Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels became classics of English literature. She enlisted in school at Roe Head in January aged 14 years, she left the year after to teach her sisters and Anne, at home, returning in 1835 as a governess. In 1839 she undertook the role as governess for the Sidgwick family, but left after a few months to return to Haworth where the sisters opened a school, but failed to attract pupils. Instead they turned to writing and they each first published in 1846 under the pseudonyms of Currer and Acton Bell, her first novel The Professor was rejected by publishers, her second novel Jane Eyre was published in 1847. The sisters admitted to their Bell pseudonyms in 1848, by the following year were celebrated in London literary circles. Brontë experienced the early deaths of all her siblings, she became pregnant shortly after her marriage in June 1854 but died on 31 March 1855 certainly from hyperemesis gravidarum, a complication of early pregnancy which causes excessive nausea and vomiting.
Charlotte Brontë was born on 21 April 1816 in Market Street Thornton, west of Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the third of the six children of Maria and Patrick Brontë, an Irish Anglican clergyman. In 1820 her family moved a few miles to the village of Haworth, where her father had been appointed perpetual curate of St Michael and All Angels Church. Maria died of cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters, Elizabeth, Charlotte and Anne, a son, Branwell, to be taken care of by her sister, Elizabeth Branwell. In August 1824, Patrick sent Charlotte, Emily and Elizabeth to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. Charlotte maintained that the school's poor conditions permanently affected her health and physical development, hastened the deaths of Maria and Elizabeth, who both died of tuberculosis in June 1825. After the deaths of his older daughters, Patrick removed Emily from the school. Charlotte used the school as the basis for Lowood School in Jane Eyre.
At home in Haworth Parsonage, Brontë acted as "the motherly friend and guardian of her younger sisters". Brontë wrote her first known poem at the age of 13 in 1829, was to go on to write more than 200 poems in the course of her life. Many of her poems were "published" in their homemade magazine Branwell's Blackwood's Magazine, concerned the fictional Glass Town Confederacy, she and her surviving siblings – Branwell and Anne – created their own fictional worlds, began chronicling the lives and struggles of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote Byronic stories about their jointly imagined country and Emily and Anne wrote articles and poems about Gondal; the sagas they created were episodic and elaborate, they exist in incomplete manuscripts, some of which have been published as juvenilia. They provided them with an obsessive interest during childhood and early adolescence, which prepared them for literary vocations in adulthood. Between 1831 and 1832, Brontë continued her education at Roe Head in Mirfield, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor.
In 1833 she wrote The Green Dwarf, using the name Wellesley. Around about 1833, her stories shifted from tales of the supernatural to more realistic stories, she returned to Roe Head as a teacher from 1835 to 1838. Unhappy and lonely as a teacher at Roe Head, Brontë took out her sorrows in poetry, writing a series of melancholic poems. In "We wove a Web in Childhood" written in December 1835, Brontë drew a sharp contrast between her miserable life as a teacher and the vivid imaginary worlds she and her siblings had created. In another poem "Morning was its freshness still" written at the same time, Brontë wrote "Tis bitter sometimes to recall/Illusions once deemed fair". Many of her poems concerned the imaginary world of Angria concerning Byronic heroes, in December 1836 she wrote to the Poet Laureate Robert Southey asking him for encouragement of her career as a poet. Southey replied, that "Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life, it ought not to be; the more she is engaged in her proper duties, the less leisure will she have for it as an accomplishment and a recreation."
This advice she did not heed. In 1839 she took up the first of many positions as governess to families in Yorkshire, a career she pursued until 1841. In particular, from May to July 1839 she was employed by the Sidgwick family at their summer residence, Stone Gappe, in Lothersdale, where one of her charges was John Benson Sidgwick, an unruly child who on one occasion threw a Bible at Charlotte, an incident that may have been the inspiration for a part of the opening chapter of Jane Eyre in which John Reed throws a book at the young Jane. Brontë did not enjoy her work as a governess, noting her employers treated her as a slave humiliating her. Brontë was less than five feet tall. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily travelled to Brussels to enrol at the boarding school run by Constantin Héger and his wife Claire Zoé Parent Héger. During her time in Brussels, Brontë, who favoured the Protestant ideal of an individual in direct contact with God, objected to the stern Catholicism of Madame Héger, which she considered a tyrannical religion that enforced conformity and submission to the Pope.
In return for board and tuition Charlotte taught Emily taught music. Their time at the school was cut short when their aunt Elizabeth Branwell, who had joined the family
Charles Philipon. Born in Lyon, he was a French lithographer and journalist, he was the editor of the La Caricature and of both satirical political journals. Charles Philipon came from a middle-class, Lyons family, his father, Étienne Philipon, was a wallpaper manufacturer. He enthusiastically welcomed the revolution of 1789. According to Pierre Larousse his ancestors included Manon Roland, Armand Philippon, Louis Philipon de La Madelaine. After attending school in Lyons and Villefranche-sur-Saône, Charles Philipon studied drawing at the École Impériale des Beaux-arts de Lyon, he left his hometown in 1819 to work under the artist Antoine Gros in Paris but returned at his father's behest in 1821 to join the family business, designing fabric for three years. Though this activity did not suit him, it left its mark on his subsequent work. During hard economic and social times in 1824, he took part in a Lyons carnival parade, deemed seditious. Charles Philipon left Lyon for Paris where he reunited with old friends from the workshop Gros.
One of them, Charlet, a renowned artist, took him under his wing and introduced him to lithography, a technique spreading in France in the 1820s. Philipon found employment as a lithographer and artist drawing for picture books and fashion magazines, he bonded with the Liberals and satirists of the day, attended the Grandville workshop, two years joined forces with the creators of the newspaper La Silhouette, on which he worked as an editor and designer. While Philipon's financial contribution to the company was small, his editorial contribution seems to have focused on the organization of the lithographic department, which gave the paper its originality inasmuch as the same importance was given to the illustration as to the text. Whereas La Silhouette had no definite political line, by July 1830 it had developed a more aggressive approach, it is in this journal that on April 1, 1830, Philipon published the first political cartoon, " Charles X Jesuit." On 15 December 1829 Philipon sent his son and business partner, Gabriel Aubert, to set up the Aubert publishing house Aubert, competing with other printing shops in Paris.
The Veronique Dodat pass, where the publishing house could be found, was to become in the following years a "place of breathtaking war". After the revolution of July 1830, Philipon published Nov. 4 of that year an illustrated weekly under the title La Caricature. Sold by subscription only, it has four pages of text and two lithography in a larger than Silhouette format. Associated with the creation of Philipon newspaper, Honoré de Balzac wrote in the prospectus and gave it under various pseudonyms thirty articles until February 1832 and testing Small Miseries of married life in 1830; the journal is designed as an elegant illustrated magazine, the neat drawings, printed on vellum paper. The lithographs are printed on separate tear sheets. At first, La Caricature adopts a non-political attitude before turning in spring 1832 in opposition to the plan member of the July Monarchy. On 1 December 1832, while imprisoned, Philipon publishes Le Charivari, a daily illustrated with four pages in a smaller Caricature format.
More varied and more "popular" than its predecessor, it is not limited to political caricature. Charivari was the only daily caricature journal of nineteenth-century France. Charivari is intended, according to the prospectus, a " comprehensive overview which recur by pencil and pen, all the various aspects of this kaleidoscopic world in which we live." The lithographs are of lower quality better integrated into the text. Thereafter, the presentation of Charivari bring significant changes. Owner of these two newspapers, Philipon has the full control for both the administrative and physical parts as well as the editorial and artistic parts He chooses his collaborators, dealing with suppliers in the market as well as financial management. In an obituary published in 1862, Nadar the credits of " extraordinary lucidity in business " coupled with " inexhaustible fertility of invention and means ". Employer of his artist friends, it defines the objectives with them, suggest topics, coordinating text and lithography.
He does not hesitate to ask for changes to avoid censorship. To ensure editorial consistency, writing is reduced to a small team of dedicated journalists; the testimony of his contemporaries emphasize charisma Philipon. He was "the soul of the company". According to Champfleury, "he led a large group of pencils, called him the young men breathed their flame, gave ideas to those who did not have". If draws little himself, he puts all his enthusiasm in lithographs; when Silhouette disappears early January 1831, he has on the market a near monopoly. In 1836, a third of lithographs published in the capital will come from Aubert's house. However, the company has retained its family character, besides his son, Gabriel Aubert his sister, Marie- Françoise Aubert, it contributed effectively. In the fall of 1830 Philipon, as supporter of the Revolution of July, expected much of the new regime; the first issues of La Caricature contained no political charges. "At first drawings kept out of politics representing popular or familiar scenes, only accidentally attacking men and things thrown down by the heroic July revolution."
Chief editor and friend of Philipon, contributed extensively in this period, signing his articles under various pseudonyms. Anti-clericalism present in Silhouette, persistent
Charles Keene (artist)
Charles Samuel Keene was an English artist and illustrator, who worked in black and white. The son of Samuel Browne Keene, a solicitor, he was born at Hornsey. Educated at the Ipswich School until his sixteenth year, he early showed artistic leanings. Two years after the death of his father he was articled to a London solicitor, the occupation proving uncongenial, he was removed to the office of an architect, Mr Pukington, his spare time was now spent in drawing nautical subjects in watercolor. For these trifles his mother, to whose energy and common sense he was indebted, soon found a purchaser, through whom he was brought to the notice of the Whympers, the wood-engravers; this led to his being bound to them as apprentice for five years. His earliest known design is the frontispiece, signed Chas. Keene, to The Adventures of Dick Boldhero in Search of his Uncle, &c.. His term of apprenticeship over, he hired as studio an attic in the block of buildings standing, up to 1900, between the Strand and Holywell Street, was soon hard at work for the Illustrated London News.
At this time he was a member of the Artists Society in Clipstone Street, afterwards removed to the Langham studios. In December 1851 he made his first appearance in Pencil and, after nine years of steady work, was called to a seat at the famous table, it was during this period of probation that he first gave evidence of those transcendent qualities which make his work at once the joy and despair of his brother craftsmen. On the starting of Once a Week, in 1859, Keene's services were requisitioned, his most notable series in this periodical being the illustrations to "Charles Reade's A Good Fight" and to George Meredith's "Evan Harrington". There is a quality of conventionality in the earlier of these which disappears in the later. In 1858, endowed with a fine voice and was an enthusiastic admirer of old-fashioned music, joined the Jermyn Band, afterwards better known as the Moray Minstrels, he was for many years a member of Leslie's Choir, the Sacred Harmonic Society, the Catch and Canon Club, the Bach Choir.
He was an industrious performer on the bagpipes, of which instrument he brought together a considerable collection of specimens. About 1863 the Arts Club in Hanover Square was started, with Keene as one of the original members. In 1864 John Leech died, Keene's work in Punch thenceforward found wider opportunities, it was about this time that the greatest of all modern artists of his class, discovered Keene's existence, became a subscriber to Punch for the sake of enjoying week by week the work of his brother craftsman. In 1872, who, though possessed of the humorous sense, was not within measurable distance of Leech as a jester, whose drawings were not sufficiently funny to appeal to the laughter-loving public, was fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of Joseph Crawhall, in the habit for many years of jotting down any humorous incidents he might hear of or observe, illustrating them at leisure for his own amusement; these were placed unreservedly at Keene's disposal, to their inspiration we owe at least 250 of his most successful drawings in the last twenty years of his connection with Punch.
A list of more than 200 of these subjects is given at the end of The Life and Letters of Charles Keene. In 1879 Keene removed to 239 Kings Road, which he occupied until his last illness, walking daily to and from his house, 112 Hammersmith Road. In 1881 a volume of his Punch drawings was published by Messrs Bradbury & Agnew, with the title Our People. In 1883, who had hitherto been a strong man, developed symptoms of dyspepsia and rheumatism. By 1889 these had increased to an alarming degree, the last two years of his life were passed in acute suffering borne with the greatest courage, he died unmarried, after a singularly uneventful life, his body lies in Hammersmith cemetery. Keene, who never had any regular art training, was an artist's artist, he holds the foremost place amongst English craftsmen in black and white, though his work has never been appreciated at its real value by the general public. No doubt the main reason for this lack of public recognition was his unconventionality, he drew his models as he saw them, not as he knew the world wanted to see them.
He found enough beauty and romance in all, around him, and, in his Punch work, enough subtle humour in nature seized at her most humorous moments to satisfy him. He never required his models to grin through a horse collar, as James Gillray did, or to put on their company manners, as was George du Maurier's wont, but Keene was not only a brilliant worker in ink. As an etcher he has to be reckoned with, notwithstanding the fact that his plates numbered not more than fifty at the outside. Impressions of them are exceedingly rare, hardly half a dozen of the plates were known to be in existence as of 1911, he himself regarded them only as experiments in a fascinating medium. But in the opinion of the expert they suffice to place him among the best etchers of the 19th century. Apart from the etched frontispieces to some of the Punch pocket-books, only three, these by no means the best, have been published. Writing in L'Artiste of a few which he had seen, Félix Bracquemond says: "By the freedom, the largeness of their drawing and execution, these plates must be classed amongst modern etchings of the first rank."
A few impressions are in the British Museum, but in the main they were given away to friends and lie hidden in the albums of the collector. The painter Walter Sickert cites Keene in his book "A Free House! or the Artis
Thomas Carlyle was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, translator, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "the history of the world is but the biography of great men". A respected historian, his 1837 book The French Revolution: A History was the inspiration for Charles Dickens' 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities, remains popular today. Carlyle's 1836 Sartor Resartus is a notable philosophical novel. A great polemicist, Carlyle coined the term "the dismal science" for economics, in his essay "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question"', he wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopædia, his "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question" remains controversial.
Once a Christian, Carlyle lost his faith while attending the University of Edinburgh adopting a form of deism. In mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle, a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons. Carlyle was born in Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire, his parents determinedly afforded him an education at Annan Academy, where he was bullied and tormented so much that he left after three years. His father was a member of the Burgher secession church. In early life, his family's strong Calvinist beliefs powerfully influenced the young man. After attending the University of Edinburgh, Carlyle became a mathematics teacher, first in Annan and in Kirkcaldy, where he became close friends with the mystic Edward Irving. In 1819–21, Carlyle returned to the University of Edinburgh, where he suffered an intense crisis of faith and a conversion, which provided the material for Sartor Resartus, which first brought him to the public's notice.
Carlyle developed a painful stomach ailment gastric ulcers, that remained throughout his life and contributed to his reputation as a crotchety, somewhat disagreeable personality. His prose style, famously cranky and savage, helped cement an air of irascibility. Carlyle's thinking became influenced by German idealism, in particular the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, he established himself as an expert on German literature in a series of essays for Fraser's Magazine, by translating German works, notably Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. He wrote a Life of Schiller. In 1826, Thomas Carlyle married fellow intellectual Jane Baillie Welsh, whom he had met through Edward Irving during his period of German studies. In 1827, he applied for the Chair of Moral Philosophy at St Andrews University but was not appointed. A residence provided by Jane's estate was a house on Craigenputtock, a farm in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, he wrote about his life at Craigenputtock – in particular: "It is certain that for living and thinking in I have never since found in the world a place so favourable."
Here Carlyle wrote some of his most distinguished essays, began a lifelong friendship with the American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. In 1831, the Carlyles moved to London, settling in lodgings at 4 Ampton Street, Kings Cross. In 1834, they moved to 5 Cheyne Row, which has since been preserved as a museum to Carlyle's memory, he became known as the "Sage of Chelsea", a member of a literary circle which included the essayists Leigh Hunt and John Stuart Mill. Here Carlyle wrote The French Revolution: A History, a historical study concentrating both on the oppression of the poor of France and on the horrors of the mob unleashed; the book was successful. By 1821, Carlyle focused on making a life as a writer, his first fiction was one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel. Following his work on a translation of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, he came to distrust the form of the realistic novel and so worked on developing a new form of fiction. In addition to his essays on German literature, he branched out into wider ranging commentary on modern culture in his influential essays Signs of the Times and Characteristics.
In the latter, he laid down his abiding preference for the natural over the artificial: "Thus, as we have an artificial Poetry, prize only the natural. Moreover, at this time he penned articles appraising the life and works of various poets and men of letters, including Goethe and Diderot, his first major work, Sartor Resartus was begun as an article on "the philosophy of clothes", surprised him by growing into a full-length book. He wrote it in 1831 at his home and was intended to be a new kind of book: factual and fictional and satirical, speculative and historical, it commented on its own formal structure while forcing the reader to confront the problem of where "truth" is to be found. Sartor Resartus was first serialised in Fraser's Magazine from 1833 to 1834; the text presents itself as an unnamed editor's attempt to introduce the British public to Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, a German philosopher of clothes, in fact a fictional creation of Carlyle's. The Edito
Pulcinella is a classical character that originated in commedia dell'arte of the 17th century and became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. Engineered to be the star of southern Italy, he is described as "the voice of the people, as the direct expression of a people as lively and spirited as the Neapolitans is never questioned." Pulcinella's versatility in status and attitude has captivated audiences worldwide and kept the character popular in countless forms since his introduction to commedia dell'arte by Silvio Fiorillo in 1620. Pulcinella was raised by two "fathers", Maccus and Bucco, who were as different as two parents could be. Maccus is described as being witty, sarcastic and cruel, while Bucco is a nervous thief, as silly as he is full of himself; this duality manifested itself in both the way he acts. Physically, the characteristics he inherited from his fathers attributed to his top-heavy, chicken-like shape, he inherited his humpback, his large, crooked nose, his gangly legs from Maccus.
His potbelly, large cheeks, gigantic mouth come from Bucco. Due to this duality of parental lineage, Pulcinella can be portrayed as both a servant and master depending on the scenario. "Upper" Pulcinella is more like Bucco, with a scheming nature, an aggressive sensuality, great intelligence. "Lower" Pulcinella, favors Maccus, is brilliantly described by Pierre Louis Duchartre as being "a dull and coarse bumpkin." This juxtaposition of proud, cunning thief from the upper class and loud, crass pervert from the servant class is one, key to understanding Pulcinella's behaviors. Duality is the name of the game with Pulcinella, he either plays dumb, though he is much aware of the situation or- he acts as though he is the most intelligent and competent, though he is woefully ignorant. He is incessantly trying to rise above his station, he is a social chameleon, who tries to get those below him to think of him, but is sure to appease those in positions of power. Pulcinella's closing couplet translates to "I am Prince of everything, Lord of land and main.
Except for my public whose faithful servant I remain." However, because his world is that of a servant, he has no real investment in preserving the socio-political world of his master. He is always on the side of the winner, though he doesn't decide this until after they've won. No matter his initial intent, Pulcinella always manages to win. If something ends poorly, another thing is successful. If he is put out in a sense, he is rewarded in another; this accidental triumph is his normal. Another important characteristic of Pulcinella is. Consequences are of no mind to him, it is said that he is so wonderful to watch because he does what audience members would do were they not afraid of the consequences. Pulcinella is, the ultimate self-preservationist, looking out for himself in most every situation, yet he still manages to sort out the affairs of everyone around him. Antonio Fava, a world-renowned maskmaker and Maestro of Commedia dell'arte is fond of the character in both performance and study due to his influence and continuity throughout history.
Of him, Fava explained that "Pulcinella, a man without dignity, is indespensable to us all: without... none of his countless'bosses' could escape from the awkward tangle of troubles in which they find themselves. Pulcinella is everyone's saviour, saved by no one." This accidental helpfulness is key to his success. He goes out of his way to avoid responsibility, yet always ends up with more of it than he bargained for, his movements are broad and laborious, allowing him to aggressively emphasize his speech and exhausting him. He will get excited about something and move quickly and deliberately, leaving him with no choice but to halt the action and catch his breath, he is to be thought of as a rebellious delinquent in the body of an old man. Traditionally made of leather, Pulcinella's mask is either black or dark brown, to imply weathering from the sun, his nose is always the most prominent feature of the mask by far. It can be long and curved, hooking over the mouth, but either way, the nose is to resemble that of a bird's beak.
There is a wart somewhere on the mask on the forehead or nose. Furrowed eyebrows and deep wrinkles are important, though there is room for artistic interpretation there, he can have a protruding brow ridge, knitted brows, a furrowed brow, or raised eyebrows. No matter the implication behind them, it is important that they are wrinkled and prominent enough to match the exaggerated style of commedia dell'arte masks; the mask used to feature a bushy black mustache or beard, but this was abandoned through the 17th century for the most part. Pulcinella is most portrayed in a baggy, white ensemble consisting of a long sleeved, loose-fitting blouse with buttons down the front, he paired this with wide-legged trousers, the whole outfit complemented by a belt of sorts that cinches below the belly. This gives him a place to hold props while emphasizing his pot belly. A hat is always worn, it can either be a skull cap, or hat with turn-up brims, a soft conical hat whose point lays down, or a rigid sugar-loaf hat.
The sugar loaf hat gained popularity in the late early 18th centuries. Either hat is white. There are two main props in Pulcinella's arsenal; the first is a cudgel, a short stick used as a weapon. He calls this his "staff of cred
Robert Browning was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. His poems are known for their irony, dark humour, social commentary, historical settings, challenging vocabulary and syntax. Browning's early career collapsed; the long poems Pauline and Paracelsus received some acclaim, but in 1840 the difficult Sordello, seen as wilfully obscure, brought his poetry into disrepute. His reputation took more than a decade to recover, during which time he moved away from the Shelleyan forms of his early period and developed a more personal style. In 1846, Browning married the older poet Elizabeth Barrett, went to live in Italy. By the time of her death in 1861, he had published Women; the collection Dramatis Personae and the book-length epic poem The Ring and the Book followed, made him a leading British poet. He continued to write prolifically, but his reputation today rests on the poetry he wrote in this middle period; when Browning died in 1889, he was regarded as a sage and philosopher-poet who through his writing had made contributions to Victorian social and political discourse.
Unusually for a poet, societies for the study of his work were founded. Such Browning Societies remained common in Britain and the United States until the early 20th century. Robert Browning was born in Walworth in the parish of Camberwell, which now forms part of the Borough of Southwark in south London, he was baptized on 14 June 1812, at Lock's Fields Independent Chapel, York Street, the only son of Sarah Anna and Robert Browning. His father was a well-paid clerk for the Bank of England, earning about £150 per year. Browning's paternal grandfather was a slave owner in Saint Kitts, West Indies, but Browning's father was an abolitionist. Browning's father had been sent to the West Indies to work on a sugar plantation, due to a slave revolt there, had returned to England. Browning's mother was the daughter of a German shipowner who had settled in Dundee in Scotland, his Scottish wife. Browning had Sarianna. Browning's paternal grandmother, Margaret Tittle, who had inherited a plantation in St Kitts, was rumored to have a mixed race ancestry, including some Jamaican blood, but author Julia Markus suggests she was Kittitian rather than Jamaican.
The evidence, however, is inconclusive. Robert's father, a literary collector, amassed a library of many of them rare; as such, Robert was raised in a household of significant literary resources. His mother, to whom he was close, was a devout nonconformist and a talented musician, his younger sister, Sarianna gifted, became her brother's companion in his years, after the death of his wife in 1861. His father encouraged his children's interest in the arts. By 12, Browning had written a book of poetry which he destroyed when no publisher could be found. After being at one or two private schools, showing an insuperable dislike of school life, he was educated at home by a tutor via the resources of his father's extensive library. By 14 he was fluent in French, Greek and Latin, he became a great admirer of the Romantic poets Shelley. Following the precedent of Shelley, Browning became an vegetarian. At 16, he left after his first year, his parents' staunch evangelical faith prevented his studying at either Oxford or Cambridge University, both open only to members of the Church of England.
He had inherited substantial musical ability through his mother, composed arrangements of various songs. He ignored his parents' remonstrations, dedicating himself to poetry, he stayed at home until the age of 34, financially dependent on his family until his marriage. His father sponsored the publication of his son's poems. In March 1833, "Pauline, a Fragment of a Confession" was published anonymously by Saunders and Otley at the expense of the author, Robert Browning, who received the money from his aunt, Mrs Silverthorne, it is a long poem composed in homage to Shelley and somewhat in his style. Browning considered Pauline as the first of a series written by different aspects of himself, but he soon abandoned this idea; the press noticed the publication. W. J. Fox writing in The Monthly Repository of April 1833 discerned merit in the work. Allan Cunningham praised it in the Athenaeum. However, it sold no copies; some years probably in 1850, Dante Gabriel Rossetti came across it in the Reading Room of the British Museum and wrote to Browning in Florence to ask if he was the author.
John Stuart Mill, wrote that the author suffered from an "intense and morbid self-consciousness". Browning was rather embarrassed by the work, only included it in his collected poems of 1868 after making substantial changes and adding a preface in which he asked for indulgence for a boyish work. In 1834, he accompanied the Chevalier George de Benkhausen, the Russian consul-general, on a brief visit to St Petersburg and began Paracelsus, published in 1835; the subject of the 16th century savant and alchemist was suggested to him by the Comte Amédée de Ripart-Monclar, to whom it was dedicated. The publication had some commercial and critical success, being noticed by Wordsworth, Landor, J. S. Mill and the famous Tennyson, it is a monodrama without action, dealing with the problems confronting an intellectual trying to find his role in society. It gained him access to the London literary world; as a result of his new contacts he met Macready, who invited him to wr
The term punch refers to a wide assortment of drinks, both non-alcoholic and alcoholic containing fruit or fruit juice. The drink was introduced from India to the United Kingdom in the early seventeenth century, from there its use spread to other countries. Punch is served at parties in large, wide bowls, known as punch bowls. In the U. S. federal regulations provide the word "punch" to describe commercial beverage products that do not contain fruit or fruit juice. The term is used to label artificially flavored beverages, with or without natural flavorings, which do not contain fruit juice or concentrate in significant proportions, thus a product labeled. The word punch may be a loanword from Sanskrit पञ्च, meaning "five", as the drink was made with five ingredients: alcohol, lemon and tea or spices; some believe the word originates from the English puncheon, a volumetric description for certain sized barrels used to transport alcohol on ships. The drink was brought to England from India by sailors and employees of the British East India Company in the early 17th century.
From there it was introduced into other European countries. When served communally, the drink is expected to be of a lower alcohol content than a typical cocktail; the term punch was first recorded in British documents in 1632. At the time, most punches were of the wassail type made with a brandy base, but around 1655, Jamaican rum came into use, the "modern" punch emerged. By 1671, documents make references to punch houses. Non-alcoholic varieties, which are given to children as well as adults who do not drink alcohol include a mix of some fruit drink such as juice, a sweetener like sugar, it may contain chunks of actual fruit. The non-alcoholic versions are served at highschool dances and other similar social occasions. Commercial manufacturers distribute many types of "fruit punch" beverages; these are red-colored drinks. Despite the name, most brands contain only a small fraction of actual fruit juice, the major constituents being sugar or corn syrup, citric acid, artificial flavors, they are used either as nonalcoholic cocktail mixers.
Hawaiian Punch and Hi-C are two of the better known brands in the US. Other related drinks include Kool-Aid powdered drink mix and Tiki Punch. Most spirit based early alcoholic punches were made using either arrack or rum. Bajan rum punch is one of the oldest rum punches and has a simple recipe enshrined in a national rhyme: "One of Sour, Two of Sweet, Three of Strong, Four of Weak." That is: one part lime juice, two parts sweetener, three parts rum, four parts water. It is served with two of Angostura bitters and nutmeg. There are many rum-based punches, including Planter's Punch, Fish House Punch, Caribbean Rum Punch, others. Arrack based punches were included in Jacob Grohusko's 1910 and Charles Mahoney's 1912 bartenders guides, an early recipe for arrack punch was written by Pehr Osbeck, Olof Torén, Carl Gustaf Ekeberg in their 1771 book, A Voyage to China and the East Indies: It is known to every one how punch is made. To a quart of boiling water, half a pint of arrack is taken, to which one pound of sugar, five or six lemons, or instead of them as many tamarinds as are necessary to give it the true acidity, are added: a nutmeg is grated into it.
The punch, made for the men in our ship was heated with red hot iron balls which were thrown into it. Those who can afford it, make punch a usual drink after dinner. While we stayed in China, we drunk it at dinner instead of wine which the company allowed the first table. Alchoholic punches are common among parties for university students; these punches tend to be alcoholic and made with cheap ingredients. They may be referred to by names such as "grain punch" or "Jungle Juice"; some have 30 % alcohol by volume or more. Blow My Skull is a famous alcoholic punch drink that originated in mid-19th century Australia that contains rum, lime and other ingredients. Bajan Punch is made with rum, lime juice, cane sugar and bitters. Falernum liqueur is frequently added, itself an early form of punch made by steeping cloves with rum and other ingredients. Ti' Punch meaning "small punch", is a rum-based punch, popular in Martinique and other French speaking islands of Caribbean; the drink is traditionally made with white rhum agricole and cane syrup.
Cups is a style of punch, traditionally served before the departure of a hunting party in England, but now served at a variety of social events such as garden parties, tennis matches, picnics, cups are lower in alcohol content than other punches and use wine, sloe gin, or liqueurs as the base. They include quantities of fruit juices or soft drinks. One well known cup is the Pimm's Cup, using Pimm's №1 and British-style lemonade at a ratio of 1:2. Punch refers to a mixture of several fruit juices and spices with wine or liquor added and topped