; the chancellery is responsible for the publication of all federal laws. In most Swiss Cantons there is a State Chancellor who heads the central administrative unit of the cantonal government. In the Canton of Geneva, the first documents attesting to the existence of a Chancellor go back to the 12th century.
In the 16th century the Chancery is described as the permanent secretariat of the executive and legislature. The first of these functions still constitutes an important part of its activities in Geneva and other cantons. In the Canton of Berne, the Chancellor is elected by the Grand Council and has the task of supporting the Grand Council and the Executive Council in carrying out their tasks; the Chancellor directs the staff of the Executive Council, supports the President of the Government and the Executive Council in the performance of their duties, participates as an advisor to the President of the Grand Council in Grand Council sessions. In Latin America, the equivalents to "chancellor" are used to refer to the post of foreign minister, it is used as a synonym to the full titles of the ministers of foreign affairs, notably in Mexico it relates to the position of head of the ministry of foreign affairs. The ministry of foreign affairs in Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas is referred to as the Cancillería or in Portuguese-speaking Brazil as Chancelaria.
However, in Spain the term canciller refers to a civil servant in the Spanish diplomatic service responsible for technical issues relating to foreign affairs. As to the German foreign service the term Kanzler refers to the administrative head of a diplomatic mission. In Finland the Chancellor of Justice supervises the legality of actions taken by the government and monitors the implementation of basic civil liberties. In this special function the chancellor sits in the Finnish Cabinet, the Finnish Council of State. In Sweden the Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern acts as the Solicitor General for the Swedish Government; the office was introduced by Charles XII of Sweden in 1713. There was a Lord High Chancellor or Rikskansler as the most senior member of the Privy Council of Sweden. Ther
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R