Caribbean reef shark
The Caribbean reef shark is a species of requiem shark, belonging to the family Carcharhinidae. It is found in the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil. With a robust, streamlined body typical of the sharks, this species is difficult to tell apart from other large members of its family such as the dusky shark. Distinguishing characteristics include dusky-colored fins without prominent markings, a free rear tip on the second dorsal fin. Measuring up to 3 m long, the Caribbean reef shark is one of the largest apex predators in the ecosystem, feeding on a variety of fishes. They have been documented resting motionless on the sea bottom or inside caves, if threatened, it may perform a threat display in which it frequently changes direction and dips its pectoral fins. Like other requiem sharks, it is viviparous with females giving birth to 4–6 young every other year. Caribbean reef sharks are of importance to fisheries as a source of meat, liver oil, and fishmeal. In the Bahamas and elsewhere, bait is used to them to groups of divers in controversial shark feedings.
This species is responsible for a number of attacks on humans. The shark attacks usually happen in the part of the year. The Caribbean reef shark was described as Platypodon perezi by Felipe Poey in 1876. The type specimens were six individuals caught off the coast of Cuba, the genus Platypodon was synonymized with Carcharhinus by authors. However, more work is required to resolve the interrelationships within Carcharhinus. However, it is rare north of the Florida Keys. It prefers shallow waters on or around reefs, and is commonly found near the drop-offs at the reefs outer edges. This shark is most common in water shallower than 30 m, a heavy-bodied shark with a typical streamlined shape, the Caribbean reef shark is difficult to distinguish from other large requiem shark species. It usually measures 2–2.5 m long, the recorded length is 3 m
A balneario is a Latin American seaside resort town, although they may occur along great lakes, rivers and at hot springs. In Spain, balneario typically only refers to spa town resorts, whatever the case, these resorts offer recreation, entertainment, food and safety services and cultural events. These balneario towns are characterized by being flooded by masses of tourists during the summer seasons, balnearios may be as simple as a beach or as complex as a planned city. Balnearios are characterized by having beaches, hot climates, being seasonal destinations, attracting foreign tourists, the word comes from Spanish, and the difference between a playa and a balneario is the services provided at the balneario. Some balnearios have been closed in recent years due to levels of pollution. These popular usually public resorts are often politicized and this is since they provide recreation for the masses at any income level due to their a la carte availability of amenities. Some politicians will even support their expansion during recessions because of how volatile the repercussions would be to not support them, new balnearios of the hot springs kind and others are often touted as job creating business expanding measures by local councils. A beach is simply a stretch of shoreline, usually sandy and it is a specific recreational destination with features such as bathrooms, changing rooms, and picnic tables
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to improve understanding and stewardship of the environment. In addition to its employees, over 11,000 as of 2015, NOAA research. NOAA plays several roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the U. S. economy and into the larger global community. NOAA supplies information to its customers and partners pertaining to the state of the oceans and this is clearly manifest in the production of weather warnings and forecasts through the National Weather Service, but NOAAs information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services, NOAA is the steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research, the five fundamental activities are and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks.
Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data and predicting the changes of these systems over time. Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information, managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA formed a conglomeration of several existing agencies that were among the oldest in the federal government, NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No.4 of 1970. In 2007 NOAA celebrated 200 years of service with its ties to the United States Coast, the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps is a uniformed service of men and women who operate NOAA ships and aircraft, and serve in scientific and administrative posts. And in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library and this is done through a collection of national and regional centers,13 river forecast centers, and more than 120 local weather forecast offices.
They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, and more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming. The NWS operates NEXRAD, a network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements, watches. The National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe, healthy, in 1960 TIROS-1, NOAAs first owned and operated geostationary satellite was launched. Since 1966 NESDIS has managed polar orbiting satellites and since 1974 it has operated geosynchronous satellites, in 1979 NOAAs first polar-orbiting environmental satellite was launched
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa.
The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific.
Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom.
Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London.
For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force
It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day, the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration, an important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This takes account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is often used to promote tourist destinations, if the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth. However, there are physical and astronomical effects that change that picture, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible even when it physically sets below the horizon.
For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime,4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575. Because of elliptic nature of the Earths orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical, the Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, bright sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just visible hours. Visible sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape.
In 2003, the duration was finally defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². The sky is clear in these regions, and fair weather is virtually perpetual, the descending branch of the Hadley cell and the long-term lack of atmospheric disturbances helps to explain the seemingly endless supply of sunny, cloud-free days in the deserts. Low clouding conditions are associated with rainfall shortage, as seen in these dry regions. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3, 600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually. The largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa, the sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with almost 23 hours of bright sun daily
Texaco, Inc. is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel Texaco with Techron and it owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until its operations merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. It began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, and Arnold Schlaet upon the discovery of oil at Spindletop. For many years, Texaco was the company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 US states, as well as Canada. It was one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Its current logo features a star in a red circle. The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3. The Texaco brand is strong in the U. S and it has a presence in Europe as well, for example, it is a well-known retail brand in the UK, with around 1,100 Texaco-branded service stations.
Texaco was founded in Beaumont, Texas as the Texas Fuel Company in 1901, in 1905, it established an operation in Antwerp, under the name Continental Petroleum Company, which it acquired control of in 1913. The next year, Texaco moved to new offices in Houston on the corner of San Jacinto, in 1928, Texaco became the first U. S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states. In 1931, Texaco purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois and this expanded Texacos refining and marketing base in the Midwest and gave Texaco the rights to Indians Havoline motor oil, which became a Texaco product. It was promoted through a program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn. In 1936, the Texas Corporation purchased the Barco oil concession in Colombia, over the next three years the company engaged in a highly challenging project to drill wells and build a pipeline to the coast across mountains and through uncharted swamps and jungles. During this time, Texaco illegally supplied the fascist Gen.
Franco faction in Spanish Civil War, despite a federal fine, the next year, Texaco commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. In 1938, Texaco introduced Sky Chief gasoline, a premium fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just a regular product. ”This espionage easily enabled Hitler to destroy the ships. During the war, Texaco ranked 93rd among United States corporations in the value of military production contracts, in 1947, Caltex expanded to include Texacos European marketing operations. That same year, Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent, it gained control of Regent in 1956
The southern stingray is a whiptail stingray found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Western Atlantic Ocean from New Jersey to southern Brazil. It has a flat, diamond-shaped disc, with a mud brown, the barb on its tail is serrated and covered in a venomous mucous, used for self-defense. The southern stingray is adapted for life on the sea bed, the flattened, diamond-shaped body has sharp corners, making it more angular than the discs of other rays. The top of the varies between olive brown and green in adults, dark grey in juveniles, whilst the underside is predominantly white. The wing-like pectoral fins are used to propel the stingray across the bottom, whilst the slender tail possesses a long and venomous spine at the base. These spines are not fatal to humans, but are incredibly painful if stepped on, the eyes are situated on top of the head of the southern stingray, along with small openings called spiracles. The location of the spiracles enables the stingray to take in water whilst lying on the seabed, water enters the spiracles and leaves through the gill openings, bypassing the mouth which is on the underside.
Female stingrays can grow to a width of 150 cm. Southern stingrays are nocturnal predators, who spray water from their mouths or flap their fins vigorously to disturb the substrate and expose hidden prey. This bottom-dwelling species is found singly or in pairs. Dasyatis americana exhibit wave-like locomotion using their pectoral fins and this wave-like motion is important for Dasyatis americana because it allows them to escape predators, forage efficiently, and generally maneuver quickly. Typically, they travel large distances and their area is very expansive. One study provided observations that Dasyatis americana swim along the tide, Dasyatis americana are able to do this because of their high maneuverability and efficient wave-like locomotion. Dasyatis americana either remain solitary or form groups, groups of Dasyatis americana are usually observed when they mate, for predator protection or even when they are just resting. As mentioned earlier in this article, the Dasyatis americana swim with a motion, thus making it easier for them to maneuver.
They can be identified as opportunistic feeders and continuous foragers, since they exhibit continuous feeding of multiple organisms throughout the day, to avoid predators, Dasyatis americana bury and cover themselves in substrate. Their tails contain venom and are utilized as protection from predators. Some predators of Dasyatis americana are humans and Hammerhead Sharks, in shallow waters, there is a commensal foraging relationship between Dasyatis americana fish and Phalacrocorax auritus birds in coastal areas generally like the Gulf of Mexico
Dominican Liberation Party
The Dominican Liberation Party is the current governing political party in the Dominican Republic. Founded in 1973 by former president Juan Bosch, the party, the party has been elected into office four times now, with Danilo Medina as current President of the Dominican Republic, in the 1996,2004,2008 and 2012 elections, though losing in 2000. In May 2006 the party and its allies gained control of both houses of Congress. At the legislative elections,16 May 2002, the party won 29. 1% of the vote and 41 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 2 out of 31 seats in the Senate. Its candidate at the election of 16 May 2004, Leonel Fernández. Founded by Juan Bosch in 1973, the PLD originally was considerably to the left of Boschs original party, today the party is seen gravitating towards a more centrist platform and embraces many neoliberal policies away from its post-communist and neomarxist past. Bosch ran for president as the party’s candidate several times, and he did not run for another term in 2000, but returned to the presidency in 2004.
The partys logo is a yellow five-pointed star on a purple background, in the 16 May 2006 legislative elections, the party led the Progressive Bloc, that won 96 out of 178 deputies and 22 out of 32 senators. On May 16,2008, presidential elections were carried and PLD candidate Leonel Fernández won 54%, defeating 7 other presidential candidates. On May 16,2010, congressional and municipal elections held, Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Dominican Liberation Party official site
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest and it requires less water vapor to attain high relative humidity at low temperatures, more water vapour is required to attain high relative humidity in warm or hot air. Humans are sensitive to high humidity because the body uses evaporative cooling, enabled by perspiration. Perspiration evaporates from the more slowly under humid conditions than under arid. For example, if the air temperature is 24 °C and the humidity is zero percent. If the relative humidity is 100 percent at the air temperature. In other words, if the air is 24 °C and contains saturated water vapor, the human body cools itself at the rate as it would if it were 27 °C. The heat index and the humidex are indices that reflect the effect of temperature. In cold climates, the temperature causes lower capacity for water vapour to flow about.
Dry cracked skin can result from dry air, low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a cause of nosebleeds. The use of a humidifier in homes, especially bedrooms, can help with these symptoms, indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupants nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a range of humidities depending on the temperature—from thirty to seventy percent—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Very low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, and aggravate allergies in some individuals, in the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity at 30 percent or above. Extremely low relative humidities may cause eye irritation, wooden furniture can shrink, causing the paint that covers these surfaces to fracture. When the temperature is low and the humidity is high. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, decay, condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as possibly freezing emergency exits shut.
The basic principles for buildings, apply to vehicles, in addition, there may be safety considerations
Punta Cana International Airport
Punta Cana International Airport is a privately owned commercial airport in Punta Cana, eastern Dominican Republic. The airport is built in a traditional Dominican style with open-air terminals with their roofs covered in palm fronds, Grupo PuntaCana built the Punta Cana International Airport and inaugurated it in 1984. It became the first privately owned airport in the world. A number of scheduled and charter airlines fly to Punta Cana, currently more than 6.3 million passengers pass through the terminals, moved by almost 60,000 commercial aircraft operations. In 2014, the airport accounted for 60% of all air arrivals in the Dominican Republic, Punta Cana International Airport serves 96 cities in 28 countries. Terminal B was built to hold larger aircraft like the Airbus A380 along with 7 airbridges and this new terminal was completed in 2014 and can comfortably accommodate 6,500 travelers daily and over 2 million travelers annually. Punta Canas airport is the point of entry in number of arriving passengers in the Dominican Republic.
It is the fastest growing airport with almost a 20% increase in traffic yearly, at the moment the airport counts on two International Terminals, FBO Terminal, a main incline with 12 positions, National Terminal, and VIP Terminal. In the Caribbean, Punta Cana International Airport is the 2nd busiest airport, cancun International Airport, Havana International Airport, and Punta Cana International Airport are the only airports in Latin America with direct flights to Russia. Punta Cana International Airport will be the only airport in the Caribbean with flights to Tel-Aviv, Punta Canas Airport operators completed an ambitious airport expansion project in November 2011. The airport includes a new runway, a tower equipped with the most modern radio. Additionally, there is a new Terminal Approach Radar Control facility and this new facility provides a back-up to the National Radar System located in Santo Domingo. A second international terminal opened in 2014 is designed to accommodate 6,500 passengers daily and it is planned to open a third terminal and renovate runway 09/27 while constructing a Cargo Terminal.
Plans were underway for a U. S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance station to be opened at the airport by the end of summer 2009, this has not yet begun. According to Frank Rainieri, president of Grupo Puntacana, negotiations have re-opened, the airplane crew declared an emergency and landed the aircraft at 20,45 local time, after a 49-minute flight, but the plane was destroyed in a subsequent fire. There were no injuries among the 13 passengers and two members on the flight. Data current as of October 2006
The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western one-third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 6,1492. The island became the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World, the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821 but were forcefully annexed by their more powerful neighbor Haiti in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country again under Spanish colonial rule until the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916, a civil war in 1965, the countrys last, was ended by another U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republics current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, the Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5. 4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7. 0%, respectively, in the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7. 4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction and tourism, private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as high level of remittances. The Dominican Republic has a market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana. and advanced telecommunication system. Nevertheless, government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems, the country has marked income inequality.
International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives, mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, contributes to development, the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions, the island has an average temperature of 26 °C and great climatic and biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in all of the Americas, located in Santo Domingos Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music