Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is a volcano observatory located at Uwekahuna Bluff on the rim of Kīlauea Caldera on the Island of Hawaiʻi. The observatory monitored four active Hawaiian volcanoes: Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Haleakalā; because Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are more active than Hualālai and Haleakalā, much of the observatory's research is concentrated on the former two mountains. The observatory has a worldwide reputation as a leader in the study of active volcanism. Due to the non-explosive nature of Hawaiian volcanic eruptions for many years, scientists could study ongoing eruptions in proximity without being in extreme danger. Located at the main site was the public Thomas A. Jaggar Museum. In May 2018 the facility was closed and the property evacuated due to collapse explosions at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater and earthquakes related to the 2018 lower Puna eruption that led to the closure of the Kīlauea unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. While portions of the park were reopened in September, it is unclear when the Observatory and Museum will be able to reopen as well.
Besides the oral history of Ancient Hawaiians, several early explorers left records of observations. Rev. William Ellis kept a journal of his 1823 missionary tour, Titus Coan documented eruptions through 1881. Scientists debated the accuracy of these descriptions; when prominent geologist Thomas Jaggar of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave a lecture in Honolulu in 1909, he was approached by businessman Lorrin A. Thurston about building a full-time scientific observatory at Kīlauea; the Hawaiian Volcano Research Association was formed by local businessmen for its support. George Lycurgus, who owned the Volcano House at the edge of the main caldera, proposed a site adjacent to his hotel and restaurant. In 1911 and 1912, small cabins were built on the floor of the caldera next to the main active vent of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, but these were hard to maintain. MIT added $25,000 in support in 1912 from the estate of Edward and Caroline Whitney to build a more permanent facility; the first instruments were housed in a cellar next to the Volcano House called the Whitney Laboratory of Seismology.
Inmates from a nearby prison camp had excavated through 5.5 feet of volcanic ash. Massive reinforced. Professor Fusakichi Omori of Japan, now best known for his study of aftershocks, designed the original seismometers; this seismograph vault is state historic site 10-52-5506, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 24, 1974 as site 74000292. From 1912 until 1919, the observatory was run by Jaggar personally. Many important events were recorded, although as pioneers, the team ran into major problems. For example, in 1913 an earthquake opened a crack in a wall and water seeped in; the windows meant to admit natural light caused the vault to heat up in the intense tropical sun. The opening of the national park in 1916 brought more visitors to bother the scientists, but park rangers who would take over public lectures; the prison that had supplied laborers was replaced by the Kīlauea Military Camp. In 1919, Jaggar convinced the National Weather Service to take over operations at the observatory.
In 1924, the observatory was taken over by the United States Geological Survey and it has been run by the USGS since. When the Volcano House hotel burned to the ground in 1940, the old building was torn down. George Lycurgus convinced friends in Washington D. C. to build a larger building farther back from the cliff, so he could built a new larger hotel at the former HVO site. By 1942, the "Volcano Observatory and Naturalist Building" was designated number 41 on the park inventory. However, with the advent of World War II, it was commandeered as a military headquarters. HVO was allowed to use building 41 from October 1942 to September 1948, when it became the park headquarters. About two miles west, in an area known as Uwekahuna, a "National Park Museum and Lecture Hall" had been built in 1927; the name means "the priest wept" in the Hawaiian Language, which indicates it might have been used to make offerings in the past. The HVO moved there in 1948 after some remodeling of the building; this site was closer to the main vent of Kīlauea.
In 1985 a larger building was built for the observatory adjacent to the old lecture hall, turned back into a museum and public viewing site. In the mid-1980s, HVO launched the Big Island Map Project to update the geologic map of the island of Hawai'i, its major publication is the 1996 Geologic Map of the Island of Hawai'i by E. W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, digitized in 2005. HVO Directors1912 to 1940, Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr. 1940 to 1951, Ruy H. Finch 1951 to 1955, Gordon A. MacDonald 1956 to 1958, Jerry P. EatonHVO Scientists-in-Charge1958 to 1960, Kiguma J. Murata 1960 to 1961, Jerry P. Eaton 1961 to 1962, Donald H. Richter 1962 to 1963, James G. Moore 1964 to 1970, Howard A. Powers 1970 to 1975, Donald W. Peterson 1975 to 1976, Robert I. Tilling 1976 to 1978, Gordon P. Eaton 1978 to 1979, Donald W. Peterson 1979 to 1984, Robert W. Decker 1984 to 1991, Thomas L. Wright 1991 to 1996, David A. Clague 1996 to 1997, Margaret T. Mangan 1997 to 2004, Donald A. Swanson 2004 to 2015, James P. Kauahikaua 2015 to present, Christina A. Neal Modern electronic equipment
Macadamia is a genus of four species of trees indigenous to Australia, constituting part of the plant family Proteaceae. They are native to north central and south eastern Queensland. Three species of the genus are commercially important for their fruit, the macadamia nut, with a total global production of 160,000 tonnes in 2015. Other names include Queensland nut, bush nut, maroochi nut, bauple nut, Hawaii nut. In Australian Aboriginal languages, the fruit is known by names such as bauple, gyndl and boombera; the German-Australian botanist Ferdinand von Mueller gave the genus the name Macadamia in 1857 in honour of the Scottish-Australian chemist, medical teacher, politician John Macadam. Macadamia is an evergreen genus; the leaves are arranged in whorls of three to six, lanceolate to obovate or elliptic in shape, 60–300 mm long and 30–130 mm broad, with an entire or spiny-serrated margin. The flowers are produced in a long, simple raceme 50–300 mm long, the individual flowers 10–15 mm long, white to pink or purple, with four tepals.
The fruit is a hard, globose follicle with a pointed apex, containing one or two seeds. 1828 Allan Cunningham was the first European to encounter the macadamia plant. 1857 German-Australian botanist Ferdinand von Mueller gave the genus the scientific name Macadamia – named after von Mueller’s friend Dr. John Macadam, a noted scientist and secretary of the Philosophical Institute of Australia. 1858 Walter Hill, superintendent of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, observed a boy eating the kernel without ill effect, becoming the first nonindigenous person recorded to eat macadamia nuts. 1860s King Jacky, aboriginal elder of the Logan River clan, south of Brisbane, was the first known macadamia entrepreneur, as his tribe and he collected and traded the macadamias with settlers. 1866 Tom Petrie planted macadamias at Yebri Creek from nuts obtained from Aboriginals at Buderim. 1888 The first commercial orchard of macadamias was planted at Rous Mill, 12 km from Lismore, New South Wales, by Charles Staff.
1889 Joseph Maiden, Australian botanist, wrote, "It is well worth extensive cultivation, for the nuts are always eagerly bought." 1910 The Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station encouraged planting of macadamias on Hawaii's Kona District, as a crop to supplement coffee production in the region. 1916 Tom Petrie begins trial macadamia plantations in Maryborough, combining macadamias with pecans to shelter the trees. 1922 Ernest Van Tassel formed the Hawaiian Macadamia Nut Co in Hawaii. 1925 Tassel leased 75 acres on Round Top in Honolulu and began Nutridge, Hawaii's first macadamia seed farm. 1931 Tassel established a macadamia-processing factory on Puhukaina Street in Kakaako, selling the nuts as Van's Macadamia Nuts. 1937 Winston Jones and J. H. Beaumont of the University of Hawaii's Agricultural Experiment Station reported the first successful grafting of macadamias, paving the way for mass production. 1940s Steve Angus, Australia, formed Macadamia Nuts Pty Ltd, doing small-scale nut processing.
1946 A large plantation was established in Hawaii. 1953 Castle & Cooke added a new brand of macadamia nuts called "Royal Hawaiian", credited with popularizing the nuts in the U. S. 1997 Australia surpassed the United States as the major producer of macadamias. 2012–15 South Africa surpassed Australia as the largest producer of macadamias. 2014 Macadamia nuts were responsible for the delay of Korean Air Flight 86 at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City; this "nut rage incident" gave the nuts high visibility in the South Korean economy and marked a sharp increase in consumption there. Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche Macadamia jansenii C. L. Gross & P. H. Weston Macadamia ternifolia F. Muell. Macadamia tetraphylla L. A. S. JohnsonNuts from M. jansenii contain toxic amounts of cyanogenic glycosides, The other three species are cultivated in the commercial production of macadamia nuts for human consumption. More species with disjunct distributions were named as members of this genus Macadamia.
Genetics and morphological studies published in 2008 show they have separated from the genus Macadamia, correlating less than thought from earlier morphological studies. The species named in the genus Macadamia may still be referred to overall by the descriptive, non-scientific name of macadamia. Included in the genus Lasjia P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast Macadamia until 2008Lasjia claudiensis P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. L. Gross & B. Hyland Lasjia erecta P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. A. McDonald & R. Ismail Lasjia grandis P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. L. Gross & B. Hyland Lasjia hildebrandii P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. M. Bailey, Macadamia whelanii F. M. BaileyCatalepidia P. H. Weston Macadamia until 1995Catalepidia heyana P. H. Weston. M. Bailey, Macadamia heyana SleumerVirotia L. A. S. Johnson & B. G. Briggs Macadamia until the first species renaming began in 1975 and comprehensive in 2008Virotia angustifolia P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast. H. Weston & A. R. Mast.
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists. Floriculture crops include bedding plants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, cut flowers; as distinguished from nursery crops, floriculture crops are herbaceous. Bedding and garden plants consist of young flowering plants and vegetable plants, they are grown in cell packs, in pots, or in hanging baskets inside a controlled environment, sold for gardens and landscaping. Pelargonium and Petunia are the best-selling bedding plants; the many cultivars of Chrysanthemum are the major perennial garden plant in the United States. Flowering plants are sold in pots for indoor use; the major flowering plants are poinsettias, florist chrysanthemums, finished florist azaleas. Foliage plants are sold in pots and hanging baskets for indoor and patio use, including larger specimens for office and restaurant interiors.
Cut flowers are sold in bunches or as bouquets with cut foliage. The production of cut flowers is known as the cut flower industry. Farming flowers and foliage employs special aspects of floriculture, such as spacing and pruning plants for optimal flower harvest. In Australia and the United States some species are harvested from the wild for the cut flower market. Flower industry Floriculture researchers test pink poinsettias | CALS News Center Floriculture researchers test pink poinsettias | News from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Floriculture, Nursery - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue "Floriculture News". No. 64. The Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. May 2005. Retrieved September 17, 2012. USDA - National Agricultural Statistics Service Floriculture Crops University of Florida California Cut Flower Commission University of Minnesota Florifacts North Carolina State University Floriculture Information Center https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295862115_Diversification_Through_Floriculture_in_Kashmir_Valley Cut Flowers and Greens Growers at Curlie "Fruit and Flower Farming".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Nurseries may supply plants for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology; some of them specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry; some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season. Nurseries can grow plants on container fields, in tunnels or greenhouses. In open fields, nurseries grow ornamental trees and herbaceous perennials the plants meant for the wholesale trade or for amenity plantings.
On a containerfield nurseries grow small trees and herbaceous plants destined for sales in garden centers. Nurseries grow plants in greenhouses, a building of glass or in plastic tunnels, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather (especially frost. While allowing access to light and ventilation, modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature and light and semi-automated watering and feeding; some have fold-back roofs to allow "hardening-off" of plants without the need for manual transfer to outdoor beds. Most nurseries remain high standard. Although some processes have been mechanised and automated, others have not, it remains unlikely that all plants treated in the same way at the same time will arrive at the same condition together, so plant care requires observation and manual dexterity. A UK nurseryman has estimated; the largest UK nurseries have moved to minimize labour costs by the use of computer controlled warehousing methods: plants are pallet allocated to a location and grown on there with little human intervention.
Picking requires selection of a batch and manual quality control before dispatch. In other cases, a high loss rate during maturation is accepted for the reduction in detailed plant maintenance costs. Business is seasonal, concentrated in spring and fall. There is no guarantee that there will be demand for the product - this will be affected by temperature, cheaper foreign competition, among other things. Annuals are sold in trays, peat pots, or plastic pots. Perennials and woody plants are sold either in pots, bare root or balled and burlapped, in a variety of sizes, from liners to mature trees. Balled and Burlap trees are dug either by hand or by a loader that has a tree spade attachment on the front of the machine. Although container grown woody plants are becoming more and more popular due to the versatility, B & B is still used throughout the industry. Plants may be propagated by seeds, but desirable cultivars are propagated asexually; the most common method is by cuttings. These can be taken from shoot tips or parts of stems from older stems.
Herbaceous perennials are often propagated by root cuttings or division. For plants on a rootstock grafting or budding is used. Older techniques like layering are sometimes used for crops. With the objective of fitting planting stock more ably to withstand stresses after outplanting, various nursery treatments have been attempted or developed and applied to nursery stock. Buse and Day, for instance, studied the effect of conditioning of white spruce and black spruce transplants on their morphology and subsequent performance after outplanting. Root pruning and fertilization with potassium at 375 kg/ha were the treatments applied. Root pruning and wrenching modified stock in the nursery by decreasing height, root collar diameter, shoot:root ratio, bud size, but did not improve survival or growth after planting. Fertilization reduced root growth in black spruce but not of white spruce. Seedlings vary in their susceptibility to injury from frost. Damage can be catastrophic. Frost hardiness may be defined as the minimum temperature at which a certain percentage of a random seedling population will survive or will sustain a given level of damage.
The term LT50 is used. Determination of frost hardiness in Ontario is based on electrolyte leakage from mainstem terminal tips 2 cm to 3 cm long in weekly samplings; the tips are frozen thawed, immersed in distilled water, the electrical conductivity of which depends on the degree to which cell membranes have been ruptured by freezing releasing electrolyte. A −15 °C frost hardiness level has been used to determine the readiness of container stock to be moved outside from the greenhouse, −40 °C has been the level determining readiness for frozen storage. In an earlier technique, potted seedlings were placed in a freezer chest and cooled to some level for some specific duration.
Kohala is the name of the northwest portion of the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In ancient Hawaii it was ruled by an independent High Chief called the Aliʻi Nui. In modern times it is divided into two districts of Hawaii County: South Kohala. Locals use the name Kohala to refer to the census-designated places of Halaʻula, Hāwī, Kapaʻau collectively; the dry western shore is known as the Kohala Coast, which has golf courses and seaside resorts. The area was named after the dominating geological feature Kohala Mountain, the oldest of Hawaiʻi Island's five major volcanic mountains; the current districts cover the north and western sides of the mountain, 20°7′55″N 155°47′38″W. It was one of the five ancient divisions of the island called moku; the natural habitats in Kohala range across a wide rainfall gradient in a short distance - from less than 5 inches a year on the coast near Kawaihae to more than 150 inches year near the summit of Kohala Mountain, a distance of just 11 miles.
Near the coast are remnants of dry forests, near the summit is a cloud forest, a type of rainforest that obtains some of its moisture from "cloud drip" in addition to precipitation. This precipitation allowed the northeast coast to be developed into sugarcane plantations, including one founded by Rev. Elias Bond used to fund his church and girls' seminary; the Kohala Historical Sites State Monument includes a National Historic Landmark. King Kamehameha I, the first King of the unified Hawaiʻian Islands, was born in North Kohala west of Hāwī, at the ancient site called the Moʻokini Heiau; the heiau is a living spiritual temple, not just an historic artifact of the Hawaiian culture. The original Kamehameha Statue stands in front of the community center in Kapaʻau, duplicates are found at Aliʻiolani Hale in Honolulu, within the U. S. Capitol building's statue gallery in Washington, D. C; the Bond Historic District is located in the North Kohala District, with structures from the Bond family's 19th century missionary and homesteading period on the Kohala peninsula.
The Bond District has three sections: Bond Homestead — the Bond House was built in the 1840s by the missionaries and Kohala landowners Ellen and Reverend Elias Bond, expanded by descendants through c. 1900. Kalahikiola Church Kohala Seminary Points of interest within Kohala include Hapuna Beach State Recreation Area, Samuel Spencer Beach, Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, Lapakahi State Historical Park and Keokea Beach Park. Major thoroughfares within Kohala include Akoni Pule Highway; the Hawaii Belt Road which connects in the southern end of the Akoni Pule Highway to Kona in the south and Hāmākua to the east. The Kohala Mountain Road provides a link between Waimea and the Kohala CDP's of Halaʻula, Hāwī, Kapaʻau. Kohala has two small airports. Upolu Airport is on Upolu Point at the northern tip of the island. Waimea-Kohala Airport is south of the town of Hawaii County, Hawaii. Neither has commercial flights. Halaʻula Hāwī Kapaʻau Puako Waikoloa Village Waimea Kawaihae The Fairmont Orchid Mauna Kea Beach Hotel Kohala Gallery
Hawaii Route 130
Route 130 is a state highway in Hawaii County, Hawaii. It runs from Route 11 at Ke'aau through the Puna District to Kaimū. Route 130 starts in the south of Hilo, it heads south on the east side of Kīlauea to Pahoa, where Route 132 branches out via Kapoho to Cape Kumukahi with further connection to Route 137, curves toward west, ending at Kaimū. Route 130 used to travel further to the west and was connected via Kaimū and Kalapana to Chain of Craters Road in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. However, the lava flows from Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater that started in 1983 buried Kaimū and Kalapana, cut that connection. In the more recent years, in 2014 and 2018, the Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava appeared in the subdivisions in the suburbs of Pahoa, forced the people there to evacuate. U. S. Roads portal Hawaii portal
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles, it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people; the island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they transition to in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses.
Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator, captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat. Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles, of which 4,028 square miles is land and 1,058 square miles is water; the county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across, it has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area.
Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level. Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 states of the United States, is on Hawaii; the nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaii across the Alenuihaha Channel; the island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are: Kohala – extinct Mauna Kea – dormant Hualālai – active Mauna Loa – active within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea – active: erupting continuously from 1983 to 2018. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa; because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area; some geologists count seven volcanoes as building the island, which include the submarine volcanoes Māhukona and Lōʻihi as parts of the base of the island. Māhukona off the northwest corner of the island has disappeared below the surface of the ocean. 22 miles southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches 3,200 feet below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now; the Great Crack is an eight-mile-long, 60-foot-wide and 60-foot-deep fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea.
While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles of the Great Crack in 1823. Visitors can find trails, rock walls, archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. 1,951 acres of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife. The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile section of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano, slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches per year. Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment. On 2 April 1868, an earthquake with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.9 rocked the southeast coast of Hawaii. This was the most destructive earthquake in the recorded history of Hawaii.