A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
In a firearm, the sear is the part of the trigger mechanism that holds the hammer, striker, or bolt back until the correct amount of pressure has been applied to the trigger. The sear can be a surface incorporated into the trigger; as one firearms manufacturer notes: Sear: A sharp bar, resting in a notch in a hammer, holding the hammer back under the tension of the mainspring. When the trigger is pulled, the sear moves out of its notch, releasing the hammer and firing the gun; the term "sear" is sometimes incorrectly used to describe a complete trigger group. Within a trigger group, any number of sears may exist. For example, a Ruger Blackhawk single-action revolver contains one for releasing the hammer. A Ruger Redhawk double/single-action revolver contains two, one for single-action release and the other for double-action release. A Browning BLR rifle contains three sears, all used for hammer release. On many select-fire rifles two sears exist, one for semi-automatic fire and the second for full-automatic fire.
In this case, the selector switch disengages one over the other. Trigger sears are a key component for trigger pull characteristics. Larger sears create creep. Aftermarket trigger companies, such as Bold and Jewell, produce products in which sear contact is adjustable for personal preference; when a gunsmith does a "trigger job" to improve the quality and release of a trigger pull, most the work includes modifying the sear, such as polishing, etc. The sear on many firearms is connected to a disconnector, after a cycle of semi-automatic fire has proceeded, keeps the hammer in place until the trigger is released and the sear takes over. Many firearms, such as the M1911 pistol, use a notch in the slide of the handgun that the top end of the disconnector returns to after the trigger is released; when the trigger is still under pressure by the firearm operator, the disconnector will not retract to its resting position. On other handguns, such as the Series 80 version of the M1911, a firing pin block acts as an internal safety, disengaged by the disconnector after the trigger is pulled.
However, because of the spring tension placed on the disconnector by the firing pin block, the weight of the trigger pull is increased. Trigger pull is related to the interaction of the sear with the spring, it can be measured and adjusted, but it is a complicated mechanical problem. The sear has been found on early weapons such as the crossbow. Guns by Dudley Pope, 1969, Hamlyn Publishing Group, Ltd. Animation of a M1911 firing sequence
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber is operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, most placed on the right-hand side of the weapon. When the handle is operated, the bolt is unlocked from the receiver and pulled back to open the breech, allowing the spent cartridge case to be extracted and ejected, the firing pin within the bolt is cocked and engages the sear upon the bolt being pushed back a new cartridge is loaded into the chamber, the breech is closed tight by the bolt locking against the receiver. Bolt-action firearms are most rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and a few handguns as well. Examples of this system date as far back as the early 19th century, notably in the Dreyse needle gun. From the late 19th century, all the way through both World Wars, the bolt-action rifle was the standard infantry firearm for most of the world's military forces. In modern military and law enforcement use, the bolt action has been replaced by semi-automatic and selective-fire firearms, though the bolt-action design remains popular in dedicated sniper rifles due to inherently more rugged design, are still popular for civilian hunting and target shooting.
Compared to other manually operated firearm actions such as lever-action and pump-action, bolt action offers an excellent balance of strength, ruggedness and accuracy, all with lightweight and much lower cost than self-loading firearms. Bolt-action firearms can be disassembled and re-assembled for maintenance and repair much faster, owing to their having fewer moving parts; the major disadvantage is a lower rate of fire than other types of manual repeating firearms, a far lower practical rate of fire than semi-automatic weapons, though this is not a important factor in many types of hunting, target shooting and other precision-based shooting applications. The first bolt-action rifle was produced in 1824 by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse, following work on breechloading rifles that dated to the 18th century. Von Dreyse would perfect his Nadelgewehr by 1836, it was adopted by the Prussian Army in 1841. However, it was not the first bolt-action weapon to see combat, for it was not fielded until 1864.
The United States purchased 900 Greene rifles in 1857, which saw service at the Battle of Antietam in 1862, during the American Civil War. During the American Civil War, the bolt-action Palmer carbine was patented in 1863, by 1865, 1000 were purchased for use as cavalry weapons; the French Army adopted its first bolt-action rifle, the Chassepot rifle, in 1866 and followed with the metallic-cartridge bolt-action Gras rifle in 1874. European armies continued to develop bolt-action rifles through the latter half of the nineteenth century, first adopting tubular magazines as on the Kropatschek rifle and the Lebel rifle, a magazine system pioneered by the Winchester rifle of 1866; the first bolt-action repeating rifle was the Vetterli rifle of 1867 and the first bolt-action repeating rifle to use centerfire cartridges was the weapon designed by the Viennese gunsmith Ferdinand Fruwirth in 1871. The military turned to bolt-action rifles using a box magazine. World War I marked the height of the bolt-action rifle's use, with all of the nations in that war fielding troops armed with various bolt-action designs.
During the buildup prior to World War II, the military bolt-action rifle began to be superseded by semi-automatic rifles and fully-automatic rifles, though bolt-action rifles remained the primary weapon of most of the combatants for the duration of the war. The bolt action is still common today among sniper rifles, as the design has potential for superior accuracy, lesser weight, the ability to control loading over the faster rate of fire that alternatives allow. There are, many semi-automatic sniper rifle designs in the designated marksman role. Today, bolt-action rifles are chiefly used as hunting rifles; these rifles can be used to hunt anything from vermin to deer and to large game big game caught on a safari, as they are adequate to deliver a single lethal shot from a safe distance. Bolt-action shotguns are considered a rarity among modern firearms but were a used action for.410 entry-level shotguns, as well as for low-cost 12 gauge shotguns. The M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System is the most advanced and recent example of a bolt-action shotgun, albeit one designed to be attached to an M16 rifle or M4 carbine using an underbarrel mount.
Mossberg 12 gauge bolt-action shotguns were popular in Australia after the 1997 changes to firearms laws, but the shotguns themselves were awkward to operate and only had a three-round magazine, thus offering no practical and real advantages over a conventional double-barrel shotgun. Some pistols utilize a bolt action, although this is uncommon, such examples are specialized target handguns. Most of th
The Gewehr 98 is a German bolt action rifle made by Mauser firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine. It was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design; the Gewehr 98 action, using a stripper clip loaded with the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge combined and improved several bolt action engineering concepts which were soon adopted by many other countries including the UK, the US. The Gewehr 98 replaced the earlier Gewehr 1888 rifle as the main German service rifle and first saw combat in the Chinese Boxer Rebellion and was the main German infantry service rifle of World War I; the Gewehr 98 saw further military use by the Ottoman Nationalist Spain. The Gewehr 98, was introduced into German military service in 1898, replacing the Gewehr 1888; the bolt-action design was the latest refinement of the 1895 design patented by Paul Mauser on 9 September 1895. Mauser was selling similar 1895-design weapons to many other countries, had supplied less advanced Mauser rifles to the German Army from 1871 to 1888.
The 1888 replacement for the Mauser was an internal design from the Army, but failed through an impractical design. In the interim decade, Mauser rifles became recognized as the world standard, the German Army became outclassed by a German-made product in the hands of others; the German Gewehr-Prüfungskommission adopted the Gewehr 98 on 5 April 1898. The action was derived from the experimental Gewehr 96 Rifle. In 1901, the first troop issues of the Gewehr 98 Rifles were made to the East Asian Expeditionary Force, the Navy, three premier Prussian army corps; the first combat use of the Gewehr 98 was during the Boxer Rebellion. In 1904, contracts were placed with Waffenfabrik Mauser for 290,000 rifles and Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken for 210,000 rifles. At the outbreak of WWI in 1914, the German Army had 2,273,080 Mauser 98-rifles of all types; the 8 mm M/88 cartridge, introduced in 1888 and loaded with an 8.08 mm 14.6 g round nose bullet was replaced on 3 April 1903 by the 7.92×57mm Mauser S Patrone, loaded with a new 8.20 mm 9.9 g spitzer bullet.
The ammunition conversion was indicated by a small "S" stamped above the chamber and on the barrel at the back of the rear sight base. This was done since the 1888 pattern M/88 cartridge and 1903 S-bore pattern cartridge are two different non interchangeable chamberings. Since the new IS cartridge had a flatter trajectory the Lange Visier rear sight had to be changed with an "S"-adapted Lange Visier; the Gewehr 98 or model 98 rifle is a manually operated, magazine fed, controlled-feed bolt-action rifle, 1,250 mm in length and 4.09 kg in weight. It carries 5 rounds of ammunition in an internal magazine; the Gewehr 98 has two sling swivels, open front sights, a curved tangent-type rear sight, known as the Lange Visier. The controlled-feed bolt-action of the Gewehr 98 is a distinct feature and is regarded as one of the major bolt-action system designs; the controlled-feed Mauser M98 bolt-action system is based on previous 19th century Mauser bolt action rifle designs and is a simple, strong and well-thought-out design intended to negate as many failure modes as possible and which inspired other military and hunting/sporting rifle designs that became available during the 20th century.
A drawback of the M98 system is that it cannot be cheaply mass-produced easily. Some other bolt-action designs offer trained operators a faster rate of fire as the ergonomic relation between the bolt handle and trigger is more favorable and they can be cycled without loss of sight picture; the M98 system consists of a receiver that serves as the system's shroud and a bolt group of which the bolt body has three locking lugs, two large main lugs at the bolt head and a third safety lug at the rear of the bolt, which serves as a backup in case the primary locking lugs failed. This third lug was not present on previous Mauser bolt action designs; the two main locking lugs are positioned opposed to each other and display a locking surface of 56 mm2, whilst the third safety lug plays no part in locking the action to avoid asymmetric and hence unbalanced bolt thrust forces. The diameter of the M98 system receiver ring was enlarged to 35.8 mm diameter compared to previous Mauser "small ring" bolt action designs that had 33 mm diameter receiver rings for additional strength and safety.
Accordingly, the barrel shank was enlarged to 28 mm diameter with 15.88 mm of threaded area at 12 threads per inch compared to previous Mauser "small shank" bolt action designs that had 24.9 mm diameter with 16.38 mm of threaded area at 12 threads per inch barrel shanks for additional strength. The bolt handle is permanently attached to the bolt and, on the Gewehr 98, is straight and protrudes out for optimal leverage. Another distinctive feature of the M98 system is the controlled-feed mechanism, consisting of a large, non-rotating claw extractor that engages the cartridge case rim as soon as the round leaves the magazine and holds the cartridge case until the round is ejected by the ejector, mounted inside the receiver. Combined with a slight bolt retraction at the last stage of the bolt opening cycle, caused by the cammed surface on the rear receiver bridge, this results in a positive cartridge case extraction; the M98 bolt-action will cycle irrespective of the way the rifle is moved o
A trigger is a mechanism that actuates the firing sequence of a firearm, crossbow or speargun. A trigger may start other non-shooting mechanisms such as a trap, a switch or a quick release. A small amount of energy applied to the trigger causes the release of much more energy. In "double action" firearm designs, the trigger is used to cock the firearm — and there are many designs where the trigger is used for a range of other functions. Although triggers consist of a lever actuated by the index finger, some such as the M2 Browning machine gun use the thumb, others like the Springfield Armory M6 Scout use a "squeeze-bar trigger". Firearms use triggers to initiate the firing of a cartridge in the firing chamber of the weapon; this is accomplished by actuating a striking device through a combination of spring and kinetic energy operating through a firing pin to strike and ignite the primer. There are two primary types of striking mechanisms and strikers. Hammers are spring-tensioned masses of metal that pivot on a pin when released and strike a firing pin to discharge a cartridge.
Strikers are spring-loaded firing pins that travel on an axis in-line with the cartridge eliminating the need for a separate hammer. The connection between the trigger and the hammer is referred to as the sear surface. Variable mechanisms will have this surface directly on the trigger and hammer or have separate sears or other connecting parts. There are numerous types of actions, where action refers to the mechanism or to the logic of how it is built and how it is used, they are categorized according to. In addition to releasing the hammer or the striker, a trigger may cock the hammer or striker, rotate a revolver's cylinder, deactivate passive safeties, select between semi-automatic and full-automatic fire such as the Steyr AUG, or pre-set a "set trigger". Most modern firearms use the trigger to deactivate passive safeties but this does not change how they are identified. A single-action trigger is mechanically simplest of trigger types, it is called the "single-action" because it performs the single action of releasing the hammer or striker to discharge the firearm each time the trigger is pulled, while the hammer must be cocked by separate means.
All rifles and shotguns use this type of trigger. The term "single-action" was not in use until weapons with double-action triggers were invented, which did not occur until the mid-19th century. While all hammers required a separate hand motion to cock manually, with the birth of repeating rifles such as the Henry rifle, it was found to be easy to design the cocking of the hammer into the cycling of the action, still found in most modern repeating weapons, some single-shots as well. Although these weapons do not require the user to physically cock the hammer, they are still single-actions because the cocking is not performed by the trigger mechanism. Manually-cocked triggers lasted much longer on revolvers, thus the "classic" single-action revolver of the mid-to-late 19th century includes black-powder percussion-cap muzzleloaders such as the Colt 1860 "Army" Model, Colt 1851 "Navy" Model, European models like the LeMat, as well as early metallic-cartridge black-powder revolvers such as the Colt Model 1873 "Single Action Army" and Smith & Wesson Model 3, all of which required a thumb to cock the hammer before firing.
Manually cocked hammers lasted a while longer in some break-action shotguns, in dangerous game rifles, where the hunter did not want to rely on an unnecessarily complex or fragile weapon. While single-action revolvers never lost favor in the US right up until the birth of the semi-automatic pistol, double action revolvers, such as the Beaumont–Adams, were designed in Europe before the American Civil War broke out, saw great popularity all through the latter half of the 19th century, with certain numbers being sold in the US as well. In modern usage, the terms "single-action" and "double-action" always refer to handguns, as few if any rifles or shotguns feature double-action triggers. While a "single-action" revolver or semi-automatic must always be cocked prior to firing, most "double-action" handguns are capable of firing in both single- and double-action modes. Only "double-action only" weapons are incapable of firing from a cocked hammer, it is a common misconception that "double action" refers to the ability to fire in both modes, but as stated above, the term stems from the number of actions performed by the trigger when pulled, not the operating modes it is capable of using.
While many European and some American revolvers were designed as double-action models throughout the late 19th century, for the first half of the 20th century, all semi-automatics were single-action weapons, requiring the weapon to be carried cocked with the safety on, or with an empty chamber. The difference between these weapons and single-action revolvers is that while a single-action revolver requires the user to manually cock the hammer before firing, a single-action semi-automatic is automatically cocked when the user cycles the slide to chamber a round. Thereafter, every
Ammunition is the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. Ammunition is both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all mechanical weapons require some form of ammunition to operate; the term ammunition can be traced back to the mid-17th century. The word comes for the material used for war. Ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although munition now refers to the actual weapons system with the ammunition required to operate it. In some languages other than English ammunition is still referred to as munition, such as French, German or Italian; the purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a selected target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the firearm cartridge, which includes all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a great range of sizes and types and is designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain ammunition types that enable their use across different weapons and by different users.
There are specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances. Ammunition is colored in a specific manner to assist in the identification and to prevent the wrong ammunition types from being used accidentally. A round is a single cartridge containing a projectile, propellant and casing. A shell is a form of ammunition, fired by a large caliber cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials and relied on kinetic energy to have an effect. However, since that time, they are more filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a single release of a weapons system; this may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, but can refer to ammunition types that release a large number of projectiles at the same time. A dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only functions, known as a hang fire.
Dud ammunition, classified as an unexploded ordnance, is regarded as dangerous. In former conflict zones, it is not uncommon for dud ammunition to remain buried in the ground for many years. Large quantities of ammunition from World War I continue to be found in fields throughout France and Belgium and still claim lives. Although classified as an unexploded ordnance, landmines that have been left behind after conflict are not considered duds as they have not failed to work and may still be functioning and forgotten. A bomb, or more a guided or unguided bomb, is an airdropped, unpowered explosive weapon. Mines and the warheads used in guided missiles and rockets are referred to as bomb-type ammunition. Ammunition design has evolved throughout history as different weapons have been developed and different effects required. Ammunition was of simple design and build, but as weapon designs developed and became more refined, the requirement for more specialized ammunition increased. Modern ammunition can vary in quality but is manufactured to high standards.
For example, ammunition for hunting can be designed to expand inside the target, maximizing the damage inflicted by a single round. Anti-personnel shells can affect a large area. Armor-piercing rounds are specially hardened to penetrate armor, while smoke ammunition covers an area with a fog that screens people from view. More generic ammunition can be altered to give it a more specific effect, whilst larger explosive rounds can be altered by using different fuzes; the components of ammunition intended for rifles and munitions may be divided into these categories: Fuze or primer explosive materials and propellants projectiles of all kinds cartridge casing The term "fuze" refers to the detonator of an explosive round or shell. The spelling is different in British English and American English and they are unrelated from a fuse. A fuse was earlier used to ignite the propellant until the advent of more reliable systems such as the primer or igniter, used in most modern ammunitions; the fuze of a weapon can be used to alter.
For example, a common artillery shell fuze can be set to'point detonation', time-delay and proximity. These allow a single ammunition type to be altered to suit the situation. There are many designs of a fuze, ranging from simple mechanical to complex radar and barometric systems. Fuzes are armed by the acceleration force of firing the projectile, arm several meters after clearing the bore of the weapon