Pune

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Pune
Metropolis
Pune
From top: Fergusson College, Mahatma Gandhi Road (left), Shaniwarwada (right), the HSBC Global Technology India Headquarters, and the National War Memorial Southern Command
Nickname(s): Oxford of the East
Pune is located in India
Pune
Pune
Pune is located in Maharashtra
Pune
Pune
Pune
Coordinates: 18°31′13″N 73°51′24″E / 18.52028°N 73.85667°E / 18.52028; 73.85667Coordinates: 18°31′13″N 73°51′24″E / 18.52028°N 73.85667°E / 18.52028; 73.85667
Country  India
State Maharashtra
District Pune
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Mukta Tilak (BJP)[1][2]
 • Municipal Commissioner Mr. Kunal Kumar
 • Member of Parliament Anil Shirole (BJP, Lok Sabha)[3]
Area[4]
 • Metropolis 729 km2 (281 sq mi)
Area rank 7th
Elevation 560 m (1,840 ft)
Population (2011)[5]
 • Metropolis 3,124,458
 • Rank

7th: India

2nd: Maharashtra
 • Density 4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[6] 5,057,709
 • Metro rank 7th
Demonym(s) Punekar , Puneite
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Postal Index Number 411001 – 411062[7]
Area code(s) +91-20
Vehicle registration MH-12
Official language Marathi
Website www.pune.nic.in
www.punecorporation.org

Pune (Marathi pronunciation: [puɳe] English: /ˈpnə/;[8][9][10][11] spelled Poona during British rule) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra and the seventh most populous city in the country. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river,[12] Pune is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire established by Shivaji; in the 18th century, Pune was the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of the Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.[13]

Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra,[14] Pune is known as "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city,[15][16] the city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune.[17] Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow, the city is known for its manufacturing and automobile industries, as well as for research institutes of information technology (IT), education, management and training, which attracts students, and professionals from India, South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programs with colleges in Europe, the game of Badminton was developed in Pune and the game's earlier name was Poona[18][19]

Pune is one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region, the ‘Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings’ evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second in India after Hyderabad at 144.[20] The same source highlights Pune among evolving business centres and nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies".[21]

Etymology[edit]

The oldest reference to the place is found inscribed on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated AD 937, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya meaning Sacred News.[22]

By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).[23]

History[edit]

Early and medieval[edit]

The circular Nandi mandapa at the Pataleshwar cave temple, built during the Rashtrakuta dynasty.

Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.[24]

Pune was part of the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327; in 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was granted the jagirdari (Fiefdom) of Pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.

Maratha era[edit]

Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar.[25] His grandson, Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune. Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705. When Chhatrapati Shahu succeeded to the Maratha throne in 1707, he wanted to declare Satara the capital but his chief administrators, the Peshwa who were the real power behind the throne, decided Pune was to be their headquarters.

Bhosale Jahagir era[edit]

After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 AD and again between 1636 AD and 1647 AD, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of areas around Pune and in neighbouring area of the Maval region. In addition, he developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order.[26] Construction on the Lal Mahal began in 1631 AD, the Lal Mahal was completed in 1640 AD.[22] Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple, the Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.[27]

During the 27-year-long conflict between the Marathas and the Mughals, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb from 1703 to 1705; during this time, the name of the town was changed to "Muhiyabad".[28] Two years later, once again the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort and later Pune from the Mughals.

Peshwa rule[edit]

An equestrian statue of Baji Rao I (श्रीमंत बाजीराव पेशवे.) outside the Shaniwar Wada, who is credited with successful expansion of Maratha power in North India (circa 1730 CE)[29][30]
A memorial commemorating the Peshwa, Shrimant Madhavrao I, who (with assistance from Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde) resurrected Maratha power in North India (circa 1770 CE)[31]

In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu,[32] he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728 and, in the process, laid the foundation for turning what was a Kasbah into a large city.,[33][34] Bajirao also started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city, the patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in great expansion of Pune with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill.[35] Many of the Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples were built during this era. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period.,[36][37]

Bajirao Peshwa constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada,[38] the aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed in this era. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces in the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power; in 1802, Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.

British rule (1818–1947)[edit]

The then Poona district 1896
Government House of the British authority to Gunesh Khind at Poona in India, seen from the east, around 1875. Leiden University Library, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies.
Fergusson College, founded in 1885 during the British Raj, the first privately governed college in India.[39]

The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817, the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army).

The city was known as Poona during British rule, the Poona Municipality was established in 1858. Railway line from Bombay and run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) also reached the city in 1858,.[40][41] Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.

Centre of social reform and nationalism[edit]

Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence; in the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a major centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor.[42] Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942–44, where both his wife and aide Mahadev Desai died.

Pune since Indian independence[edit]

After Indian independence in 1947 from Britain, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defence Academy at Khadakwasla and the National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army.[43] Industrial development started in the 1950s and '60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri and Parvati.[44] Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector.

In 1990, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. New businesses like floriculture, food processing, and wineries started to take root in and around the city; in 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began, and was completed in 2001.[45] IT Parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi; in 2008, the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the northwest region of the city.[46]

On 13 February 2010, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood on the east side of Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60.[47] The explosion is now suspected to be an IED using an ammonium nitrate fuel oil mix,[48] the blast was a first in what was until then the relatively safe environment of Pune.[49]

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Pune near its airport

Pune is at a height of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain ranges, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea, it is a hilly city, with its highest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet), it lies between 18° 32" North latitude and 73° 51" East longitude. Pune is 1,533 kilometres (953 mi) south of Delhi, 844 kilometres (524 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 kilometres (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai by road.

Central Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha Rivers, the Pavana and Indrayani Rivers, tributaries of the Bhima River, traverse the northwestern outskirts of metropolitan Pune. The city's total area is 729 square kilometres (281 square miles).

Seismology[edit]

Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 3 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate- and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history.

Climate[edit]

Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 19 to 33 °C (66 to 91 °F). Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to June often extending until 15 June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May; although summer doesn't end until mid-June. The city often receives heavy dusty winds in May (and humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude, the highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.[50]

The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of in this region.

The daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperature is below 9 °C (48 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.[51]

Climate data for Pune
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.3
(95.5)
38.9
(102)
42.8
(109)
43.3
(109.9)
43.3
(109.9)
41.7
(107.1)
36.0
(96.8)
35.0
(95)
36.1
(97)
37.8
(100)
36.1
(97)
35.0
(95)
43.3
(109.9)
Average high °C (°F) 30.3
(86.5)
32.8
(91)
36.0
(96.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37.2
(99)
32.1
(89.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
29.3
(84.7)
31.8
(89.2)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
32.0
(89.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
25.6
(78.1)
28.8
(83.8)
29.7
(85.5)
27.4
(81.3)
25.3
(77.5)
24.5
(76.1)
25.1
(77.2)
25.0
(77)
22.3
(72.1)
20.2
(68.4)
24.7
(76.46)
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.7
(69.3)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
22.0
(71.6)
21.4
(70.5)
20.7
(69.3)
18.8
(65.8)
14.7
(58.5)
12.0
(53.6)
18.0
(64.4)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.9
(39)
7.2
(45)
10.6
(51.1)
13.8
(56.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18.9
(66)
17.2
(63)
13.2
(55.8)
9.4
(48.9)
4.6
(40.3)
3.3
(37.9)
1.7
(35.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0.5
(0.02)
5.3
(0.209)
16.6
(0.654)
40.6
(1.598)
116.1
(4.571)
187.2
(7.37)
122.3
(4.815)
120.1
(4.728)
77.9
(3.067)
30.2
(1.189)
4.8
(0.189)
721.7
(28.413)
Average precipitation days 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.1 2.8 7.5 12.8 10.6 7.4 4.6 2.0 0.4 49.9
Average relative humidity (%) 56 46 36 36 48 70 79 82 78 64 58 58 59.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.0 270.0 288.3 2,895.9
Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)[52][53]
Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)[54]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

The population of the Pune city is 3,124,458 and Pune Urban Agglomeration (Pune Metropolitan Area) is 5,057,709 as of the 2011 census,[55] the same was about 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005,[56] the estimated population in 2016 for the Pune metro region is 6,226,959. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001,[57] the sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city.[58] The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 in 2011 compared to 80.45 in 2001.[59][60] Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while English and Hindi are understood by a significant part of the population. Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India to come and settle here, the top five areas of migration are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947.[61]

Religion[edit]

Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Major communities by religion include Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians and Zoroashtrians. Many Temples, Churches, Mosque, Gurudwaras, Buddhist Viharas, Jewish synagogues, Jain temples, Zoroashtrian Fire Temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city.[62]

Islam is the second largest religion in Pune.[63] Pune has a large number of Mosques, the most prominent of which are Chand Tara Masjid, Jaama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. The Eid-gah Maidan located near Golibar Maidan on Shankar Sheth Road witnesses a large gathering of people for Eid namaz on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras. Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar, Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha, Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. Sikhism is one of the major religions of Pune and Sikhs have become an integral part of the society; in the past a Sikh has been elected mayor of Pune. The community also runs 2 schools, the Sikh community in Pune celebrates Gurpurabs with a lot of enthusiasm. They also organise Kirtan Darbars yearly which are attended by many important religious figures of the Sikh community as well as other communities, they serve Langar to all irrespective of the caste, creed or race of a person.

Other important religious places of other religions in Pune are the Ohel David Synagogue, St. Patrick's Cathedral, St. Anthony Shrine, Dapodi Church, JJ Agiary.

The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon off the Nagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama, and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smriti (including the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English. As of the 2011 census, the population of Pune is as follows.[64]

Religion Total Percentage
Hindu 2,481,627 79.43%
Muslims 344,571 11.03%
Buddhist 123,179 3.94%
Jain 76,441 2.45%
Christian 67,808 2.17%
Sikh 13,558 0.43%
Not Stated 10,906 0.35%
Others 6,368 0.20%

Spirituality[edit]

With 200,000 visitors annually, the Osho International Meditation Resort in Pune is one of the largest spiritual centres in the world
Main meditation Dome at Triveni Ashram

The metropolitan Pune area has two of the most important pilgrimage centers for Marathi Hindu people.These are the towns of Alandi where the Samadhi of the 13th century sant Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where 17th century sant Tukaram lived.The annual Vari (foot procession) of the paduka (symbolic sandals) for both these saints in the month of Ashadh (June/July) make a stopover in the city on their way to Pandharpur and attracts hundreds of thousand of devotees

Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers, the controversial Guru Osho (formerly self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh) lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Masters, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She was an Afghan Muslim noted for her great age and outdoor existence, she established her final residence first under an Azadirachta indica tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later under another A. indica tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi, where she remained for the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected in her honour in Pune, around the tree under which she made her final home.[65][better source needed]

Pune is also home to the temples of some other saints who had a large inter-religious following, the Shankar Maharaj Math on Satara road is the place where the great spiritual master 'Shri Shankar Maharaj' rests.[66] The Jangli Maharaj Mandir is the final resting place of Jangli Maharaj, the Mali Maharaj Mandir in Somwar Peth is a very important place of worship of the Nath Pai Sect of Hinduism. The Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at the start of Sinhgad Road is famous for its teachings of Vedanta, the ISKCON temple in the Camp area and the Hare Rama Hare Krishna Mission in the Model Colony Area.

There is a significant Sikh population in Pune. There are a number of Gurudwaras (Sikh Temples) for Sikhs. Gurudwaras in Camp, Kharki, Aundh, Pimpri, Akrudi, and Budhwar Peth are the prominent ones. The Camp Gurudwara is one of the main gurudwaras, with hundreds of people visiting it every day, it is named as "Guru Nanak Darbar" and some people also call it "Hollywood Gurudwara". This complex includes a charitable hospital, community kitchen for Langar and Sarai for refugees.[67]

Economy[edit]

Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune
Cognizant's Delivery Centre in Pune
Infosys Pune

As one of the largest cities of India and major centre of learning with several colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy [68] and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.[69]

Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors (Firodia-Group), Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City".[70]

The Kirloskar Group, was the first to bring industry to Pune by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. in 1945 at Kirkee in Pune. The Group was originally set up in Kirloskarwadi.[71] Kirloskar Brothers Limited (One of India's largest manufacturer and exporter of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia[72][73]), Kirloskar Oil Engines (India's largest diesel engine company[74]), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co. Ltd., and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.

The Hinjawadi IT Park (officially called the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park) is a project being started by MIDC to house the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjawadi IT Park is expected to encompass an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2). The estimated investment in the project is 600 billion (US$9.4 billion).[75] To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties on MIDC land,[76] the IT sector employs more than 70,000 people. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a 7 billion (US$110 million) project in Hinjawadi.[76]

World Trade Centre in Pune, Maharashtra

Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank, it is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.[77][78]

Pune has also emerged as a new startup hub in India with tech startups like Pubmatic, Firstcry.com, Storypick.com, TripHobo,[79] TastyKhana.com (acquired by Foodpanda),[80] Swipe setting up base in Pune.[81] NASSCOM in association with MIDC have started a co-working space for city based startups under its '10,000 startup' initiative at Kharadi MIDC.[82] It will incubate startup such as Kandawale from OhMyDealer in first batch.

The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to get a boost once the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) completes in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC will boast a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq ft). It will have seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences, the US$115 million project is developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.[83] Nowadays a growing number of automotive dealerships are springing up all over the city, they include luxury car makers like Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Audi, and motorcycle manufacturers like Kawasaki, KTM, Benelli, Ducati, BMW and Harley Davidson.

Industry[edit]

Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume has a manufacturing plant located in Pune.[84]

Pune is the largest hub in India for German companies.[85] According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here.[86]

Administration[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

PMC Building

The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) (पुणे महानगरपालिका), the Corporation consists of 41 electoral wards governed by 162 directly elected councillors,[87] who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Government of Maharashtra.

The Pune Municipal Corporation was ranked 8th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[88]

Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA) formed in 2015 is responsible for the integrated development of the metro region. Currently its jurisdiction extends over 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi).[89]

Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune metropolitan region:

A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon Dabhade, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but has still not been put into place.[93] This body would be the executing authority which would acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastructure of the Pune metropolitan area.

The Pune Police is headed by the Police Commissioner of Pune, an officer of the Indian Police Service, the Pune Police report to the state ministry.

Military establishments[edit]

Pune was the largest military camp for the British forces during the Raj era, and the architecture in the Cantonment area is reminiscent of that era, the majority of the old Cantonment land in the city is now occupied by the Indian Army for housing its garrisons and officers.[94] The Southern Command, a World War II Indian Army formation, has its headquarters in Pune cantonment, the city is home to Lohegaon Aerodrome (previously RAF Station Pune), the city's airport and Indian Air Force airfield. Due to its strategic location and close proximity to Mumbai, it houses advanced fighter aircraft of the Indian Air Force such as the Sukhoi-30MKI multi-role strike fighters.

The National Defence Academy (NDA) is an integrated military training centre that provides education up to the graduation level and joint training for cadets of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force,[95] the NDA estate is spread over 8,028 acres (3,249 ha) of land in Khadakwasla near Pune and contains apart from NDA facilities, a mini sanctuary and Peacock Bay, a thumb-shaped inlet into the VIP residential area of the Faculty at the Academy, where the NDA sailing/boating facilities are housed. The lake itself is now known as Khadakvasla Lake, earlier known as Lake Fife in the British era, and is one of the lakes that provide water to Pune city.[96]

Pune hosts the Military Intelligence Training School and Depot which offers diploma courses in Counter Intelligence, Combat Intelligence, Aerial Imagery and Interpretation, and others.[97]

Education and research[edit]

Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the University of Pune, which is the second largest University in the country (based on total number of colleges),[98] students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune.

Basic and special education[edit]

Public schools (known locally as "municipality schools") are run by the Pune Municipal Corporation, and are affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. Notable schools include Jnana Prabodhini Prashala.

Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India.[99] Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française.

University education[edit]

Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University (formerly University of Pune), established in 1948. Seven other universities have also been established in the city.[100]

The College of Engineering Pune, now an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra, founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia, the Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak,[101] and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885.

Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, includes colleges such as Symbiosis Institute of Business Management (SIBM, Pune), Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development (SCMHRD),Symbiosis Law School (SLS) and Symbiosis Institute of International Business (SIIB) which are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country,[102][103] and Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research (SICSR) which is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology. Pune is also home to Symbiosis Institute of Technology of the Symbiosis family.[104]

ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society, is one of the top ten law schools in India.[105] Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India,[106] the Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road.

The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the Savitribai Phule Pune University campus that has been operational since 1987, this department features a combination of Gurukul and formal education systems.[107]

Research Institutes[edit]

Pune is home to some of India's important research institutes, some of the major research centres are:

Architecture[edit]

Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune. Photo taken January 2013.

In addition to its temples, historical attractions in and around Pune include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal, and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the Great Maratha Sardar, Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) who was instrumental in establishing the Maratha supremacy over North India.[112]

The city is also known for its British Raj "bungalow architecture" and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment in the early Twentieth Century. Christopher Charles Benninger landmark architectural works surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.

Museums, parks and zoos[edit]

Pu. La. Deshpande Garden

Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.

Pune has public gardens such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills, and Bund Garden Pune. The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.[113]

The Aga Khan Palace was built in 1892 by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune.

The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city,[114] the zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetal Tekdi, and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.

Pune City Expansion (Kharadi)

As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions,[115][116] this has created what has become an exclusive environment in the government's expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community, the Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.

Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest closed theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000.[117]

The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Pt. Sawai Gandharva.[118] The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.[119]

Peths in Pune[edit]

Peth is a general term, in the Marathi language, for a locality in the Indian city of Pune. Up to seventeen peths are located in central Pune, and were mostly established during Maratha and Peshwa rule in the 17th-19th century AD. Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi: traders and craftsmen in a given locality mainly conducted business only on that day of the week.

Today the peths form the heart of Pune city, and are referred to as the old city, or simply city, they are considered to be the cultural heart of Pune.

Sports and recreation[edit]

Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune, the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.

Cricket[edit]

Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association, which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtra, competes in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium used to be the venue for National and One Day International matches until 2012. This stadium is named after the first Prime Minister of Independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

An Indian Premier League cricket team based in Pune began play in 2011, the team, named Pune Warriors India, was bought for ₹17.02 billion or $370 million. It was the most expensive team in the Indian Premier League, and was owned by the Sahara Group, this team was later expelled from the league before the 7th season of the IPL started due to financial issues between Sahara Group and IPL.[120] As a home ground for the Pune Warriors, the Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium (with a seating capacity of 37,000) was built in Gahunje on the Mumbai – Pune express way and was inaugurated on 1 April 2012. Called the Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium earlier (after the founder of Sahara Group), it was renamed to Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium in 2013. The stadium has since been used by the Maharashtra state team and also hosted international cricket - T20s, ODIs, and a Test Match.[121]

In Indian Premier League, a new franchise from Pune, Rising Pune Supergiant, played for two seasons, 2016 and 2017, the team is owned by Sanjiv Goenka's RPG Group.

Football[edit]

Pune Football Club, also known as Pune F.C., is a recently founded football club that plays in the I-League. It was established in August 2007.

FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football franchise in Pune, Maharashtra, that will begin play in September 2014 during the inaugural season of the Indian Super League. The club is owned and operated by Bollywood actor Hrithik Roshan, Wadhawan Group and Italian football club ACF Fiorentina. FC Pune City is well known for signing the best football players in India and big names from overseas.

Bharat FC is the latest football based in Pune. The club, which plays Indian Football League, was founded by Kalyani Group in 2014.

DSK Shivajians Football Club is an Indian football club based in Pune, Maharashtra. DSK Shivajians was founded in 1987 and in 2013 they played their first ever national season in the 2013 I-League 2nd Division, their intention was to place the team in the top tier of Indian football (the I-League). English club Liverpool announced a partnership with DSK Shivajians in India, the partnership is pertinent in the academy setup, with academy players trained by coaches representing Liverpool playing for DSK Shivajians U19.

Poona District Football Association (PDFA) is established in year 1972 with motive to create a platform for youths for developing, nurturing and to promote the game at grass root level. PDFA is successful in nurturing and producing many young aspirants, at present there are 4 divisions under the PDFA with the total of about more than 100 teams registered.[122]

Other sports[edit]

Pune has basketball at the Deccan Gymkhana club and at Fergusson College,[123] the city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up at the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season.The 2008 Common wealth youth games were also conducted in Pune in the Balewadi stadium.

The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune, it is normally a two- or three-day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing, and rifle shooting.[124] The city has been host to the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

Pune Race Course, located in Pune Cantonment, was built in 1830 over 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land. The land is controlled by the Indian Army, the racing season is from July to October every year. The Royal Western India Turf Club manages the racecourse, the course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. Major racing events include the Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup, and the Southern Command Cup.[125]

Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in the Sahakarnagar area, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground, it is the first skatepark in India built by the government with approximately seventy lakhs spent on the project.[126]

Names of various sports teams which represent Pune in sports leagues across India :

Club Sport League Home Ground Duration
FC Pune City Football Indian Super League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014 –
Maharashtra cricket team Cricket Ranji Trophy and Vijay Hazare Trophy Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 1934 –
Pune Marathas American Football Elite Football League of India Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2011 –
Pune Marathas Tennis Champions Tennis League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014 –
Puneri Paltan Kabaddi Star Sports Pro Kabaddi League Balewadi Sports Complex 2014–
Pune Peshwas Basketball UBA Pro Basketball League 2015 –
Pune Pistons Badminton Indian Badminton League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2013 –
Pune Strykers Field Hockey World Series Hockey PCMC Hockey Stadium 2012 –
Rising Pune Supergiants Cricket Indian Premier League Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2016 –
Bharat FC Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014–2015
DSK Shivajians F.C. Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2013–2015
Pune F.C. Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2007–2015
Pune Warriors India Cricket Indian Premier League Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2010–2013

Sports institutions[edit]

Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the Deccan Gymkhana, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, The Poona Golf Club, The Poona Cricket Club, and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at Balewadi, the Nehru Stadium was the home ground of the Maharashtra Cricket Team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. Now the home ground of Maharashtra Cricket Team is the State-of-Art Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium at Gahunje which is also the headquarters of Maharashtra Cricket Association. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions, the facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994 as well as the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river.

Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, Chandu Borde, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Sujay Ghorpade. Abhijit Kunte, Isar Qureshi, and Pravin Thipsay are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay is ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team.

When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Pune was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season, although the team's games will be played in Balewadi. All 56 games of EFLI's opening season will be played at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex, which will be retrofitted to host the sport. Named the Pune Marathas, it will be Pune's first professional American football franchise.[127][128]

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Departure Lounge at Pune Airport

Pune International Airport is an international Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base;[129] in addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves international direct flights to Dubai (operated by Air India Express)[130] and to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa).[131]

The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a New Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from central Pune. With the construction of this new International Airport, Pune city will be connected to many important international destinations such as London, New York, Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo.[132]

Rail[edit]

Pune railway station – Entrance

Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Jaipur, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Chennai, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar,Ranchi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed.[133]

The Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of the Central Railways.[134] All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge, the city also has a Motive power depot located at Ghorpadi. It is operated for Diesel Locomotives.

Roads[edit]

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway India's first Expressway as seen from Khandala
A highway leading into Pune

Both public and private transport are popular in Pune. Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). The PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city; in reality the project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little to no patronage from the local citizenry.[135] Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from its main stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India.[136]

Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. NH 65 to Hyderabad, Suryapet, Vijayawada and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002, this expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to almost two hours. A ring road is being planned for the convenience of heavy traffic,[137] on the express highway only four wheelers are allowed, thus only private cars, buses and taxis can travel on this route.

Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Pune-Mumbai Highway and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4, the Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50 will be part of the golden triangle (Nashik-Pune-Mumbai).

Metro[edit]

A mass transit system called Pune Metro has been proposed for the city.[138] and is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. It will be a combination of elevated and underground sections, with initial routes being planned between Pimpri-Swargate and Vanaz-Ramwadi. Surveying and design work has begun as of June 2017.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities
"Informal" relationship

Notable people[edit]

This includes people who had a lifelong association with the place, or made their significant contribution during their residency here.

Maratha rule[edit]

British era[edit]

Post-independence era[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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