Pune is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 6.4 million. Along with its extended city limits Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.

It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student exchange programmes with colleges in Europe; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.

Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune, it changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1680 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.

From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years in the Battle of Sinhagad, the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.

The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. Historian Govind Sakharam Sardesai lists 163 prominent families that held high ranks and played significant roles in politics and finance in 18th century Pune. Of these 163 families, a majority were Deshastha Brahmins, 46 were Chitpawan, 15 were Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu whereas Karhade Brahmin and Saraswat accounted for 11 families each.

The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British, it was placed under the administration of

Warley (UK Parliament constituency)

Warley is a constituency in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. The constituency was established in 1997, has been represented since that date by John Spellar, a member of the Labour Party; the constituency has a wide range of housing on the hilly West Midlands terrain, with fast transport links to Birmingham and Wolverhampton. Workless claimants, registered jobseekers, were in November 2012 higher than the national average of 3.8%, at 7.7% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian however female unemployment, reflecting a central West Midlands pattern with more women homemakers, unusually exceeded male unemployment at 10.1%. Warley is one of four constituencies covering the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, covering the south and south-east of the borough, it covers much of the former County Borough of Warley, including the town of Smethwick as well as Brandhall and Langley Green. It consists of The Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell wards of Abbey, Langley, Old Warley, St Paul's, Soho and Victoria.

Creation and forerunnersThe constituency was formed in 1997, is for the most part the former Warley East constituency. John Spellar of the Labour Party has represented Warley since 1997, having represented Warley West. Warley East and Warley West had been held by Labour since their creation in 1974. Minor parts of the seat around Oldbury had been in the quite marginal Labour-Conservative seat of Oldbury and Halesowen before 1974. Results of winning partyThe 2015 result made the seat the 34th-safest of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority; the elections have to date resulted in the Labour incumbent, gaining more than 50% of votes cast. Opposition partiesThe candidates fielded by the Conservative Party have taken the runner-up position since the seat's creation. Third place has varied between two parties to date in the seat's history. TurnoutTurnout has ranged from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.1% in 1997. List of Parliamentary constituencies in the West Midlands Notes References

John Dowland

John Dowland was an English Renaissance composer and singer. He is best known today for his melancholy songs such as "Come, heavy sleep", "Come again", "Flow my tears", "I saw my Lady weepe" and "In darkness let me dwell", but his instrumental music has undergone a major revival, with the 20th century's early music revival, has been a continuing source of repertoire for lutenists and classical guitarists. Little is known of John Dowland's early life, but it is thought he was born in London. Irish historian W. H. Grattan Flood claimed that he was born in Dalkey, near Dublin, but no corroborating evidence has been found either for that or for Thomas Fuller's claim that he was born in Westminster. There is however one clear piece of evidence pointing to Dublin as his place of origin: he dedicated the song "From Silent Night" to'my loving countryman Mr. John Forster the younger, merchant of Dublin in Ireland'; the Forsters were a prominent Dublin family at the time, providing several Lord Mayors to the city.

In 1580 Dowland went to Paris, where he was in service to Sir Henry Cobham, the ambassador to the French court, his successor Sir Edward Stafford. He became a Roman Catholic at this time. In 1584, Dowland married. In 1588 he was admitted Mus. Bac. from Christ Church, Oxford. In 1594 a vacancy for a lutenist came up at the English court, but Dowland's application was unsuccessful – he claimed his religion led to his not being offered a post at Elizabeth I's Protestant court. However, his conversion was not publicised, being Catholic did not prevent some other important musicians from a court career. From 1598 Dowland worked at the court of Christian IV of Denmark, though he continued to publish in London. King Christian was interested in music and paid Dowland astronomical sums. Though Dowland was regarded by King Christian, he was not the ideal servant overstaying his leave when he went to England on publishing business or for other reasons. Dowland was returned to England. There are few compositions dating from the moment of his royal appointment until his death in London in 1626.

While the date of his death is not known, "Dowland's last payment from the court was on 20 January 1626, he was buried at St Ann's, London, on 20 February 1626."Two major influences on Dowland's music were the popular consort songs, the dance music of the day. Most of Dowland's music is for the lute, it includes several books of solo lute works, lute songs, part-songs with lute accompaniment, several pieces for viol consort with lute. The poet Richard Barnfield wrote that Dowland's "heavenly touch upon the lute doth ravish human sense." One of his better known works is the lute song "Flow my tears", the first verse of which runs: He wrote what is his best known instrumental work, Lachrimae, or Seaven Teares, Figured in Seaven Passionate Pavans, a set of seven pavanes for five viols and lute, each based on the theme derived from the lute song "Flow my tears". It became one of the best known collections of consort music in his time, his pavane, "Lachrymae antiquae", was popular in the seventeenth century, was arranged and used as a theme for variations by many composers.

He wrote a lute version of the popular ballad "My Lord Willoughby's Welcome Home". Dowland's music displays the melancholia, so fashionable in music at that time, he wrote a consort piece with the punning title "Semper Dowland, semper dolens", which may be said to sum up much of his work. Richard Barnfield, Dowland's contemporary, refers to him in poem VIII of The Passionate Pilgrim, a Shakespearean sonnet: Only one comprehensive monograph of Dowland's life and works is available in print; the fullest list is. P numbers are therefore sometimes used to designate individual pieces. Published by Thomas Est in 1592, The Whole Booke of Psalmes contained works by 10 composers, including 6 pieces by Dowland. Put me not to rebuke, O Lord All people that on earth do dwell My soul praise the Lord Lord to thee I make my moan Behold and have regard A Prayer for the Queens most excellent Maiestie The New Booke of Tabliture was published by William Barley in 1596, it contains seven solo lute pieces by Dowland.

Written for the professional choir of Westminster Abbey. The Lamentation of a sinner Domine ne in furore Miserere mei Deus The humble sute of a sinner The humble complaint of a sinner De profundis Domine exaudi Of uncertain attribution are: Ye righteous in the Lord An heart that's broken I shame at my unworthiness Dowland in London in 1597 published his First Booke of Songes or Ayres, a set of 21 lute-songs and one of the most influential collections in the history of the lute, it is set out in a way that allows performance by a soloist with lute accompaniment or by various other combinations of singers and instrumentalists. The lute-songs are listed below. After them, at the end of the collection, comes "My Lord Chamberlaine, His Galliard", a piece for two people to play on one lute. Vnquiet thoughts Who euer thinks or hopes of loue for loue My thoughts are wingd with hopes If my complaints could passions moue Can she excuse my wrongs with vertues cloake Now, O now I needs must part Deare if you change ile neuer chuse againe Burst forth my teares Go Cristal