Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid is the highest summit of Mount Jayawijaya or Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua Province, Indonesia. Other summits are East Carstensz Peak and Ngga Pulu. Other names include Nemangkawi in Carstensz Toppen and Gunung Soekarno. At 4,884 metres above sea level, Puncak Jaya is the highest mountain in Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea, on the continent of Australia, in Oceania, the tallest island mountain on Earth, as well as the 5th highest mountain in political Southeast Asia, it is the highest point between the Himalayas and the Andes. Some sources claim Papua New Guinea's Mount Wilhelm, 4,509 m, as the highest mountain peak in Oceania, on account of Indonesia being part of Asia; the massive, open cut Grasberg mine is within 4 km of Puncak Jaya. The highlands surrounding the peak were inhabited before European contact, the peak was known as Nemangkawi in Amungkal. Puncak Jaya was named "Carstensz Pyramid" after Dutch explorer Jan Carstenszoon who first sighted the glaciers on the peak of the mountain on a rare clear day in 1623.
The sighting went unverified for over two centuries, Carstensz was ridiculed in Europe when he said he had seen snow near the equator. The snowfield of Puncak Jaya was reached as early as 1909 by a Dutch explorer, Hendrik Albert Lorentz with six of his Dayak Kenyah porters recruited from the Apo Kayan in Borneo; the predecessor of the Lorentz National Park, which encompasses the Carstensz Range, was established in 1919 following the report of this expedition. In 1936 the Dutch Carstensz Expedition, unable to establish definitively which of the three summits was the highest, attempted to climb each. Anton Colijn, Jean Jacques Dozy and Frits Wissel reached both the glacier-covered East Carstensz and Ngga Pulu summits on December 5 but, due to bad weather, failed in their attempts to climb the bare Carstensz Pyramid; because of extensive snow melt Ngga Pulu has become a 4,862 m subsidiary peak, but it has been estimated that in 1936 Ngga Pulu was indeed the highest summit, reaching over 4,900 m.
The now-highest Carstensz Pyramid summit was not climbed until 1962, by an expedition led by the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer with three other expedition members – the New Zealand mountaineer Philip Temple, the Australian rock climber Russell Kippax, the Dutch patrol officer Albertus Huizenga. Temple had led an expedition into the area and pioneered the access route to the mountains; when Indonesia took control of the province in 1963, the peak was renamed'Poentja Soekarno' or Sukarno Peak, after the first President of Indonesia. Puncak means peak or mountain and Jaya means'victory','victorious' or'glorious'; the name Carstensz Pyramid is still used among mountaineers. Puncak Jaya is the highest point on the central range, created in the late Miocene Melanesian orogeny, caused by oblique collision between the Australian and Pacific plates and is made of middle Miocene limestones. Access to the peak requires a government permit; the mountain was closed to tourists and climbers between 1995 and 2005.
As of 2006, access is possible through various adventure tourism agencies. While Puncak Jaya's peak is free of ice, there are several glaciers on its slopes, including the Carstensz Glacier, West Northwall Firn, East Northwall Firn and the vanished Meren Glacier in the Meren Valley. Being equatorial, there is little variation in the mean temperature during the year and the glaciers fluctuate on a seasonal basis only slightly. However, analysis of the extent of these rare equatorial glaciers from historical records show significant retreat since the 1850s, around the time of the Little Ice Age Maximum which affected the Northern Hemisphere, indicating a regional warming of around 0.6 °C per century between 1850 and 1972. The glacier on Puncak Trikora in the Maoke Mountains disappeared some time between 1939 and 1962. Since the 1970s, evidence from satellite imagery indicates the Puncak Jaya glaciers have been retreating rapidly; the Meren Glacier melted away sometime between 1994 and 2000. An expedition led by paleoclimatologist Lonnie Thompson in 2010 found that the glaciers are disappearing at a rate of seven metres thickness per year and in 2018 they were predicted to vanish in the 2020s.
Puncak Jaya is one of the more demanding climbs in one version of the Seven Summits, despite having the lowest elevation. It is held to have the highest technical rating, though not the greatest physical demands of that list's ascents; the standard route to climb the peak from its base camp is up the north face and along the summit ridge, all hard rock surface. Despite the large mine, the area is inaccessible to hikers and the general public; the standard route to access base camp as of 2013 is to fly into the nearest major town with an airport and take a small aircraft over the mountain range and onto an unimproved runway at one of the local villages far down from the peak. It is typically a five-day hike via the Jungle route to the base camp through dense
Donkey Kong 3 is the third video game in the original Donkey Kong series by Nintendo. It was released near for the arcades and Family Computer, released in America on the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1986; the game was re-released on the Wii Virtual Console in North America on July 14, 2008 and in Europe on January 9, 2009. The gameplay departs from previous Donkey Kong games. Stanley is a bugman. Donkey Kong has taken refuge in his greenhouse and it is now up to Stanley to stop the ape from stirring up any more insects that will soon destroy his flowers. Stanley saves the flowers by spraying bug spray on Donkey Kong; the game is a shooter which incorporates ideas from Space Firebird, an earlier Nintendo arcade game, adapts them into a new setting. Donkey Kong hangs from vines at the center of the screen, the player-controlled Stanley the exterminator runs and jumps on platforms beneath him. Stanley can fire bug spray at insects flying around the levels. A level is completed by continually using bug spray on Donkey Kong, forcing him to the top of the screen, or by killing all of the bugs.
A super spray can on the vines falls down. The super spray only lasts for a limited amount of time, but it pushes Donkey Kong upward at a much faster rate, making it easier to complete the level, it only spawns at the start of each life. The insects are Buzzbees, queen bees, Creepy Caterpillars, beetles, moths and vine eaters; some of the flying insects attempt to pick up the flowers at the bottom of the screen and carry them away. Lost flowers decrease the bonus at the end of the round. There are three levels. Computer and Video Games said that the game's "fast action and superior sound effects" made Donkey Kong 3 a "sure hit" in arcades. IGN gave the Virtual Console version a 6.0 out of 10, describing it as a "radical departure" from the previous Donkey Kong games, calling it "repetitive." A VS. series Game & Watch version of the arcade game has different gameplay. In this version, player one controls Stanley the Bugman and computer player controls Donkey Kong in a duel against each other using exterminating spray cans to move the bees to the other side of them to make the bees sting their opponents.
Players can only hold up to three amounts of spraying liquid in their spray cans. On one player mode, the higher player one as Stanley scores, the faster the spraying liquid on the side of computer player as Donkey Kong drops. A version of this game was included in Game & Watch Gallery 4 for the Game Boy Advance, but featuring Mario in place of Stanley and a Boo and a Fireball in place of the bees; the NES version of Donkey Kong 3 was released on the Wii Virtual Console, 3DS Virtual Console and Wii U Virtual Console, whilst the arcade version was released on the Nintendo Switch eShop as part of Hamster's Arcade Archives series. In 1984, Hudson Soft developed a semi-sequel for the Japanese-only NEC PC-8801, NEC PC-6601, Sharp X1 and FM-7 titled Donkey Kong 3: The Great Counterattack; this game is different from the original. While the object to shoot Donkey Kong up in the air remains, it features 20 new outdoor backgrounds such as a bridge, Planet Saturn, a desert, a pyramid or a highway. After the player has completed the 20th stage, the game loops back at stage 21.
Stanley is no longer able to jump. For decades, Donkey Kong 3: The Great Counterattack was inaccessible to the video game community outside of Japan. In December 2017, a rare copy of the Sharp X1 version was bought by video game enthusiasts at a Yahoo! Auctions online auction. In February 2018, it was made available to the world via emulation. Donkey Kong 3 at the Killer List of Videogames
The von der Leyen Commission is the current European Commission, in office since 1 December 2019. Its president is Ursula von der Leyen, who presides over a commission composed of one commissioner from each of the states composing the European Union, except Germany, von der Leyen's member state; the Commission was scheduled to take office on 1 November 2019. This process took place in November 2019 and the Commission took office in its entirety on 1 December 2019. Von der Leyen, a member of the European People's Party, was selected and proposed to the European Parliament by the European Council on 3 July 2019 following a three day long negotiations between leaders of the member states. Von der Leyen faced many critics by MEPs since the European Council ignored the so-called spitzenkandidat system when choosing candidate for the position. On 16 July 2019, European Parliament took a vote on the proposal by the European Council and elected Von der Leyen with 383 votes. Before the vote von der Leyen had a declared support of three largest political groups in the Parliament, during the debate conservative Polish party Law and Justice with 24 MEPs, Italian Five Stars Movement with 14 MEPs declared their support for von der Leyen.
Based on the result of the vote nearly 100 MEPs of the unofficial grand coalition EPP-S&D-RE did not vote for Von der Leyen. Based on the debate and public announcements of the MEPs most of the MEPs voting against von der Leyen came from S&D group, part of, German Social Democratic Party which publicly opposed Von der Leyen due to her work as German Defence Minister. Following her election, President of the European Council Donald Tusk asked von der Leyen to give her consent on appointing Josep Borrell of Spain the next EU High Representative. Consent was given on 26 July 2019, following which, the European Council appointed Borrell the next High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy on 5 August 2019. Borrell is to be nominated by the Spanish government and has to pass the vote of the European Parliament AFET Committee after a hearing before the same committee; the Commission was approved by European Parliament on 27 November 2019, receiving 461 votes, with 157 against and 89 abstentions.
EPP, S&D, Renew Europe and half of ECR voted in favour. Greens/EFA abstained. Before von der Leyen's confirmation, she pledged to rename Frans Timmermans, the spitzenkandidat of the Party of European Socialists, as the First Vice President. Margrethe Vestager, one of the leading candidates of the Alliance of Liberal and Democrats for Europe Party, was said by von der Leyen will become Vice President as well, having de facto equal position to that of Timmermans. Other names have been mentioned by various news outlets as candidates; some of the member states have submitted the official nominations to the President-in-office of the Council of the EU. Von der Leyen requested that member states each propose two candidates, one of each gender, so it would be easier to form a gender balanced commission. France's Thierry Breton was the last candidate to be designated on 24 October 2019 by Emmanuel Macron. Following the example of the 2014 European Election, in advance of the 2019 elections the main European political parties named so-called spitzenkandidaten, or leading candidates, who were the parties' candidates to become the next president of the European Commission.
All of the parties named at least one candidate. However, other parties perceived those candidates Margrethe Vestager of Denmark, as leading candidates; the leading candidates were: After winning 2019 European election, the European People's Party claimed that the position of the President of the European Commission should be given to them and wanted their leading candidate Manfred Weber for the job. However, Weber faced strong opposition from the liberal-leaning French President Emmanuel Macron and the ALDE, from the Party of European Socialists as well; the PES supported the candidature of Frans Timmermans, who had support from most of the ALDE members of the European Council. The ALDE Party wanted to see Margrethe Vestager taking the top Commission job; the first European Council meeting was held on 20 and 21 June 2019, bringing no decision on distribution of EU top jobs. President Donald Tusk summoned leaders again for a special meeting that lasted from 30 June until 2 July 2019. Over three days of negotiations, the EPP gave up on Weber becoming the President of the Commission.
Naming Timmermans President of the European Commission would have been a part of the so-called Osaka deal, a plan, formed by several EU leaders (Emmanuel Macron