A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva and imago; the processes of entering and completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, ecdysone. The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family. Pupae may further be enclosed in other structures such as nests, or shells; the pupal stage follows the larval stage and precedes adulthood in insects with complete metamorphosis. The pupa is a non-feeding sessile stage, or active as in mosquitoes, it is during pupation that the adult structures of the insect are formed while the larval structures are broken down. The adult structures grow from imaginal discs. Pupation may last weeks, months, or years, depending on temperature and the species of insect.

For example, pupation lasts eight to fifteen days in monarch butterflies. The pupa may diapause until the appropriate season to emerge as an adult insect. In temperate climates pupae stay dormant during winter, while in the tropics pupae do so during the dry season. Insects emerge from pupae by splitting the pupal case. Most butterflies emerge in the morning. In mosquitoes the emergence is in the night. In fleas the process is triggered by vibrations that indicate the possible presence of a suitable host. Prior to emergence, the adult inside the pupal exoskeleton is termed pharate. Once the pharate adult has eclosed from the pupa, the empty pupal exoskeleton is called an exuvia. In a few taxa of the Lepidoptera Heliconius, pupal mating is an extreme form of reproductive strategy in which the adult male mates with a female pupa about to emerge, or with the newly moulted female. Pupae are immobile and are defenseless. To overcome this, pupae are covered with a cocoon, conceal themselves in the environment, or form underground.

There are some species of Lycaenid butterflies. Another means of defense by pupae of other species is the capability of making sounds or vibrations to scare potential predators. A few species use chemical defenses including toxic secretions; the pupae of social hymenopterans are protected by adult members of the hive. Based on the presence or absence of articulated mandibles that are employed in emerging from a cocoon or pupal case, the pupae can be classified in to two types: Decticous pupa – pupae with articulated mandibles. Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera, Mecoptera and few Lepidoptera families. Adecticous pupa – pupae without articulated mandibles. Examples include orders Strepsiptera, Hymenoptera and Siphonaptera. Based on whether the pupal appendages are free or attached to the body, the pupae can be classified in three types: Exarate pupa – appendages are free and are not encapsulated within a cocoon. All decticous pupa and some adecticous pupa are always exarate.. Obtect pupa – appendages are attached to the body and are encapsulated within a cocoon.

Some adecticous pupa are obtect forms. Coarctate pupa – enclosed in a hardened cuticle of the penultimate larval instar called puparium. However, the pupa itself is of exarate adecticous pupa forms.. A chrysalis or nympha is the pupal stage of butterflies; the term is derived from the metallic gold-coloration found in the pupae of many butterflies, referred to by the Greek term χρυσός for gold. When the caterpillar is grown, it makes a button of silk which it uses to fasten its body to a leaf or a twig; the caterpillar's skin comes off for the final time. Under this old skin is a hard skin called a chrysalis; because chrysalises are showy and are formed in the open, they are the most familiar examples of pupae. Most chrysalides are attached to a surface by a Velcro-like arrangement of a silken pad spun by the caterpillar cemented to the underside of a perch, the cremastral hook or hooks protruding from the rear of the chrysalis or cremaster at the tip of the pupal abdomen by which the caterpillar fixes itself to the pad of silk.

Like other types of pupae, the chrysalis stage in most butterflies is one in which there is little movement. However, some butterfly pupae are capable of moving the abdominal segments to produce sounds or to scare away potential predators. Within the chrysalis and differentiation occur; the adult butterfly emerges from this and expands its wings by pumping haemolymph into the wing veins. Although this sudden and rapid change from pupa to imago is called metamorphosis, metamorphosis is the whole series of changes that an insect undergoes from egg to adult; when emerging, the butterfly uses a liquid, sometimes called cocoonase, which softens the shell of the chrysali

Braga (Maximinos, Sé e Cividade)

Braga is a civil parish in the municipality of Braga, Portugal. It was formed in 2013 by the merger of the former parishes Sé and Cividade; the population in 2011 was 14,572, in an area of 2.57 km². Roman Milestones of Braga Roman Ruins of Carvalheiras Roman Thermae of Maximinus, the archaeological ruins of a monumental building and public baths, whose construction was integrated into the urban renewal of the civitas of Bracara AugustaPrimary School Biscainhos Museum Cruz Bookstore Estate of Naia Fountain of Alameda Fountain of Campo das Hortas Fountain of Pelican Fountain of Santiago Fountain of São Marco Fountain of São Tiago Fountain Rua Andrade Corvo Manorhouse of São Sebastião Maximos School Centre Municipal Palace of Braga Palace of the Falcões Pillory of Braga Portuguese War Veterans Association Building Residence of Avelar Residence of Cunha Reis Residence of Orge Residence of Senhora da Torre Residence of Santa Cruz do Igo Residence of Roda Residence Pimental (Portuguese: Casa Oitocentista/Casa Pimentel Santa Casa da Misericórida Work Court of Braga Cathedral of Braga and Cathedral Treasure Museum Chapel of São Miguel-o-Anjo Chapel of São Sebastião das Carvalheiras Chapel of Senhor da Agonia Chapel of Senhor das Ânsias Church of São Tiago College Chapel of the Ôrfãos de São Caetano Convent of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Cross of Campo das Hortas Monastery of Visitação de Santa Maria Patronate of Nossa Senhora da Torre Seminary of São Pedro e São Paulo

30th Infantry Division (United States)

The 30th Infantry Division was a unit of the Army National Guard in World War I and World War II. It was nicknamed the "Old Hickory" division, in honor of President Andrew Jackson; the Germans nicknamed this division "Roosevelt's SS". The 30th Infantry Division was regarded by S. L. A. Marshall as the number one infantry division in the European Theater of Operations, involved in 282 days of intense combat over a period from June 1944 through April 1945. In the present day the 30th Infantry Division is now a part of the North Carolina National Guard and their most recent combat deployment was in 2019 The division was activated as the 9th Division under a 1917 force plan, but changed designation to the 30th Division after the American entry into World War I in April 1917, it was formally activated under its new title in October 1917, as an Army National Guard division from North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Headquarters, 30th Division 59th Infantry Brigade 117th Infantry Regiment 118th Infantry Regiment 114th Machine Gun Battalion 60th Infantry Brigade 119th Infantry Regiment 120th Infantry Regiment 115th Machine Gun Battalion 55th Field Artillery Brigade 114th Field Artillery Regiment 115th Field Artillery Regiment 113th Field Artillery Regiment 105th Trench Mortar Battery 113th Machine Gun Battalion 105th Engineer Regiment 105th Field Signal Battalion Headquarters Troop, 30th Division 105th Train Headquarters and Military Police 105th Ammunition Train 105th Supply Train 105th Engineer Train 105th Sanitary Train 117th, 118th, 119th, 120th Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals In May 1918 the division was sent to Europe and arrived in England, where it departed for the Western Front soon after.

The division, along with the 27th Division, was assigned to the U. S. II Corps but did not serve with the main American Expeditionary Force and was instead attached to the Second Army of the British Expeditionary Force, trading American equipment for British equipment; the major operations the 30th Division took part in were the Ypres-Lys, the Somme offensive, in which it was one of the two American divisions to break the Hindenburg Line in the Battle of St. Quentin Canal; the division had, in three months, from July until October 1918, sustained 1,237 officers and men killed in action, with a further 7,178 wounded in action or missing in action. Maj. Gen. John F. Morrison Brig. Gen. William S. Scott Maj. Gen. Clarence P. Townsley Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison Maj. Gen. Clarence P. Townsley Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison Brig. Gen. Lawrence D. Tyson Brig. Gen. George G. Gatley Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison Brig. Gen. Lawrence D. Tyson Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison Maj. Gen. George W. Read Brig. Gen. Robert H. Noble Maj. Gen. George W. Read Maj. Gen. Samson L. Faison Maj. Gen. Edward Mann Lewis Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison Brig.

Spc. Emilio Fusco Called into federal service: 16 September 1940 Assigned to Camp Atterbury, Indiana 10 November 1943 to 26 January 1944 Overseas: 11 February 1944 Campaigns: Normandy, Northern France, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe Days of combat: 282 Distinguished Unit Citations: 8 Awards: MH-6. Foreign Awards: Belgian Fourragere-2 per Belgian decree #1393, dated 20 November 1945 Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry D. Russell, Maj. Gen. William H. Simpson, Maj. Gen. Leland S. Hobbs, Maj. Gen. Albert C. Smith Returned to U. S.: 19 August 1945 Inactivated: 25 November 1945. Headquarters, 30th Infantry Division 117th Infantry Regiment 119th Infantry Regiment 120th Infantry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, DIVARTY 113th Field Artillery Battalion 118th Field Artillery Battalion 197th Field Artillery Battalion 230th Field Artillery Battalion 105th Engineer Combat Battalion 105th Medical Battalion 30th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop Headquarters, Special Troops, 30th Infantry Division Headquarters Company, 30th Infantry Division 730th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company 30th Quartermaster Company 30th Signal Company Military Police Platoon Band 30th Counterintelligence Corps DetachmentSee all attached units: After training in the United States for just over two years, the 30th Infantry Division, under the command of Major General Leland Hobbs, arrived in England, 22 February 1944, trained for the Allied invasion of Normandy until June.

It landed at Omaha Beach, Normandy, on 11 June 1944, five days after the initial D-Day landings of 6 June 1944, secured the Vire-et-Taute Canal, crossed the Vire River on 7 July. Beginning on 25 July, the 30th Division spearheaded the Saint-Lô break-through of Operation Cobra, intended to break out of the Normandy beachhead, thus ending the stalemate that had occurred. During the operation, on both 24 and 25 July, the 30th Division encountered a devastating friendly fire incident; as part of the effort to break out of the Normandy hedgerows, US Army Air Force bombers from England were sent to carpet bomb a one-by-three mile corridor of the German defenses opposite the American line. However, USAAF planners, in complete disregard or lack of understanding of their role in supporting the ground attack, loaded the heavy B-24 Liberator and B-17 Flying Fortress bombers with 500-pound bombs, destroying roads a