Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. Purdue University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". Purdue has 25 American astronauts as alumni and as of April 2019, the university has been associated with 13 Nobel Prizes.

In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862 and began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering. Communities throughout the state offered facilities and funding in bids for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University, at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875, admitted its first female students that autumn.

Emerson E. White, the university’s president, from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act. Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a broad, liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture, he intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities, overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court, leading to White's resignation; the next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy. S. President Benjamin Harrison served on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive, for a Corliss steam engine—one of the most efficient engines of the time.

The School of Agriculture shared its research with farmers throughout the state, with its cooperative extension services, would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925, Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.

In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.

After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized science and

Higher (Sigma song)

"Higher" is the fourth single by English drum and bass duo Sigma from their debut studio album Life. It was written by Tom Hull and Wayne Hector, it features the vocals from English singer Labrinth. The song was released as a digital download in the United Kingdom on 22 March 2015; the song peaked to number 12 on the UK Singles Chart. A music video to accompany the release of "Higher" was first released onto YouTube on 13 February 2015 at a total length of three minutes and five seconds. Digital download"Higher" – 3:01Digital download – remix bundle"Higher" – 3:52 "Higher" – 6:52 "Higher" – 6:05 "Higher" – 4:58 "Higher" – 4:17 "Higher" – 4:46 The song was used as an online trailer for the BBC One drama Casualty; the song is used in the introduction of the Sky Sports Super Sunday, used for the first time on 9 August 2015. This song is featured in the Madden NFL 16 soundtrack; the song was used when the players walked onto the court during the 2015 Barclays ATP World Tour Finals. Swisse Australia promoted this song in preparation for the 2016 Summer Olympics

Gospel of Truth

The Gospel of Truth is one of the Gnostic texts from the New Testament apocrypha found in the Nag Hammadi codices. It exists in two Coptic translations, a Subakhmimic rendition surviving in full in the first Nag Hammadi codex and a Sahidic in fragments in the twelfth codex; the Gospel of Truth was written in Greek between 140 and 180 by Valentinian Gnostics. It was known to Irenaeus of Lyons, who declared it heresy. Irenaeus declares it one of the works of the disciples of "Valentinius", the similarity of the work to others thought to be by Valentinus and his followers has made many scholars agree with Irenaeus on this point, but the followers of Valentinus, putting away all fear, bring forward their own compositions and boast that they have more Gospels than exist. Indeed their audacity has gone so far that they entitle their recent composition the Gospel of Truth, though it agrees in nothing with the Gospels of the apostles, so no Gospel of theirs is free from blasphemy. For if what they produce is the Gospel of Truth, is different from those the apostles handed down to us, those who care to can learn how it can be shown from the Scriptures themselves that what is handed down from the apostles is not the Gospel of Truth.

After its Coptic translations and their burial at Nag Hammadi, the text had been lost until the Nag Hammadi discovery. The text is written with strong poetic skill, includes a cyclical presentation of themes, it is not a "gospel" in the sense of an account of the works of Jesus of Nazareth, but is better understood as a homily. The text is considered by scholars one of the best written texts in the whole Nag Hammadi collection, considering its worth as both a great literary work and a gnostic exegesis on several gospels and otherwise. Not all scholars, agree that the text is to be considered Gnostic. Paterson Brown has argued forcefully that the three Nag Hammadi Coptic Gospels of Thomas and Truth are demonstrably not Gnostic in content, since each explicitly affirms the basic reality and sanctity of incarnate life, which Brown argues that Gnosticism considers illusory or evil; the writing is thought to cite or allude to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew and John, as well as 1 and 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Hebrews, 1 John and the Book of Revelation.

It cites John's Gospel the most often. It is influenced by Thomas; the text describes a theory of the rise of Error in personified form. The ignorance and yearning to see the Father bred fear, which coalesced into a fog by which Error gained power, it describes Jesus as having been sent down by God to remove ignorance. Jesus was a teacher confounding the other scribes and teachers, asserted they were foolish since they tried to understand the world by analyzing the law, but Error grew angry at this, nailed Jesus to a cross. It proceeds to describe how it is knowledge of the father that grants salvation, which constitutes eternal rest, describing ignorance as a nightmare. Having next described the parable of the good shepherd, in an esoteric manner, it describes how feeding the hungry and giving rest to the weary is to be understood as feeding spiritual hunger, resting the world weary; this is followed by a parable about anointing, the meaning of, obscure, but may be connected with the way in which a sealed amphora meant it was full, a metaphor for knowledge - having the final "seal" in the jigsaw and you understand, but without it, the scraps of understanding you have put together can still be undone: But those whom he has anointed are the ones who have become perfect.

For full jars are the ones that are anointed. But when the anointing of one is dissolved, it is emptied, the reason for there being a deficiency is the thing by which its ointment goes. For at that time a breath draws it, a thing in the power of that, with it, but from him who has no deficiency, no seal is removed, nor is anything emptied, but what he lacks, the perfect Father fills again. Aside from a final description of achieving rest by gnosis, the remainder of the text concerns a treatise on the connection between the relationship between the Son and the Father, the relationship of a name to its owner; the prime example of this is the phrase it uses that the name of the Father is the Son, to be understood in the esoteric manner that the Son is the name, rather than as meaning that Son was a name for the Father. Unlike the canonical gospels, this gospel does not contain an account of Jesus' teaching, it does contain insights concerning the resurrected Jesus' 40-day ministry. This gospel, like some other gnostic texts, can be interpreted as proclaiming predestination.

One section states: Those whose name he knew in advance were called at the end, so that one who has knowledge is the one whose name the Father has uttered. For he whose name has not been spoken is ignorant. Indeed, how is one to hear, if his name has not been called? Having knowledge, he does the will of the one who called him, he wishes to be pleasing to him, he receives rest; each one's name comes to him. He, to have knowledge in this manner knows where he comes from and where he is going. Layton printed eight fragments of Valentinian literature, each being a quote which at least one of the Church Fathers claimed to take from the Valentinian corpus although none from the "Gospel of Truth". Layton further noted. "Fragment G", which Clement of Alexandria related to "On Friends", asserts that there is sh