Grant of arms
A grant of arms or a governmental issuance of arms, are actions by a lawful authority such as an officer of arms or State Herald, conferring on a person and his or her descendants the right to bear a particular coat of arms or armorial bearings. It is one of the ways in which a person may lawfully bear arms in a jurisdiction regulating heraldry, another being by birth, through inheritance. A grant of arms is distinguished from both a confirmation of arms and a private registration of arms. A grant of arms confers a new right; however a governmental registration of arms by an official government agency, does create and confirm new legal rights. The College of Arms issues “letters patent” the Bureau of Heraldry issues “certificates of registration”. For all intents and purposes it’s the same thing; the College of Arms “grants” in the name of the monarch and in South Africa under the Heraldry Act the certificate is “issued”. In both cases the heraldic representation so issued and recorded affords the applicant sole ownership of the unique design.
A grant of arms or government registration of arms are contained in letters patent which provide self-contained proof, upon production of the letters patent, of the right conferred. A modern English grant of arms, for example, from officers of the College of Arms in London, will begin with the words "To all and singular to whom these presents shall come...", thereby showing that it is addressed to anyone in the world to whom it may be presented. Law of Arms G. D. Squibb, The High Court of Chivalry p. 184
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania the The Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania and Masonic Jurisdictions Thereunto Belonging, is the premier masonic organization in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Grand Lodge claims to be the oldest in the United States, the third oldest in the world after England and Ireland, having been established as the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1731; this claim is disputed by both the Grand Lodge of Virginia. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania is the largest Grand Lodge, in terms of membership, in the United States. In 2016 it reported a membership of 99,245, it is only surpassed in membership by the United Grand Lodge of England on a worldwide scale. Two English grand lodges erected lodges in Pennsylvania during the 18th century, the Premier Grand Lodge of England, established in London in 1717, the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, established in London in 1751; the first of these, the Moderns' Grand Lodge, was first to establish lodges and provincial grand lodges in the American colonies.
But by 1785, the Moderns and their lodges had ceased to exist in Pennsylvania, the last of their members having been absorbed by the lodges of the Ancients. The present day Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania descends from the Ancients, with the Moderns having been grafted onto "Ancient York Masonry." The earliest minute book of any Masonic lodge on the North American continent is that for Tun Tavern Lodge No. 3 in Philadelphia. The Tun Tavern was the first "brew house" in the city, being built in 1685, was located on the waterfront at the corner of Water Street and Tun Alley; the extant records of the Lodge begin on 24 June 1731. It was reported by Benjamin Franklin, in his Gazette for 8 December 1730, that there were "several Lodges of Free Masons erected in this Province...." The Tun Tavern, being a popular meeting place in Philadelphia, was undoubtedly the first location of a lodge in Philadelphia. Other organizations were formed there, including the St. George's Society in 1720, the St. Andrew's Society in 1747.
The United States Marine Corps was founded there on 10 November 1775 by Samuel Nicholas, grandson of a member of the Tun Tavern Lodge. According to Henry Coil, a Freemason from Massachusetts, the Tun Tavern Lodge was never warranted nor issued a charter, being an "immemorial rights lodge." However, the Librarian of the Masonic Library in Philadelphia believes that because there is no existing evidence, there is no reason to assume that the Tun Tavern Lodge was never warranted since all of the other Lodges at the time had been, that it must have been warranted prior to 1749 since the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has in its archives the minute books for the Tun Tavern Lodge from 1749-1755. The first official act of the Moderns' Grand Lodge regarding the American colonies was the creation of a Provincial Grand Master for New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, naming one Daniel Coxe, Esq. to that office. This deputation, issued on 5 June 1730, was made by the Grand Master, the Duke of Norfolk, was to remain in effect for two years from 24 June 1731 to 24 June 1733, at which time, according to the deputation, the members were empowered to elect a Provincial Grand Master.
From a letter in the possession of the New York Historical Society dated 31 July 1730 at Trenton we know that Daniel Coxe was in the colonies. Coxe returned to England to attend a meeting of the Grand Lodge in London on 29 January 1731 where he was toasted as the Provincial Grand Master "of North America." Coxe relocated in Burlington, New Jersey, about 20 miles from Philadelphia, where he had been awarded a colonial judgeship. There are no explicit records to show that Daniel Coxe organized a Provincial Grand Lodge, nor to have erected any lodges, nor exercised his authority in any way as Provincial Grand Master prior to his death on 25 April 1739. In fact, his death, reported in the Pennsylvania Gazette by Benjamin Franklin, a member of The Tun Tavern Lodge in Philadelphia, does not mention that Coxe was a Freemason indicating that Franklin and the other members of the Craft in Philadelphia were unaware of his affiliation. However, the Masonic historian Dr. Wilhelm Begeman points out that, "those who deny Coxe's activity must assume the Provincial Grand Lodge established itself through its own power, much less probable than the legal action of Coxe... that his home was in Trenton, was no serious obstacle, for the London Grand Masters nearly all lived at a distance from London, Lord Kingston, for instance, in Ireland."
It should be noted that an entry in "Liber B," the oldest known record of a lodge in the Americas, lists William Allen as Grand Master on June 24, 1731. Coxe's deputation allows for the election of a successor in perpetuity. After his election in 1731, William Allen appointed William Pringle, Deputy Grand Master, Thomas Boude and Benjamin Franklin, Wardens. Benjamin Franklin would become Provincial Grand Master in 1734—the same year he published Anderson's Constitutions, the first Masonic book printed in America—and again in 1749; the organization of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was recorded in both "Liber B" and the Pennsylvania Gazette, which published the names of the sixteen Grand Masters who served from 1731 to 1755. William Allen was Provincial Grand Master eight times. No reports were sent from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Moderns to the Grand Lodge of Engl
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Court of the Lord Lyon
The Court of the Lord Lyon is a standing court of law which regulates heraldry in Scotland. The Lyon Court maintains the register of grants of arms, known as the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland, as well as records of genealogies; the Lyon Court is a public body, the fees for grants of arms are paid to HM Treasury. It is headed by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, who must be qualified, as he has criminal jurisdiction in heraldic matters, the court is integrated into the Scottish legal system, including having a dedicated prosecutor, known in Scotland as a procurator fiscal, its equivalent in England and Northern Ireland, in terms of awarding arms is the College of Arms, a royal corporation and not a court of law. The High Court of Chivalry is a civil court in England and Wales with jurisdiction over cases dealing with heraldry; the Lyon Court is directly responsible for the establishment of the rights to arms and pedigree. These can include the granting and regranting of armorial bearings by Letters Patent and various Birthbrieves, such as Diplomas of Nobility or of the Chiefship.
All of these actions must begin with a formal petition to the Court. When sufficient evidence is attested to these rights, a judicial'Interlocutor' or warrant will be issued by the Lord Lyon; this power of the Lord Lyon is derived from the monarch's royal prerogatives, delegated to the office by law. The warrant will authorise the Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records to prepare Letters Patent of the particular coat of arms or genealogy to be recorded in the: Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland or in the Public Register of All Genealogies and Birthbrieves in Scotland; the fees on all of these procedures are payable to the Exchequer. This is in contrast to the College of Arms in London, an independent corporate body and not a government department, therefore all fees are reinvested into the corporation; the Court does not have universal jurisdiction and cannot accept applications from abroad. According to the Court's official publication on its website, "the governing factor in the case of an original Grant of Arms is the domicile of the petitioner or the ownership of property in Scotland."
In the second case, when the petitioner is not able to reside on the land, e.g. forestry land, the land is not able to bring the owner into the Lord Lyon’s jurisdiction. One major exception from this principle applies to Commonwealth citizens if their local jurisdiction does not have its own heraldic office. "Commonwealth citizens, in particular those of Scottish descent - save for Canada and South Africa which have their own heraldic authorities - can apply to the Lord Lyon King of Arms." The penal aspect of the Court is concerned with the protection of the rights of both private individuals and of the Crown in Scottish armorial bearings. The Lord Lyon has control over messengers-at-arms, judicial officers responsible for serving documents and enforcing legal orders throughout Scotland; the protection of the rights to arms is of signal importance because of the fact that persons and corporation have paid fees to the Crown in return for exclusive rights to use those armorial bearings. A coat of arms can only belong to one particular person at a time.
Without such protection, a coat of arms would be useless as a form of identification and worthless as a piece of private property. Furthermore, a misappropriation or unauthorised use of a man's coat of arms is still considered a'real injury' under Scottish common law. Accordingly, an owner of a Scottish coat of arms may obtain a judicial order in the Court against anybody using his arms; the Crown and the public have an interest in these cases: the Crown has such an interest because, in Scotland, all fees on the registration of armorial bearings and pedigrees are payable to HM Treasury. Individual coats of arms are considered legal evidence, which means that they could be used in legal cases concerning the establishment of succession or identity; the Lyon Court, like all Scottish courts has a public prosecutor. He raises proceedings, when necessary, against those; the punishment for this offence is set out in several Scottish statutes acts. The court has the power to fine and to ensure items bearing the offending Arms are removed, destroyed or forfeited.
In lieu of the financial interests of the Treasury, the High Court of Justiciary, will therefore sometimes regard cases brought by the Procurator Fiscal to those of the Inland Revenue prosecution. Accordingly, an armorial offender was viewed as sternly as any other evading national taxation; this is in contrast to the Court of Chivalry in England, which has similar powers to the Lyon Court, but is a civil court, has met only once in the last 230 years, in 1954, is unlikely to sit again unless for a substantial cause. The punishment for the usurpation of arms were severe. In Acts dated 1592 and 1672, the Court was given the full power to imprison offenders. In 1669 the Court was given the power to issue letters of horning; as well as the full power: to erase unwarranted arms, to'dash them furth of' stained-glass windows and to break unwarranted seals. Where the cases involve forfeiture, the Court could grant a warrant for the seizure of movable goods and gear where unwarranted arms are found; the only judge of the Lyon Court is the Lord Lyon King of Arms.
The Lord Lyon is part of the judiciary of Scotland but is not s
King of Arms
King of Arms is the senior rank of an officer of arms. In many heraldic traditions, only a king of arms has the authority to grant armorial bearings and sometimes certify genealogies and noble titles. In other traditions, the power has been delegated to other officers of similar rank. In England, the authority to grant a coat of arms is subject to the formal approval of the Earl Marshal in the form of a warrant. In jurisdictions such as the Republic of Ireland the authority to grant armorial bearings has been delegated to a chief herald that serves the same purpose as the traditional king of arms. Canada has a chief herald, though this officer grants arms on the authority of the Governor General as the Queen's representative through the Herald Chancellor's direct remit. Scotland's only king of arms, the Lord Lyon, exercises the royal prerogative by direct delegation from the Crown and like the Chief Herald of Ireland and the old Ulster King of Arms needs no warrant from any other office bearer.
In the Kingdom of Spain, the power to certify coats of arms has been given to the Cronistas de Armas. The English and Scottish kings of arms are the only officers of arms to have a distinctive crown of office, used for ceremonial purposes such as at coronations. At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the kings of arms used a crown trimmed with sixteen acanthus leaves alternating in height, inscribed with the words Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam; when this crown is shown in pictorial representations, only nine leaves and the first three words are shown. A new crown has been made for the Lord Lyon, modelled on the Scottish Royal crown among the Honours of Scotland; this crown has removable arches which will be removed at coronations to avoid any hint of lèse majesté. Garter Principal King of Arms Clarenceux King of Arms Norroy and Ulster King of Arms Lord Lyon King of Arms Garter King of Arms is the herald of the Order of the Garter as is in Scotland Lord Lyon King of Arms the herald of the Order of the Thistle.
The Norroy and Ulster King of Arms is the herald of the Order of St Patrick. Other British orders of chivalry have their own kings of arms: Bath King of Arms, for the Order of the Bath King of Arms of the Order of St Michael and St George King of Arms of the Order of the British Empire The Chief Herald of Canada The Chief Herald of Ireland The National Herald of South Africa The State Herald of Sweden is the head of a branch of the National Archives of Sweden New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary The Herald of Arms of New Zealand Cronistas Reyes de Armas Portugal Rei de Armas or Rei de Armas Portugal Rei de Armas Algarve Rei de Armas Índia Rei de Armas América, África e Índia King of Arms Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies Media related to King of Arms at Wikimedia Commons Bureau of Heraldry The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority Heraldic authority State Ceremonial The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority at Archive.today The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland Genealogy & Heraldry Bill, 2006 - new legislation on heraldry before the Irish Senate King of Arms Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies
Private Officer of Arms
A private officer of arms is one of the heralds and pursuivants appointed by great noble houses to handle all heraldic and genealogical questions. Since the development of heraldry in the Middle Ages and the rise of officers of arms, noble families have appointed heralds and pursuivants to look after the correct marshalling of their coats of arms and research genealogical links. Many noblemen in Britain retained heralds from about 1170 onwards, as did important knights such as Sir John Chandos; the heralds were concerned with war and tournaments and identifying people by their arms. As such, they developed an interest in genealogy; the Lord of the Isles had Ross Herald and Islay Pursuivant. On the forfeiture of the Lordship these became, remain, Royal Officers. In 1725, Blanc Coursier Herald was created to serve Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, the tabard of the office includes Prince Williams differenced arms. Today, most officers of arms are employed by state heraldic authorities. There are, some private officers that still exist.
In Scotland, there are four private pursuivants of arms that are recognized by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms. These are appointed by clan chiefs to look after matters of clan genealogy; the four recognized private Scottish pursuivants are listed below: Slains Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Hay – the Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Garioch Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Mar – the Countess of Mar Endure Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Lindsay – the Earl of Crawford & Balcarres Finlaggan Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald and High Chief of Clan Donald – the Lord Macdonald of Slate. This post was revived, after five centuries in August 2005 In 10 November 1962 Fernando Muñoz Altea was appointed King of Arms of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies by HRH Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House; the Kingdom of Sicily did not have actual heralds in recent times, but rather a Commission for Titles of Nobility based in Naples until 1861.
This commission concerned itself with administration of certain nobiliary institutions and recognition of titles of nobility. Muñoz Altea continues this tradition as a Private Officer of Arms of the Royal House. In addition to his office as King of Arms, Muñoz Altea is delegate of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Heraldry Officer of Arms King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland