Pulp Fiction is a 1994 American crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, who conceived it with Roger Avary. Starring John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis, Tim Roth, Ving Rhames, Uma Thurman, it tells several stories of criminal Los Angeles; the title refers to the pulp magazines and hardboiled crime novels popular during the mid-20th century, known for their graphic violence and punchy dialogue. Tarantino wrote Pulp Fiction in 1992 and 1993, incorporating scenes that Avary wrote for True Romance, its plot occurs out of chronological order. The film is self-referential from its opening moments, beginning with a title card that gives two dictionary definitions of "pulp". Considerable screen time is devoted to monologues and casual conversations with eclectic dialogue revealing each character's perspectives on several subjects, the film features an ironic combination of humor and strong violence. TriStar Pictures turned down the script as "too demented". Miramax co-chairman Harvey Weinstein was enthralled and the film became the first that Miramax financed.
Pulp Fiction won the Palme d'Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival, was a major critical and commercial success. It was nominated for seven awards at the 67th Academy Awards, including Best Picture, won Best Original Screenplay, its development, marketing and profitability had a sweeping effect on independent cinema. Pulp Fiction is regarded as Tarantino's masterpiece, with particular praise for its screenwriting; the self-reflexivity, unconventional structure, extensive homage and pastiche have led critics to describe it as a touchstone of postmodern film. It is considered a cultural watershed, influencing movies and other media that adopted elements of its style. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly named it the best film since 1983 and it has appeared on many critics' lists of the greatest films made. In 2013, Pulp Fiction was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant". Pulp Fiction's narrative is told out of chronological order, follows three main interrelated stories: Mob contract killer Vincent Vega is the protagonist of the first story, prizefighter Butch Coolidge is the protagonist of the second, Vincent's partner Jules Winnfield is the protagonist of the third.
The film begins with a diner hold-up staged by a couple moves to the stories of Vincent and Butch. It returns to where it began, in the diner. There is a total of seven narrative sequences. Sequences 1 and 7 overlap and are presented from different points of view, as do sequences 2 and 6. According to Philip Parker, the structural form is "an episodic narrative with circular events adding a beginning and end and allowing references to elements of each separate episode to be made throughout the narrative". Other analysts describe the structure as a "circular narrative". Hitmen Jules Winnfield and Vincent Vega arrive at an apartment to retrieve a briefcase for their boss, gangster Marsellus Wallace, from a business partner, Brett. After Vincent checks the contents of the briefcase, Jules shoots one of Brett's associates declaims a passage from the Bible before he and Vincent kill Brett for trying to double-cross Marsellus, they take the briefcase to Marsellus, but have to wait while he bribes champion boxer Butch Coolidge to take a dive in his upcoming match.
The next day, Vincent purchases heroin from his drug dealer, Lance. He shoots up drives to meet Marsellus's wife Mia, whom he had agreed to escort while Marsellus was out of town, they eat at a 1950s-themed restaurant and participate in a twist contest return home with the trophy. While Vincent is in the bathroom, Mia finds his heroin, mistakes it for cocaine, snorts it, overdoses. Vincent rushes her to Lance's house. Butch betrays wins the bout, accidentally killing his opponent. At the motel where he and his girlfriend Fabienne are lying low and preparing to flee, Butch discovers she has forgotten to pack his father's gold watch, a beloved heirloom, flies into a rage. Returning to his apartment to retrieve the watch, he notices a suppressed MAC-10 on the kitchen counter and hears the toilet flush. Vincent exits Butch shoots him dead, leaving the gun inside; as Butch waits at a traffic light in his car, Marsellus spots him by chance crossing the road and chases him into a pawnshop. The owner, captures them at gunpoint and ties them up in the basement.
Maynard is joined by a security guard. Butch knocks out the gimp, he decides to save Marsellus, returning with a katana from the pawnshop. He kills Maynard. Marsellus informs Butch that they are as long as he tells no-one about the rape and departs Los Angeles forever. Butch picks up Fabienne on Zed's chopper and they drive away. Earlier, after Vincent and Jules have executed Brett in his apartment, another man bursts out of the bathroom and shoots at them wildly, missing every
Rizzoli Libri Rizzoli Libri S.p. A. and RCS Libri S.p. A. is an Italian book publisher and a division of Mondadori Libri, a wholly owned subsidiary of Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. RCS Libri was a former subsidiary of RCS MediaGroup, but in 2015, most of the book publishing division was sold to Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, with some imprints of RCS Libri, were either sold by RCS MediaGroup or Arnoldo Mondadori Editore as part of an antitrust deal. RCS MediaGroup retained the brand Rizzoli for non-book publishing, while Arnoldo Mondadori Editore has the exclusive rights to use the brand Rizzoli in book publishing. From 2016 to 2017, Rizzoli Libri S.p. A. was further dismantled into subsidiaires and divisions of Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Rizzoli Libri became a division of sub-holding company Mondadori Libri S.p. A. while Rizzoli Education S.p. A. became a subsidiary of Mondadori Libri S.p. A.. A.: Rizzoli International Publications and Rizzoli Bookstore, became the subsidiaries of Mondadori Electa S.p.
A. itself a subsidiary of Mondadori Libri S.p. A.. Rizzoli International operated the new brand Rizzoli Electa. RCS Libri S.p. A. was a subsidiary and the book publishing division of RCS MediaGroup. A. Rizzoli & C. was founded by a former printing apprentice. The company acquired 4 magazines to become a publishing company in 1927. A. Rizzoli & C. soon started to publish books, such as involved in the printing of Treccani Encyclopedia from 1929. The group founded the imprint Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli in 1949. In the 1960s, the group started to open their own book store, including a branch in the New York city, as well as sister operation Rizzoli International Publications; the group was expanded into RCS MediaGroup after the acquisition of the newspaper Corriere della Sera in 1974. In 1990, the group acquired another publishing group. In 1993 RCS Media Group acquired the full control of Fabbri–Sonzogno–Etas. Fabbri and Etas became the imprints of the group in publication. In 1992, RCS Media Group acquired Sansoni Editore, which gave birth of the two brands Sansoni and Sansoni per la Scuola.
In 1993, RCS MediaGroup acquired Bompiani. The division RCS Libri & Grandi Opere was established in 1994, which included the imprints such as Fabbri. In 1998, RCS Libri acquired the textbook publisher Tramontana, merging with the group's existing textbook publishing business. In 2000, the group acquired Sfera Editore, Marsilio Editori as well as French publisher Editions Flammarion. RCS MediaGroup became the largest book publisher in Italy after the deals. However, a decade RCS Libri sold Flammarion in 2012 for €251 million. In 2007, Italian Competition Authority started an investigation on 9 publishing companies, including RCS Libri, for an alleged anti-competitive conduct in textbook market. On 9 December 2013, the group signed an agreement with Telecom Italia on e-books and online edition of newspapers, it included the ebooks of the imprints of RCS Libri at that time: Rizzoli, Fabbri, Archinto, Marsilio and Sonzogno. RCS Media Group sold the equity interest in the imprint Editions d'Art Albert Skirà on 11 December 2013.
After the transaction, RCS Libri, via Rizzoli International, still owned 49% stake of Skira Rizzoli Publications Inc., based in New York. Before the sales of Skira group, the imprint Skira Rizzoli was considered within the scope of consolidation. According to Publishers Weekly, the division RCS Libri had a revenue of €513.3 million in the financial year 2011, or €298.6 million if excluding Flammarion. It was decreased to €273.3 million in 2012 and €252 million in 2013 and €223 million in 2014. Moreover, the whole group was suffered from aggregate net losses in the 2010s, for example in financial years 2012, 2013 and 2014; the net loss was €218 million in 2013 and €110.8 million in 2014. The market share of RCS Libri in fiction and non-fiction was 11.8% in 2014, according to Publishers Weekly, itself was quoting the figure from GfK. In February 2015, it was reported that Arnoldo Mondadori Editore had submitted a non-binding offer to buy RCS Libri from RCS MediaGroup, it was reported that Rosellina Archinto, founder of the namesake imprint, re-acquired Archinto in July 2015.
In October 2015, RCS MediaGroup announced to sell the whole division, with Mondadori group being the principal buyer, despite some subsidiaries and imprints of RCS Libri, were sold to other investors instead. For example, the controlling stake of Adelphi was sold to Roberto Calasso, who worked at Adelphi for many years. Furthermore, in March 2016, Italian Competition Authority ruled that Mondadori, after the acquisition, had to sell subsidiaries and imprints Bompiani, Marsilio Editori and Sonzogno. Marsilio was sold back to De Michelis family's GEM S.r.l. While Bompiani was sold to Giunti Editore. Mondadori group retained the brands such as BUR and Fabbri Editori, it owned Rizzoli Lizard. In April 2016 after the takeover, RCS Libri S.p. A. was renamed to Rizzoli Libri S.p. A.. Rizzoli Libri S.p. A. was under Mondadori Libri S.p. A. A business unit of Mondadori group. At the time of the foundation in 2014, Mondadori Libri S.p. A. was the sub-holding company of the subsidiaries and imprints Piemme, Giulio Einaudi, Mondadori Education, Mondadori Electa, Sperling & Kupfer as well as joint venture Harlequin Mondadori.
Rizzoli Libri S.p. A. was further downsized by the transfer of the ownership of the
Babes in Toyland is a Laurel and Hardy musical Christmas film released on November 30, 1934. The film is known by the alternative titles Laurel and Hardy in Toyland, Revenge Is Sweet, March of the Wooden Soldiers, a shortened 73-minute abridged version. Based on Victor Herbert's popular 1903 operetta Babes in Toyland, the film was produced by Hal Roach, directed by Gus Meins and Charles Rogers, distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; the film was printed in Sepiatone, but there are two computer-colorized versions. Although the 1934 film makes use of many of the characters in the original play, as well as several of the songs, the plot is completely unlike that of the original stage production. In contrast to the stage version, the film's story takes place in Toyland, inhabited by Mother Goose and other well-known fairy tale characters. Stannie Dum and Ollie Dee live in a shoe, along with Mother Peep, Bo Peep, a mouse resembling Mickey Mouse, many other children; the mortgage on the shoe is owned by the villainous Silas Barnaby, looking to marry Bo-Peep.
Knowing the Widow Peep is having a difficult time paying the mortgage, Barnaby offers the old woman an ultimatum – unless Bo Peep agrees to marry him he will foreclose on the shoe. Widow Peep is worried about where she'll get the money to pay the mortgage. Ollie offers her all the money he has stored away in his savings can, only to learn that Stannie has taken it to buy peewees, he and Stannie set out to get the money for the mortgage from the Toymaker. But Stannie has mixed up an order from Santa Claus and one of the soldiers, when activated, wrecks the toy shop. Stannie and Ollie are fired without getting the money; the two hatch a plan to sneak into Barnaby's house and steal the mortgage but are again foiled by their incompetence. Barnaby has them arrested on a burglary charge, the two are sentenced to be dunked in the ducking stool and banished to Bogeyland, but Barnaby agrees to drop the charges. She reluctantly not before Ollie suffers the dunking. Stannie and Ollie come up with a new scheme.
At the wedding, Ollie is present to give the bride away. After the nuptials, but before the ceremonial kiss, Ollie asks for the "wedding present" from Barnaby. After inspecting it, Ollie tears it up, lifts the bride's veil — to reveal Stannie, who had worn Bo Peep's wedding dress to the ceremony. Bo Peep is still free of Barnaby, the mortgage is destroyed. Ollie teases Stan about having to live with Barnaby as Stan cries saying "I don't LOVE him". Enraged, Barnaby plots his revenge hitting on the idea of framing Bo Peep's true love, Tom-Tom, on a trumped-up charge of "pignapping", getting him banished to Bogeyland. Barnaby proceeds to abduct Little Elmer, one of the Three Little Pigs, has a henchman plant false evidence in Tom-Tom's house. Tom-Tom is put on trial and banished to the abode of the "bogeymen," Bogeyland, which he is taken to on a raft by two dunkers across an alligator-infested river; those banished to Bogeyland never return. A distraught but brave Bo Peep follows Tom-Tom through the dark, cavernous place where twisted cypress trees grow, many stalactites and stalagmites protrude from its rocky landscape.
Meanwhile and Stannie find evidence implicating Barnaby in the pignapping, including the fact that the alleged sausage links presented as evidence at Tom-Tom's trial are made of beef. They find the kidnapped pig alive in Barnaby's cellar. A manhunt commences for Barnaby, who flees to Bogeyland through a secret passageway at the bottom of an empty well. Stannie and Ollie follow Barnaby down the well. Meanwhile, Bo Peep crosses the river to Bogeyland, finds Tom-Tom and explains Barnaby's trickery to him. Tom-Tom sings Victor Herbert's Go to Sleep, Slumber Deep to Bo-Peep in an enormous cave set with giant spider webs. Barnaby catches up to Tom-Tom and Bo-Peep, attempts to abduct Bo-Peep but gets into a fight with Tom-Tom, who gives Barnaby a well-deserved thrashing. An enraged Barnaby grabs a large stick and beats a stalactite to summon an army of Bogeymen, who chase Bo-Peep and Tom-Tom through the caverns of Bogeyland; the lovers run into Stannie and Ollie, who help them escape back through the well and are welcomed by the townspeople, who now realize Barnaby's treachery.
Barnaby leads an invasion of Toyland on a fleet of rafts in a scene reminiscent of the painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware. Ollie and Stan tell their story to Old King Cole, the King of Toyland, the townspeople as two Bogeymen scale the wall and open the gate; the crowd flees in panic as the army of torch-wielding Bogeymen attacks Toyland. Ollie and Stannie hide in the toy shop warehouse. There they discover boxes of darts and use them to fight off the Bogeymen, thanks to Stan's skill with the game of "peewees". Stan and Ollie empty an entire box of darts into a cannon, but as the two search f
Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii is a species of armored catfish distributed in south-central South America. This species is distributed in the Río Plata basin, in the Paraguay, Middle Paraná, Uruguay rivers, in the countries of Paraguay, the north/northeast of Argentina, the west of Uruguay, it is a typical species of the Paraná lower freshwater ecoregion. It was not part of the upper Paraná River, but due to flooding of geological barriers they were able to expand their territory; this was due to the installation of the Itaipu hydroelectric power plant. This species was described in the year 1893 by the physician and writer Argentine Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, under the scientific term for Liposarcus ambrosettii using samples caught in the Paraguay River, opposite the city of Formosa, it is included in the Hypostominae subfamily. EtymologyEtymologically, the generic name Pterygoplichthys is constructed with three words of the Greek language, where: pterygion is the diminutive of pteryx that means'fin', hoplon is'weapon', ichthys is'fish'.
The specific term ambrosettii honors the surname of Argentine naturalist Juan Bautista Ambrosetti. Taxonomic historyPterygoplichthys anisitsi was described in 1903 by the German-American ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann along with Clarence Hamilton Kennedy; these scientists were credited more so with its discovery since the description made by Holmberg went unnoticed, so in 1992 C. Webber passed the latter to the category of nomen oblitum. However, the epithet of P. ambrosettii had been cited as the valid name for this fish by Isaäc Isbrüker in 1980. Other authors began to agree, so in 2007 Carl J. Ferraris Jr. determined that, being the oldest available name, it corresponds to being the senior synonym, becoming P. anisitsi to be its minor synonym
Edward Woore or Davie Woore was a British stained glass artist and member of the British Society of Master Glass Painters. He was a student and collaborator with Christopher Whall, a stained glass artist and leader in the Arts and Crafts Movement. Woore served as a private in the Leicestershire Regiment in World War I and lost the sight of one eye, he was awarded Victory Medal and the Silver War Badge following his injury. Woore worked with Christopher Whall, a leading figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement, he first won a contest for schooling with Whall, was his apprentice between about 1906 and 1912 and a collaborator. Fellow apprentices included Louis Davis and Karl Parsons. Parsons and Woore helped illustrate Whall's 1905 book Stained Glass Work, he had had his own studio in Hammersmith in 1918. Just before Whall's death in 1924, Woore helped manage the Whall studio. Like other students of Whall's, Woore moved to Putney and had a studio and home there from 1924 to 1941. In 1925 he spoke for the Art Workers Guild at the Translucent Glass for Decoration lecture.
In 1930 Woore began working for his close friend Arnold Robinson, who took over the stained glass company of Joseph Bell and Sons in Bristol. He worked for Robinson until the end of World War II. Woore was a good friend of Karl Parsons and when Parsons' health problems caused him in 1933 to return from Shalbourne to Putney, he was given work by Woore. After Parsons' death on 30 September 1934, Woore took over and completed many of Parsons' commissions, such as the north transept window of St. George's Cathedral, Cape Town. Three of his assistants during his career were Mary Hutchinson, Basil Jones and F. R. Gadsby, he continued to work until 1958. He died two years in 1960, his work was exhibited at: Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions, between World War I and II Colling Galleries Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool Stained Glass Designs at Maas Gallery Works by Edward Woore
Visual artifacts are anomalies apparent during visual representation as in digital graphics and other forms of imagery photography and microscopy. Image quality factors, different types of visual artifacts Compression artifacts Digital artifacts, visual artifacts resulting from digital image processing Noise Screen-door effect known as fixed-pattern noise, a visual artifact of digital projection technology Ghosting Screen burn-in Distortion Silk screen effect Rainbow effect Screen tearing Purple fringing Chromatic aberration Moiré pattern Color banding Many people who use their computers as a hobby experience artifacting due to a hardware or software malfunction; the cases can differ but the usual causes are: Temperature issues, such as failure of cooling fan. Unsuited video card drivers. Drivers that have values. Overclocking beyond the capabilities of the particular video card. Software Bugs in operating system; the differing cases of visual artifacting can differ between scheduled task. In microscopy, an artifact is an apparent structural detail, caused by the processing of the specimen and is thus not a legitimate feature of the specimen.
In light microscopy, arteficts may be produced by air bubbles trapped under the slide's cover slip. In electron microscopy, distortions may be produced in the drying out of the specimen. Staining can cause the appearance of solid chemical deposits that may be seen as structures inside the cell. Different techniques including freeze-fracturing and cell fractionation may be used to overcome the problems of artifacts. A crush artifact is an artificial elongation and distortion seen in histopathology and cytopathology studies because of iatrogenic compression of tissues. Distortion can be caused by the slightest compression of tissue and can provide difficulties in diagnosis, it may cause chromatin to be squeezed out of nuclei. Inflammatory and tumor cells are most susceptible to crush artifacts. In projectional radiography, visual artifacts that can constitute disease mimics include jewelry and skin folds. In Magnetic resonance imaging, artifacts can be classified as patient-related, signal processing-dependent or hardware -related