A pumpjack is the overground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well. It is used to mechanically lift liquid out of the well if not enough bottom hole pressure exists for the liquid to flow all the way to the surface; the arrangement is used for onshore wells producing little oil. Pumpjacks are common in oil-rich areas. Depending on the size of the pump, it produces 5 to 40 litres of liquid at each stroke; this is an emulsion of crude oil and water. Pump size is determined by the depth and weight of the oil to remove, with deeper extraction requiring more power to move the increased weight of the discharge column. A beam-type pumpjack converts the rotary motion of the motor to the vertical reciprocating motion necessary to drive the polished-rod and accompanying sucker rod and column load; the engineering term for this type of mechanism is a walking beam. It was employed in stationary and marine steam engine designs in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the early days, pumpjacks worked by rod lines running horizontally above the ground to a wheel on a rotating eccentric in a mechanism known as a central power.
The central power, which might operate a dozen or more pumpjacks, would be powered by a steam or internal combustion engine or by an electric motor. Among the advantages of this scheme was only having one motor to power all the pumpjacks rather than individual motors for each. However, among the many difficulties was maintaining system balance as individual well loads changed. Modern pumpjacks are powered by a prime mover; this is an electric motor, but internal combustion engines are used in isolated locations without access to electricity, or, in the cases of water pumpjacks, where three-phase power is not available. Common off-grid pumpjack engines run on natural gas casing gas produced from the well, but pumpjacks have been run on many types of fuel, such as propane and diesel fuel. In harsh climates, such motors and engines may be housed in a shack for protection from the elements. Engines that power water pumpjacks receive natural gas from the nearest available gas grid; the prime mover runs a set of pulleys to the transmission a double-reduction gearbox, which drives a pair of cranks with counterweights installed on them to assist the motor in lifting the heavy rod assembly.
The cranks raise and lower one end of an I-beam, free to move on an A-frame. On the other end of the beam is a curved metal box called a horse head or donkey head, so named due to its appearance. A cable made of steel—occasionally, fibreglass—called a bridle, connects the horse head to the polished rod, a piston that passes through the stuffing box; the cranks themselves produce counterbalance due to their weight, so on pumpjacks that do not carry heavy loads, the weight of the cranks themselves may be enough to balance the well load. Sometimes, crank-balanced units can become prohibitively heavy due to the need for counterweights. Lufkin Industries offer "air-balanced" units, where counterbalance is provided by a pneumatic cylinder charged with air from a compressor, eliminating the need for counterweights; the polished rod has a close fit to the stuffing box, letting it move in and out of the tubing without fluid escaping. The bridle follows the curve of the horse head as it lowers and raises to create a vertical or nearly-vertical stroke.
The polished rod is connected to a long string of rods called sucker rods, which run through the tubing to the down-hole pump positioned near the bottom of the well. At the bottom of the tubing is the down-hole pump; this pump has two ball check valves: a stationary valve at bottom called the standing valve, a valve on the piston connected to the bottom of the sucker rods that travels up and down as the rods reciprocate, known as the traveling valve. Reservoir fluid enters from the formation into the bottom of the borehole through perforations that have been made through the casing and cement; when the rods at the pump end are travelling up, the traveling valve is closed and the standing valve is open. The pump barrel fills with the fluid from the formation as the traveling piston lifts the previous contents of the barrel upwards; when the rods begin pushing down, the traveling valve opens and the standing valve closes. The traveling valve drops through the fluid in the barrel; the piston reaches the end of its stroke and begins its path upwards again, repeating the process.
Gas is produced through the same perforations as the oil. This can be problematic if gas enters the pump, because it can result in what is known as gas locking, where insufficient pressure builds up in the pump barrel to open the valves and little or nothing is pumped. To preclude this, the inlet for the pump can be placed below the perforations; as the gas-laden fluid enters the well bore through the perforations, the gas bubbles up the annulus while the liquid moves down to the standing valve inlet. Once at the surface, the gas is collected thro
The Oriental Longhair is a variety of domestic cat. It is related to the Oriental Shorthair; the Oriental Longhair in some registries, such as The International Cat Association, is a separate breed. In others, such as the Cat Fanciers' Association, it is a division, along with the short-haired variety, of a merged breed, the Oriental. With no globally recognized naming convention, other cat fanciers may refer to this type as Foreign Longhair or Mandarin, it was known as the British Angora before being renamed in 2002 by British cat fanciers in order to avoid confusion with the Turkish Angora. Oriental Longhairs feature a long, Oriental-style body but with a longer silky coat; the range of possible coat colours includes everything from self-coloured, smoke, shaded or tipped, tabby or white. The eyes are almond shaped; the preferred eye color for Oriental Longhairs is green. If an Oriental Longhair is bred to an Oriental shorthair or a Siamese, the kittens will all be short-haired; this is. The kittens will, however, be a carrier of the long-hair gene.
If such a "variant" is bred to a cat with long hair, or to another variant, they may produce both short-haired and long-haired kittens. Variants may have a longer coat that Oriental Shorthairs, but this is not always the case; the Oriental Longhair is an active cat. If the owner does not have the time to do so, it will find a toy to play on its own; this breed enjoys jumping and does it well, without breaking any objects due to its agility and elegance. The oriental longhair is intelligent and are ideal companions for people who like their pets always around; some have been know to follow their owners everywhere. They are loyal and most get along well with other cats if they are of the same breed group; these cats prefer an interactive home. Some Oriental tend to gravitate to one person in the home. Oriental Longhairs, like their cousin breed the Siamese, have loud and expressive voices that are used often, they are smart cats, with some being quite willful in getting their own way. Many Orientals take to leash training if started young.
They have been known to open cabinets and refrigerators. This breed group is recommended for more experienced cat keepers. Iams website: Oriental Longhair cat Oriental Longhair Colour Overview
It Doesn't Matter Anymore is the debut album by Scottish britpop band The Supernaturals on the Parlophone label. It reached number 9 on the UK Albums Chart in 1997, spawned four top 40 singles on the UK Singles Chart. "Please Be Gentle With Me" had been released on Let It Bleat in a different arrangement, with less pronounced bass, growling dog sound effects. Early jam versions of "Dung Beetle" and "The Day Before Yesterday's Man" had been released on Dark Star, in a more improvised style; the song "Stammer" had been known in 1993 as "Her Majesty". "Pie in the Sky" features a trumpet solo by Robert Henderson of The Bathers. The title song of the album was not included on the track list, but was instead released on the follow-up album A Tune a Day; the song "Love Has Passed Away" contains a reference to Dear. Music videos were released for 5 or the songs directed by Hammer & Tongs and Barry Maguire; the band appeared on popular TV and radio shows at the time, as well as several national and international tours.
"The Day Before Yesterday's Man" was used in the TV series Teachers, the film Shooting Fish. The song was selected to appear on a CMJ New Music Monthly highlights disc for the American market; the live performance of the song from Glastonbury 1997 was released on a BBC CD entitled Mud For It. The song "Smile" was the theme tune for bank Smile.co.uk's TV advertisements, was re-recorded for use as the main theme of the Australian Nine Network idents in 2008, was parodied in episode 5 of Peter Kay's Phoenix Nights. It has more been used in adverts for Arnold Clark Automobiles. In 2001, the single cover artwork for "Smile" was used by Anya Hindmarch on a fashion umbrella. Several songs were included on compilations such as Shine and The Best... Album in the World... Ever!. A covermounted CD with the June 1997 issue of Select magazine features a rerecorded version of "I Don't Think So". An Xfm compilation album Gimme Shelter featured the song "Pie in the Sky"; the album received good reviews. It was described as "one of the finest britpop records of 1997.
Filled with beautiful pop melodies" by Virgin Radio, who went on to say that it was "an accomplished and compelling debut". The song "Smile" was nominated for an Ivor Novello Award in 1998 for best contemporary song. In 2005 it was included in VH2's list of the best indie songs of all time; the UK release achieved a chart position of 23, the Japanese release was a bigger success with both sales and airplay, staying on the chart for 13 weeks. All songs written by other band members. Ben Darlow - mixing engineer, engineer Pete Smith - producer Jim Brumby - engineer Barry Hammond - engineer Jason Clift - engineer Duncan Cameron - engineer Abrahams Pants - graphic design