Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1870 by the Jesuits, today Loyola is one of the largest Catholic universities in the United States. Loyola's professional schools have educated generations of local business and civic leaders, distinguished programs in medicine and health sciences are anchored by the nationally recognized Loyola University Medical Center. Comprising eleven colleges and schools, Loyola offers over 80 undergraduate and 140 graduate/professional programs and enrolls 16,000 students. Loyola has six campuses across the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as a campus in Rome and guest programs in Beijing and Ho Chi Minh City; the flagship Lake Shore Campus is on the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Loyola's athletic teams, nicknamed the Ramblers, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. Loyola won the 1963 NCAA men's basketball championship, remains the only school from Illinois to do so.
The Ramblers are two-time NCAA champions in men's volleyball. Among the more than 150,000 Loyola alumni, there are executives of major Chicago-based corporations such as McDonald's and Baxter International, as well as dozens of local and national political leaders including the current Illinois Attorney General and Speaker of the House. Loyola alumni have won Emmy, Grammy and Pulitzer awards, as well as Guggenheim and MacArthur fellowships. Loyola was established as St. Ignatius College on June 30, 1870, by Jesuit educator Fr. Arnold Damen. At that time Chicago was a much smaller, but growing, city just shy of 300,000 people, as a result the original campus was much closer to the city center along Roosevelt Road. In 1909 the school was renamed Loyola University, in 1912 it began to move to the current Lake Shore Campus. To meet the growing needs of Chicago, Loyola established professional schools in law, medicine and nursing; the Chicago College of Dental Surgery became part of the university in 1923, was closed 70 years later.
A downtown campus was founded in 1914, with it the School of Sociology. As the predecessor to the School of Social Work, it enrolled Loyola's first female students, though the school would not become coeducational until 1966. Loyola Academy, a college prep high school, occupied Dumbach Hall on the Lake Shore Campus until it was relocated to north suburban Wilmette in 1957; the current Water Tower Campus opened in 1949. In 1962, Loyola opened a campus in Rome near the site of the 1960 Summer Olympics. In 1969, Loyola established the School of Education and consolidated medical programs at the Loyola University Medical Center, a hospital and health care complex located in Maywood, an immediate suburb of Chicago; the university separated from the Jesuits in 1970, today is under lay control and governed by a board of trustees. Loyola purchased neighboring Mundelein College in 1991. Major capital campaigns since the turn of the century have enhanced Loyola's academic profile and campuses. In 2005 the Loyola University Museum of Art was established on the Water Tower Campus, the Rome campus was renamed in honor of Director Emeritus John P. Felice.
In 2009, the Cuneo Foundation presented the university with the Cuneo Mansion and Gardens, a 100-acre estate with an Italianate mansion and extensive collections of art and furnishings located in suburban Vernon Hills. The $50 million gift is the largest in Loyola history. In 2010, Loyola purchased the Resurrection Retreat Center in Woodstock, which became the school's fifth campus for retreat and ecological study. In 2012, Loyola alumnus Michael R. Quinlan donated $40 million to the business school, renamed in his honor. During this time over 200,000 square-feet of LEED-certified sustainable spaces have been built on the Lake Shore Campus alone, along with significant mixed-use developments on the Water Tower Campus. Today, Loyola ranks among the top 89 universities in the nation, is in the midst of over $800 million in capital construction projects. In 2015, the university established Arrupe College, a uniquely structured two-year college designed to give low-income students access to a Loyola education.
On May 23, 2016, Loyola named Jo Ann Rooney its 24th president. She is the first female president in the history of the university. Loyola's flagship Lake Shore Campus is along the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods on the north side of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Founded in 1912, it is the primary residential campus for the school, is the home of the College of Arts and Sciences, a variety of graduate programs. A collection of over forty buildings, the campus offers ample green space and lakeshore access, as well as several landmarks: The Madonna della Strada Chapel, a striking Art Deco masterpiece completed in 1939, is the center of Loyola's religious life; the Mundelein Center, a 200-foot tall Art Deco skyscraper completed in 1930, is the home of Loyola's fine and performing arts programs and a National Historical Landmark. The Joseph J. Gentile Arena, which holds 5,500 for basketball and campus events, was expanded to include the Norville Center, a student-athlete academic center and home of Rambler athletics.
One of the largest events held annually in Gentile Arena is Colossus, which features a musical artist and comedian. Artists including Jason Derulo and John Mulaney have performed for Colossus; the Halas Recreation Center was remodeled and incorp
The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic wall, it contains organs including the heart and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, one of the most common symptoms is chest pain. In humans and other hominids, the thorax is the chest region of the body between the neck and the abdomen, along with its internal organs and other contents, it is protected and supported by the rib cage and shoulder girdle. The contents of the thorax include lungs. Arteries and veins are contained –. External structures are nipples. In the human body, the region of the thorax between the neck and diaphragm in the front of the body is called the chest; the corresponding area in an animal can be referred to as the chest. The shape of the chest does not correspond to that part of the thoracic skeleton that encloses the heart and lungs. All the breadth of the shoulders is due to the shoulder girdle, contains the axillae and the heads of the humeri.
In the middle line the suprasternal notch is seen above, while about three fingers' breadth below it a transverse ridge can be felt, known as the sternal angle and this marks the junction between the manubrium and body of the sternum. Level with this line the second ribs join the sternum, when these are found the lower ribs can be counted. At the lower part of the sternum, where the seventh or last true ribs join it, the ensiform cartilage begins, above this there is a depression known as the pit of the stomach; the bones of the thorax, called the "thoracic skeleton" is a component of the axial skeleton. It consists of sternum; the ribs of the thorax are numbered in ascending order from 1-12. 11 & 12 are known as floating ribs because they have no anterior attachment point in particular the cartilage attached to the sternum, as 1-7 are, therefore are termed "floating". Whereas ribs 8-10 are termed false ribs as their costal cartilage articulates with the costal cartilage of the rib above; the anatomy of the chest can be described through the use of anatomical landmarks.
The nipple in the male is situated in front of the fourth rib or a little below. A little below it the lower limit of the great pectoral muscle is seen running upward and outward to the axilla; the female nipple is surrounded for half an inch by the areola. The apex of a normal heart is in the fifth left intercostal space, three and a half inches from the mid-line. Different types of diseases or conditions that affect the chest include pleurisy, flail chest and the most common condition, chest pain; these conditions can be caused by birth defects or trauma. Any condition that lowers the ability to either breathe or to cough is considered a chest disease or condition. Injury to the chest results in up to ¼ of all deaths due to trauma in the United States; the major pathophysiologies encountered in blunt chest trauma involve derangements in the flow of air, blood, or both in combination. Sepsis due to leakage of alimentary tract contents, as in esophageal perforations must be considered. Blunt trauma results in chest wall injuries.
The pain associated with these injuries can make breathing difficult, this may compromise ventilation. Direct lung injuries, such as pulmonary contusions, are associated with major chest trauma and may impair ventilation by a similar mechanism. Chest pain can be the result of multiple issues, including respiratory problems, digestive issues, musculoskeletal complications; the pain can trigger cardiac issues as well. Not all pain, felt is associated with the heart, but it should not be taken either. Symptoms can be different depending on the cause of the pain. While cardiac issues cause feelings of sudden pressure in the chest or a crushing pain in the back and arms, pain, felt due to noncardiac issues gives a burning feeling along the digestive tract or pain when deep breaths are attempted. Different people feel pains differently for the same condition. Only a patient knows if the symptoms are mild or serious. Chest pain may be a symptom of myocardial infarctions. If this condition is present in the body, discomfort will be felt in the chest, similar to a heavy weight placed on the body.
Sweating, shortness of breath and irregular heartbeat may be experienced. If a heart attack occurs, the bulk of the damage is caused during the first six hours, so getting the proper treatment as as possible is important; some people those who are elderly or have diabetes, may not have typical chest pain but may have many of
The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds; these microscopic air sacs have a rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi; these enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi.
It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds. Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration. In most fish, a number of other aquatic animals the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either or external organs, bathed in the watery environment; this water flows over the gills by a variety of passive means. Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or flat filaments and lammelae which expose a large surface area of vascularized tissue to the water. Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with simple anatomical features, in amphibians the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals; the respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant.
In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into a lower respiratory tract; the upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower tract includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi and the alveoli; the branching airways of the lower tract are described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree. The intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of "tree" are referred to as branching "generations", of which there are, in the adult human about 23; the earlier generations, consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Bronchioles are defined as the small airways lacking any cartilagenous support; the first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi.
Second only in diameter to the trachea, these bronchi enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi. Compared to the, on average, 23 number of branchings of the respiratory tree in the adult human, the mouse has only about 13 such branchings; the alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. At the end of inhalation the airways are filled with environmental air, exhaled without coming in contact with the gas exchanger; the lungs contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs.
The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs under normal resting circumstances, volumes moved during maximally forced inhalation and maximally forced exhalation are measured in humans by spirometry. A typical adult human spirogram with the names given to the various excursions in volume the lungs can undergo is illustrated below: Not all the air in the lungs can be expelled during maximally forced exhalation; this is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters. Volumes that include the residual volume can therefore not be measured by spirometry, their measurement requires special techniques. The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated below, together with how they are calculated; the number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate. In mammals, inhalation at rest is due to the contraction of the diaphragm; this is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
When it contracts the sheet flattens. The contracting diaphragm pushes, but because the pelvic floo
The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It takes its name from the Ancient Greek phren, it is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it. There are a left and a right one; the phrenic nerve originates from the 4th cervical nerve, but receives contributions from the 5th and 3rd cervical nerves in humans. Thus, the phrenic nerve receives innervation from parts of both the cervical plexus and the brachial plexus of nerves; the phrenic nerves contain motor and sympathetic nerve fibers. These nerves provide the only motor supply to the diaphragm as well as sensation to the central tendon. In the thorax, each phrenic nerve supplies pericardium; the phrenic nerve descends obliquely with the internal jugular vein across the anterior scalene, deep to the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia and the transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries.
On the left, the phrenic nerve crosses anterior to the first part of the subclavian artery. On the right, it lies on the anterior scalene muscle and crosses anterior to the 2nd part of the subclavian artery. On both sides, the phrenic nerve runs posterior to the subclavian vein as it enters the thorax where it runs anterior to the root of the lung and between the fibrous pericardium and mediastinal face of the parietal pleura. Found in the posterior mediastinum, both phrenic nerves run from C3, C4, C5 along the anterior scalene muscle deep to the carotid sheath; the right phrenic nerve passes over the brachiocephalic artery, posterior to the subclavian vein, crosses the root of the right lung anteriorly and leaves the thorax by passing through the vena cava hiatus opening in the diaphragm at the level of T8. The right phrenic nerve passes over the right atrium; the left phrenic nerve passes over the pericardium of the left ventricle and pierces the diaphragm separately. The pericardiacophrenic arteries and veins travel with their respective phrenic nerves.
The phrenic nerve can be marked by a line connecting these two points: 1st point can be labelled 3.5 cm at the level of the thyroid cartilage from the midsagittal plane. 2nd point is at the medial end of the clavicle. The contribution of the 5th cervical nerve may stem from an accessory phrenic nerve. Phrenic nerve in its early course close to its origin, was giving a communicating branch to C5 root of brachial plexus; the phrenic nerve at the level of root of neck just before entering the thorax was placed in front of the subclavian vein. It is placed posterior in between subclavian vein and artery. Most it is a branch of the nerve to the subclavius and may contain numerous phrenic nerve fibers. If the accessory phrenic nerve is present, it lies lateral to the main nerve and descends posterior and inferior to the subclavian vein; the accessory phrenic nerve connects to the root of the neck. In canines the phrenic nerve arises from C5-C7 with occasional small contributions from C4. In the cat, horse, ox, small ruminant the phrenic nerve arises variably from C4-C7.
Both of these nerves supply motor fibers to the diaphragm and sensory fibers to the fibrous pericardium, mediastinal pleura, diaphragmatic peritoneum. Some sources describe the right phrenic nerve as innervating the gallbladder, other sources make no such mention. Pain arising from structures supplied by the phrenic nerve is "referred" to other somatic regions served by spinal nerves C3-C5. For example, a subphrenic abscess beneath the right diaphragm might cause a patient to feel pain in the right shoulder. Irritation of the phrenic nerve leads to the hiccup reflex. A hiccup is a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm, which pulls air against the closed folds of the larynx; the phrenic nerve must be preserved. To confirm the identity of the phrenic nerve manipulate it to elicit a dartle response; the right phrenic nerve may be crushed by the vena cava clamp during liver transplantation. Severing the phrenic nerve, or a phrenectomy, will paralyse that half of the diaphragm. Diaphragm paralysis is best demonstrated by sonography.
Breathing will continue provided the other nerve is intact. The phrenic nerve arises from the neck and innervates the diaphragm, much lower. Hence, patients suffering spinal cord injuries below the neck are still able to breathe despite any paralysis of the lower limbs. Brachial plexus injuries can cause paralysis to various regions in the arm and hand depending on the severed nerves; the resulting palsy has been clinically treated using the phrenic nerve as a donor for neurotization of the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve. This treatment has a high success rate in partial to full restoration of the innervation to the damaged nerve. Furthermore, this procedure has resulted in restored function to nerves in the brachial plexus with minimal impact to respiratory function of the phrenic nerve; the instances where pulmonary vital capacity is reduced have been a result of use of the right phrenic as the donor for the neurotization whereas use of left phrenic nerve has not been linked to reduced pulmonary vital capacity.
Anatomy figure: 19:04-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Left side of the mediastinum." Anatomy figure: 25:03-15 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Diagram of the cervical plexus."
The costodiaphragmatic recess called the costophrenic recess or phrenicocostal sinus, is a potential space in the pleural cavity, at the posterior-most tips of the cavity, located at the junction of the costal pleura and diaphragmatic pleura. It measures 5 cm vertically and extends from the eighth to the tenth rib along the mid-axillary line; the lungs expand into this recess during forced inspiration. During expiration, it contains no lung tissue, only pleural fluid. Pleural effusions collect in the costodiaphragmatic recess when in standing position. A thoracocentesis is performed here while a patient is in full expiration because of less risk of puncturing the lungs and thereby causing pneumothorax. In anatomy, the costophrenic angles are the places; each costophrenic angle can be seen as on chest x-ray as a sharply-pointed, downward indentation between each hemi-diaphragm and the adjacent chest wall. A small portion of each lung reaches into the costophrenic angle; the normal angle measures thirty degrees.
With pleural effusion, fluid builds up in the costophrenic angle. This can push the lung upwards; the posterior angle is the deepest. Obtuse angulation is sign of disease. Chest x-ray is the first test done to confirm the presence of pleural fluid; the lateral upright chest x-ray should be examined. In an upright x-ray, 75 mL of fluid blunts the posterior costophrenic angle. Blunting of the lateral costophrenic angle requires about 175 mL but may take as much as 500 mL. Larger pleural may cause mediastinal shift. Thoracentesis This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Anatomy diagram: 02101.002-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Diagram
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium. Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons.
Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation; this increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.
Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain, they are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included.
In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube. Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud.
When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. In vertebrates it consists of two main par
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance. In animals, a parenchyma comprises the functional parts of an organ and in plants parenchyma is the ground tissue of nonwoody structures; the term "parenchyma" is New Latin from word Greek παρέγχυμα parenchyma, "visceral flesh" from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein, "to pour in" from παρα- para-, "beside", ἐν en-, "in" and χεῖν khein, "to pour". Erasistratus and other anatomists used it to refer to certain human tissues, it was applied to some plant tissues by Nehemiah Grew. The parenchyma is the functional parts of an organ in the body; this is in contrast to the stroma, which refers to the structural tissue of organs, the connective tissues. In the brain, the parenchyma refers to the functional tissue in the brain, made up of the two types of brain cell and glial cells. Damage or trauma to the brain parenchyma results in a loss of cognitive ability or death. Lung parenchyma is the substance of the lung outside of the circulation system, involved with gas exchange and includes the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles.
In cancer, the parenchyma refers to "The portion of a tissue that lies outside the circulatory system and is responsible for carrying out the specialized functions of the tissue". In plants, "parenchyma" is one of the three main types of ground tissue, the most common, it can be distinguished through their thin cell wall as compared to other cells. Parenchyma cells make up the bulk of the soft parts of plants, including the insides of leaves and fruits; the dictionary definition of parenchyma at Wiktionary