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Punch and Judy

Punch and Judy is a traditional puppet show featuring Mr. Punch and his wife Judy; the performance consists of a sequence of short scenes, each depicting an interaction between two characters, most Mr. Punch and one other character who falls victim to Punch's slap stick, it is associated with traditional British culture. The various episodes of Punch comedy—often provoking shocked laughter—are dominated by the clowning of Mr. Punch; the show is performed by a single puppeteer inside the booth, known since Victorian times as a "professor" or "punchman", assisted sometimes by a "bottler" who corrals the audience outside the booth, introduces the performance, collects the money. The bottler might play accompanying music or sound effects on a drum or guitar, engage in back chat with the puppets, sometimes repeating lines that may have been difficult for the audience to understand. In Victorian times, the drum and pan pipes were the instruments of choice. Today, most professors work solo, since the need for a bottler became less important when busking with the show gave way to paid engagements at private parties or public events.

In modern shows the audience is encouraged to participate, calling out to the characters on the stage to warn them of danger or clue them in to what is going on behind their backs. The Punch and Judy show has roots in the 16th-century Italian commedia dell'arte; the figure of Punch is derived from the Neapolitan stock character of Pulcinella, anglicized to Punchinello. He is a manifestation of the Lord of Trickster figures of deep-rooted myths. Punch's wife was called "Joan." The figure who became Mr. Punch made his first recorded appearance in England on 9 May 1662, traditionally reckoned as Punch's UK birthday. Punch and Judy began to emerge during the Restoration Period, a period during which art and theatre thrived. King Charles II took the throne in 1660 and replaced Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell, theatre culture began to change. Cromwell adhered to the Puritan belief that theatre was immoral and should be banned. King Charles II's ascension to the throne ended the Interregnum and ushered in a more tolerant period of art and culture.

The diarist Samuel Pepys observed a marionette show featuring an early version of the Punch character in Covent Garden in London. It was performed by a.k.a.. "Signor Bologna." Pepys described the event in his diary as "an Italian puppet play, within the rails there, pretty."In the British Punch and Judy show, Punch speaks in a distinctive squawking voice, produced by a contrivance known as a swazzle or swatchel which the professor holds in his mouth, transmitting his gleeful cackle. This gives Punch a vocal quality. Joan's name was changed to Judy because "Judy" was easier to enunciate with the swazzle than "Joan". So important is Punch's signature sound that it is a matter of some controversy within Punch and Judy circles as to whether a "non-swazzled" show can be considered a true Punch and Judy Show. Other characters do not use the swazzle, so the Punchman has to switch back and forth while still holding the device in his mouth. Punch and Judy shows were traditionally marionette shows when they were brought over from Italy, but were reinvented in the glove puppet style to accommodate the characters' violent movements without the obstruction of marionette strings.

Glove puppets were operated by placing the thumb in one arm, the middle and pinky fingers in the other arm, the index finger in the head. In the early 18th century, the puppet theatre starring Punch was at its height, with showman Martin Powell attracting sizable crowds at both his Punch's Theatre at Covent Garden and earlier in provincial Bath, Somerset. Powell has been credited with being "largely responsible for the form taken by the drama of Punch and Judy". In 1721, a puppet theatre opened in Dublin; the cross-dressing actress Charlotte Charke ran the successful but short-lived Punch's Theatre in the Old Tennis Court at St. James's, presenting adaptations of Shakespeare as well as plays by herself, her father Colley Cibber, her friend Henry Fielding. Fielding ran his own puppet theatre under the pseudonym Madame de la Nash to avoid the censorship concomitant with the Theatre Licensing Act of 1737. Punch was popular in Paris and, by the end of the 18th century, he was playing in Britain's American colonies, where George Washington bought tickets for a show.

However, marionette productions were expensive and cumbersome to mount and transport, presented in empty halls, the back rooms of taverns, or within large tents at England's yearly agricultural events at Bartholomew Fair and Mayfair. In the latter half of the 18th century, marionette companies began to give way to glove-puppet shows, performed from within a narrow, lightweight booth by one puppeteer with an assistant, or "bottler," to gather a crowd and collect money; these shows might travel through country towns or move from corner to corner along busy London streets, giving many performances in a single day. The character of Punch adapted to the new format, going from a stringed comedian who might say outrageous things to a more aggressive glove-puppet who could do outrageous—and violent—things to the other characters; the mobile puppet booth of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Punch and Judy glove-puppet show was covered in checked bed ticking or whatever inexpensive cloth might come to hand.

Victorian booths were gaudier affairs those used for Christmas parties and other

24th Tank Division (Soviet Union)

The 24th Tank Division was a tank division of the Soviet Union, formed twice. The division's first formation was formed in the spring of 1941 and fought in the Leningrad Strategic Defensive before being broken up into two smaller brigades; the division's second formation was formed in 1956 as the 24th Heavy Tank Division and became a regular tank division in 1957. It became a training division in 1960 and was redesignated the 54th District Training Center in 1987 before being disbanded in 1995. Formation of the division began in March 1941, it was part of the 10th Mechanized Corps. It was based in Slutsk; the division was formed from the 2nd Light Tank Brigade. 2nd Light Tank Brigade commander Alexey Rodin became its acting commander. In late May, Colonel M. I. Chesnokov took command of the division; when Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941, the division was ordered to combat readiness. 13 tanks from the 49th Tank Regiment were sent to Pskov, where they remained until redeployment to the Kandalaksha area.

The remaining 20 BT-5 and BT-7 light tanks were not in full working order. By 24 June, all of these tanks were put in full working order, sent to the rail station and moved to the Karelian Isthmus; the 10th Mechanized Corps became part of the 23rd Army reserve east of Vyborg. The division was moved to those positions with its headquarters in Ihantala by 1 July. Due to the German advance on Leningrad from the south, the division transferred to the Luga Operational Group and defended positions in the Luga River area during mid-July. By September 1941 the 24th Tank Division had been dissolved and reformed as the 124th Tank Battalion and 12th Tank Regiment. On 22 September, the division was broken up into the 125th Tank Brigade. On 9 June 1956, the 24th Heavy Tank Division was formed at Kubinka, it included the 177th, 193rd and 207th Heavy Tank Regiments and the 1265th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment. It was part of the Moscow Military District. On 25 June 1957, it was converted to a regular tank division.

At the same time, the division became part of the Baltic Military District. The 285th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment joined the division from the 40th Tank Division. In August 1960, it became a training division. On 19 February 1962, the 381st Separate Training Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion was activated, along with a training missile battalion. In March 1963, the 285th Guards Regiment was replaced by the 3rd Guards Motor Rifle Division's 13th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment; the chemical defence company became the 556th Separate Training Chemical Defence Battalion in 1972. On 14 September 1987, the division became the 54th District Training Center, it became part of the Northwestern Group of Forces in November 1991. In June 1992, the 13th Guards Training Motor Rifle Regiment was detached and became the 25th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, it remained in Ādaži until November 1993. The division withdrew to Strugi Krasnye in August 1994 and became part of the Leningrad Military District.

It was disbanded in 1995. Russian Wikipedia notes on the 13th Rifle Regiment say that from May 1956 to August 1994 the 13th Regiment was stationed in the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and Latvia as part of the 24th Tank Training Division; the regiment was training and preparing junior officers and specialists: BMP commander, gunner guns of drivers of various military vehicles, radio chiefs, commanders of the engineering units. Located in the village of Adazi-2 near the town of Riga. Holm says the regiment was at Adazi until November 1993. In accordance with the Directive of the First Deputy Chief of the Joint Armed Forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States on March 11, 1992 № 314/3/0327, the Directive Commander of North-Western Group of Forces on August 29, 1992 № 6/1 / 0287, 13th Guards Red Banner Sevastopol training Motor Rifle Regiment named Red Latvian Riflemen was reorganised as the 25th Guards Motorized Rifle Brigade Sevastopol Red Banner named after the Latvian Riflemen. In accordance with a directive of the Defence Minister of the Russian Federation on October 11, 1993 № 314/1/001200, Directive General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation on November 11, 1993 № 453/4/01002-25 25th Guards Motorized Rifle Sevastopol Red Banner separate brigade named after the Latvian Riflemen was relocated from Latvia to Pskov Oblast Russia, becoming part of the troops of the Leningrad Military District.

Glantz, David. Stumbling Colossus: The Red Army on the Eve of World War. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0700617890. Khomyakov, Ilya. История 24-й танковой дивизии РККА. St. Petersburg: BODLib

Roman Catholic Diocese of Tepic

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tepic ) is a suffragan Latin diocese in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Guadalajara in western Mexico. Its cathedral episcopal see is the Catedral de la Purísima Concepción, dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, in Tepic, capital of Nayarit state, it has a Minor Basilica: Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Talpa, dedicated to Our Lady of the Rosary, in Talpa de Allende, Jalisco. As per 2014, it pastorally served 1,168,480 Catholics on 22,777 km² in 92 parishes and 36 missions with 214 priests, 205 lay religious and 54 seminarians, it was erected 23 June 1891 as Diocese of Tepic / Tepicen, on territory split off from its Metropolitan, the Archdiocese of Guadalajara. Suffragan Bishops of Tepic Ignacio Díaz y Macedo Andrés Segura y Domínguez Manuel Azpeitia Palomar Anastasio Hurtado y Robles, emeritate as Titular Bishop of Cissa. José Manuel Piña Torres Mario Espinosa Contreras, appointed Bishop of Tehuacán, Puebla in 1996 Jesús Antonio Lerma Nolasco, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of México, Federal District in 2009 List of Catholic dioceses in Mexico Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Tepic GCatholic, with Google map and satellite photo - data for all sections Tehuantepec - Catholic Encyclopedia article "Diocese of Tepic".

Catholic-Hierarchy. Retrieved 2007-02-05