Liberia, Costa Rica
Liberia is the capital and largest city of Guanacaste province, Costa Rica, located 215 kilometres northwest of the national capital, San José, in the canton with the same name. It is a major center for the country's tourism industry. Liberia has been nicknamed la ciudad blanca due to the white gravel, once used to make the city’s roads and the whitewashed colonial houses which used to make up a large part of the city, it had a population of 56,899 in 2013. Modern-day Liberia was founded as a hermitage without any legal or formal act of foundation on 4 September 1769, it was located in a strategic location where the roads from the towns of Rivas and Nicoya met. The hermitage was used as place of rest by travelers; the area's giant Guanacaste trees provided shade for travelers and livestock and over time the area became known as Guanacaste. The settlement itself shared a history with Costa Rica. In 1812 the Cádiz Cortes created the providence of Costa Rica. Nicaragua and Costa Rica achieved independence from Spain on 15 September 1821 after the Spanish defeat in the Mexican War of Independence.
After the short-lived First Mexican Empire, Costa Rica became part of the newly formed Federal Republic of Central America in 1823. The Partido de Nicoya served as an administrative unit for the Federal Republic of Central America; the Partido de Nicoya comprised much of the territory that today is the province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Most of the area, such as the settlements of Nicoya and Santa Cruz, held economic ties to Costa Rican territory such as the growing port of Puntarenas; the settlement of Guanacaste, on the other hand, held closer economic ties to Nicaraguan territory like the town of Rivas. Under the leadership of the villages of Nicoya and Santa Cruz, the Partido de Nicoya voted to annex themselves to Costa Rica on 25 July 1824; the inhabitants of Guanacaste chose to continue to be part of Nicaragua in 1824. In 1826, after years of dispute, the congress of the Federal Republic of Central America added Guanacaste to Costa Rica; the village of Guanacaste grew in importance and overtook the village of Nicoya as the most important settlement in the area.
On 23 July 1831, the settlement of Guanacaste was given the title of Villa de Guanacaste. Just a few years on 3 September 1836 it was given the name Ciudad de Guanacaste. In 1838 after the Federal Republic of Central America began to dissolve, Costa Rica formally withdrew and proclaimed itself a sovereign state. On 7 December 1848 Costa Rica divided its national territory into provinces and districts; the territory encompassing Nicoya, Santa Cruz, Guanacaste and Cañas became part of the newly formed province of Guanacaste. On 30 May 1854, a government decree changed the name of the City of Guanacaste to the City of Liberia; the name of the province of Guanacaste was changed to Moracia in honor of Costa Rican president Juan Rafael Mora Porras. In August 1859, Juan Rafael Mora Porras was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by Dr. Jose Maria Montealegre. On 20 June 1860 during the administration of new Costa Rican president Dr. Jose Maria Montealegre, the name of the province was switched back from Moracia to Guanacaste.
Montealegre kept the name City of Liberia but saw it unfit to keep a province named after a political enemy. Today, the Annexation of Guanacaste is celebrated annually on 25 July to celebrate the date in which the province became a part of Costa Rica instead of Nicaragua. Liberia holds a large festival as it is the capital of Guanacaste where one can find folk dances, cattle shows, local food, other cultural traditions in the area. Music is a large part of the festival and the traditional "marimba" is popularly heard. A parade takes place in the centre of the city where children put on masks and costumes to march. Liberia’s importance continued to grow and it became a major center for agriculture and livestock; the construction of the Pan-American Highway further increased Liberia’s importance and increased commerce in and out of the city. By the late 20th century, Liberia became a major stopping point for tourists traveling to the Pacific Coast beaches of Guanacaste. Today Liberia and the province of Guanacaste accept 25 July 1824 as their annexation day to Costa Rica.
With more than 50,000 inhabitants, Liberia is the regional hub of the Costa Rican northwest. The city center features a modern church, as many Costa Rican towns do, facing a plaza surrounded by locally owned shops and restaurants. Liberia is home to an expo that takes place in the month of July, celebrating the annexation of Guanacaste Province on 25 July 1824. Located in the heart of Liberia, the Museo de Guanacaste represents the civility of Costa Rica, the embodiment of military abolishment; the Museo de Guanacaste portrays many of the national artists. Volunteers come from both internationally and locally to help restore the location and preserve the cultural heritage. Tourists pass through Liberia en route to Pacific Coast beaches such as Playa del Coco, Playa Hermosa, Playa Tamarindo or the Papagayo Peninsula. An African safari attraction or zoo called; the Museo de Sabanero is located in Liberia. Rincón de la Vieja Volcano National Park is located just to the northeast of Liberia. Volcanic hot springs, bubbling clay pots, numerous waterfalls and rivers may be found along the park's many kilometres of hiking trails.
Hot springs a
Heredia, Costa Rica
Heredia is a city in the Heredia province of Costa Rica, of which it is the capital. The city is home to one of the largest colleges in Costa Rica, the National University of Costa Rica, which accepts many international students. Prior to its founding, the area around Heredia was inhabited by the native tribe, known as the Huetares, who were commanded at the coming of the Spanish by the Cacique Garavito. In 1706 settlers from Cartago, set up a small church at a place they called "Alvirilla", which soon became more populated. Between 1716 and 1717 the settlers moved their village to the north, to a place the Indians called Cubujuquí. In 1736 Heredia was deemed sufficiently large to be granted its own parish, the first incarnation of the Iglesia de la Inmaculada was built to serve as its parish church. In 1751, the Bishop of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Monseñor Pedro Agustín Morel de Santa Cruz supervised the founding of the first school in Heredia, run by the church; this school is now known as the Liceo de Heredia.
In 1763 the town was promoted to the status of Villa. During the 18th century the area around Heredia was developed, with the founding Barva and other towns. On 31 October 1796, Padre Felix de Alvarado laid the foundation stone for the rebuilding of the Iglesia de la Inmaculada; the Municipality of Heredia was founded on 19 May 1812, in 1824, Heredia was promoted to city by Juan Rafael Mora, the first President of the Republic. The 1848 constitution made Heredia the capital of Heredia Province, promoted it to cantón, assigned it seven parishes. For a brief period in the 1830s, Heredia served as the capital of Costa Rica. Heredia is part of the greater metropolitan area. Warm year-round, the temperatures are tempered by the amount of cloud cover; the rains are spread throughout the year. The climate is mild throughout the year; the city's football club is Herediano. They play their home games at the Estadio Eladio Rosabal Cordero. Marietta Richfield Ariel, an Israeli settlement in the West Bank Óscar Arias - winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987.
Alfredo González Flores - President of Costa Rica from 1914 to 1917. His home, the House of Culture-Alfredo Gonzales Flores, was declared a National Monument in November 1974. Fernando Baudrit Solera - former Dean of the College of Law at the University of Costa Rica and public jurist. Iglesia de la Inmaculada Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Media related to Heredia at Wikimedia Commons
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Alajuela is the second largest city in Costa Rica. It is the capital of Alajuela Province; because of its location in the Costa Rican Central Valley, Alajuela is nowadays part of the conurbation of the Great Metropolitan Area. The city is the birthplace of Juan Santamaría, the national hero of Costa Rica and the figure who gives the name to the country's main international airport, south of Alajuela downtown; the limits of the city correspond formally to the canton's first district limits though the city's current population and urban area stretch beyond these limits. The district of Alajuela covers an area of 8.88 km², It lies at an elevation of 952 metres above sea level in the Central Valley, 19 kilometres northwest of San José. The climate is tropical, typical of the Central Valley, but warmer than San José. Temperatures are moderate, averaging 23–26 degrees Celsius with a low humidity level of 20% all year round. Alajuela and its surroundings are famed for having "the best weather in the world".
According to the 2000 Census, the urban area of the city had a population of 980,700. The population of the district in 2018 was 306,206 people. In pre-Columbian times the land where the canton of Alajuela is today was part of the Huetar Kingdom of the West, inhabited by native tribes, who at the time of the Spanish conquest were led by Chief Garabito; the first Spanish settlers established settlements in the region in about 1650. In a letter of obligation granted in 1864, the place is mentioned as La Lajuela in the Valley of Barva, near the Canoas river. In 1777, the dwellers of La Lajuela and Ciruelas, having been served with notice to move to Villa Vieja, requested the provisional construction of a public place of prayer in the house of Don Dionysius Oconitrillo, of Spanish origin, 30 metres north of where Alajuela's cathedral is today. After increases of population in the five existing quarters then: Targuaz, Puás, Ciruelas, La Lajuela and Rio Grande, the citizens faced difficulties to maintain their religious obligations, so they requested permission to establish a parish and a public place of prayer from the Bishop of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Monsignor don Esteban Lorenzo de Tristán.
According to a motion issued in the Spanish Parliament of Cádiz on 19 May 1812, the first town hall of Alajuela was founded in 1813. On December 18 of the same year, the La Lajuela quarter obtained the title of town and it was renamed, it was first called "Villa Hermosa" it was called "San Juan Nepomuceno de Alajuela" and the title of city was granted on 20 November 1824 and with it the name "Alajuela" which remains today. Participation in important historical events by citizens of Alajuela has ensured the city's reputation as a storied place in Costa Rican history; the national hero Juan Santamaría, who died during the campaign in 1856 to remove invaders threatening Costa Rica's sovereignty, was born in Alajuela. This historical event is celebrated and remembered every year on 11 April and it is a national holiday; the area experiences earthquakes. The 2009 magnitude 6.1 earthquake caused several landslides. The main exports of the region are coffee, sugar-cane, beans, citrus fruits, tubers like cassava and ornamental plants.
Other commercial activities include poultry farming, pig farming and the dairy industry. More Alajuela has seen important investment in free zone parks and heavy industry companies. Alajuela is an important transport hub for the country, connecting the capital city with northwestern Costa Rica; as a part of the Greater Metropolitan Area, most of the inhabitants of Alajuela work in other cities or regions of the Central Valley, every day receives residents from other locations to work in local factories. Central America's second busiest airport, Juan Santamaría International Airport, is three kilometres south of the city centre. Liga Deportiva Alajuelense is the city's major football club, they play their home games at the Estadio Alejandro Morera Soto. They share the stadium with Carmelita. San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Spain Lahr, Germany Montegrotto Terme, Italy Bordano, Italy Downey, California, USA Dothan, Alabama, USA Guadalajara, Mexico Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan Hangzhou, China Gregorio Jose Ramirez Politician, Military Commander.
José María Alfaro Zamora Costa Rican Head of State Florentino Alfaro Zamora Politician Juan Alfaro Ruiz Politician Jose Maria Figueroa Artist. He recorded the early events of Costa Rican history in his Album de Figueroa Apolinar de Jesus Soto Vice-President of Costa Rica; the title was called Primer Designado Juan Santamaría Costa Rican national hero. Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez President of Costa Rica Born in Bagaces, Guardia married and lived in Alajuela most of his life Emilia Solórzano Alfaro Costa Rican First lady For her activism in favor of Education and Human Rights, she was declared Benemerita de la Patria in 1972. Leon Fernandez Bonilla Historian, Diplomat, Journalist. Declared Benemerito de la Patria in 1994. Bernardo Soto Alfaro President of Costa Rica Anastasio Alfaro Zoologist, Archeologist, Ethnologist. Creator of the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Ricardo Fernandez Guardia Historian, Diplomat. Declared Benemerito de la Patria in 1944. León Cortés Castro President of Costa Rica Otilio Ula
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Puntarenas is a province of Costa Rica. It is located in the western part of the country, covering most of Costa Rica's Pacific Ocean coast, it is the largest province in Costa Rica. Clockwise from the northwest it borders on the provinces Guanacaste, San José and Limón, the neighbouring country of Panama; the capital is Puntarenas. The province covers an area of 11,266 square kilometres, has a population of 410,929, it is subdivided into eleven cantons. For administrative purposes, the island Isla del Coco, 500 kilometres offshore in the Pacific Ocean, is considered a part of this province. Canton: Buenos Aires Corredores Coto Brus Esparza Garabito Golfito Montes de Oro Osa Parrita Puntarenas Quepos Jacó Manuel Antonio National Park Montezuma Monteverde San Lucas Island Coto 47 Media related to Puntarenas Province at Wikimedia Commons
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi