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Punjab

The Punjab spelled and romanised as Panjāb, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; the geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time: in the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a smaller area lying between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. In British India, until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi, it bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, their principal language is Punjabi; the main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. The main religion of the Indian Punjab region is Sikhism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Ravidassia.

The Punjab region was the cradle for the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region had numerous migration by the Indo-Aryan peoples; the land was contested by the Persians, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Macedonians, Turkic, Timurids, Marathi, Pashtuns and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions; the Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan. The region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean; the origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "panca-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in Mahabharata. The name for the region, Punjab is a compound of two Persian words: پنج panj —meaning "five"—and آب âb —meaning "water", introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means " Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas.

All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest. The Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía, which has the same etymology as the original Persian word, but is otherwise known as Pantzáb —a transliteration of the original word. In the 16th century, during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar, the term "Punjab" was synonymous with the Lahore province, it covered a smaller area lying between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. The 19th century definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir.

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi; the 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory.

In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana. Another definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contrib

Line of succession to the former Albanian throne

The line of succession to the former Albanian throne is an ordered list of those eligible to succeed to the headship of the Royal House of Albania, grand mastership of the dynastic orders and ascend the throne of Albania in the event the monarchy is restored. The native monarchy of Albania was deposed in 1939; the current head of the royal house is Prince of the Albanians. The first modern Albanian monarchy, the Principality of Albania was established on 21 February 1914; the German prince William of Wied was selected by the Great Powers to rule the newly independent country. Prince William left Albania on 3 September 1914 due to serious unrest in the country. Prince William never renounced his claim to the throne and was succeeded upon his death in 1945 by his only son Carol Victor, Hereditary Prince of Albania. With the childless death of the Hereditary Prince in 1973 the Wied claim to the Albanian throne is unclear; as of 2015

2017–18 Andros Trophy

The 2017–18 Andros Trophy was the twenty-eighth season of the Andros Trophy, a motor racing championship for automobile ice racing and motorcycle ice racing held in France and Andorra. The season finished on 3 February 2018 at Super Besse. Jean-Baptiste Dubourg was the defending Elite Pro Drivers' champion; every driver participates in an electric Andros Trophy car. Notes The AMV Cup Final and Super Final were always run on the last day of an event with Serre Chevalier being an exception, where the first Final and Super Final were run on the first day and the second Final and Super Final were run on the last day. Elite Pro/ElitePoints were awarded for both the two Qualifying sessions, Super Pole and the Super Final. Only the best result of both Qualifying sessions counted; the best time of a driver decided the classification in case of a tie break. For example if Driver A became first in Q1 and eighth in Q2 and Driver B became second in Q1 and first in Q2, but Driver A set the best time A would receive the most points.

The sum of the points received after Qualifying and Super Pole decided the starting grid for the Super Final. There was no Super Pole in the Elite championship. Points were awarded based on the results. At all events the field was split up into two groups; the top eight drivers after Qualifying raced in a normal Super Final and the other drivers raced in a Final. Because eight drivers raced in the Super Final, the winner of the Final was classified as ninth. ÉlectriqueThe Électrique championship had the same scoring system as the Elite Pro and Elite championships, but with different number of points and the Super Final was called a Final. In contrast to the Elite Pro championship, there was no Super Pole. AMV CupPoints are awarded based on finishing positions of the Final and Super Final as shown in the chart below. Points droppedIn the Elite Pro, Elite and Électrique championships each driver's two lowest-scoring rounds were dropped from their total. Bold – Pole position Italics – Fastest lap in Final – Round dropped from total Notes Positions under'Q' indicate the classification after Qualifying, but before Super Pole.

1 2 3 4 5 refers to the classification of the drivers after Super Pole. Only the best two drivers in Elite Pro and the best two drivers in Elite of one team were eligible to score points. NotesThe car numbers without B behind them indicate Elite Pro entries and with B behind them indicate Elite entries. Official website