Creed is an American rock band that formed in 1993 in Tallahassee, Florida. For the majority of its existence, the band consisted of lead vocalist Scott Stapp and vocalist Mark Tremonti, bassist Brian Marshall, drummer Scott Phillips. Creed released two studio albums, My Own Prison in 1997 and Human Clay in 1999, before Marshall left the band in 2000; the band's third album, was released in 2001 with Tremonti handling bass guitar. Creed disbanded in 2004 due to increasing tension between members. Stapp pursued a solo career while Tremonti and Phillips went on to found the band Alter Bridge with Myles Kennedy in 2004. In 2009, after months of speculation, Creed reunited for a fourth album, Full Circle, toured until the end of 2012. Another album has since been shelved; the instrumental members of Creed turned their attention back to Alter Bridge. Tremonti formed his own band, Tremonti, in 2011 while Scott Stapp joined Art of Anarchy in 2016. Creed is recognized as one of the prominent acts of the post-grunge movement that began in the mid-1990s.
Becoming popular in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Creed released three consecutive multi-platinum albums, with their album Human Clay being certified diamond. Creed has sold over 28 million records in the United States has sold over 53 million albums worldwide, was the ninth best-selling artist of the 2000s. Creed's origins lie in 1993 in Florida. Founding members vocalist Scott Stapp and guitarist Mark Tremonti had been classmates in high school and friends at Florida State University. Upon reuniting and Tremonti realized that they had a mutual love for writing music and performing. After multiple discussions and times spent writing songs, several of which addressed themes of Christian theology and spirituality due to Stapp's religious background as the stepson of a Pentecostal minister, the duo held auditions which led to the recruitment of bassist Brian Marshall, drummer Scott Phillips, rhythm guitarist Brian Brasher to complete the quintet. By the end of 1995, Brasher left the band. Creed decided to remain as a four-piece band.
The four musicians had written and collaborated on four of the songs that would go on to become tracks on Creed's chart-topping debut album, My Own Prison. The band found local success and started to play shows in bars and small venues throughout Tallahassee, it is a popular Internet rumor that Creed first performed as "Naked Toddler". In reality, this was one of several names used before settling on Creed. Tremonti found the headline, used for one show until a promoter suggested it be changed. Wanting "a real show at a club", they managed to persuade the owner of a bar in Tallahassee to book them by claiming that they could guarantee an audience of 200 people. Owner and manager Jeff Hanson told HitQuarters that the band had played cover versions, but two original songs stood out and impressed the manager so much that he promptly signed them to his management and promotions company and set about developing their act. For their first recordings he matched the band up with John Kurzweg, a producer and friend of Hanson's who he felt was an appropriate fit.
Together they recorded their debut album for $6,000, funded by Hanson. The album, titled My Own Prison, was self-released on their own label, Blue Collar Records, selling 6,000 copies throughout the state of Florida. My Own Prison had been circulating around the music industry for a while when, in May 1997, Diana Meltzer from Wind-Up Records heard the album for the first time and decided immediately that she wanted to sign them to the label, which had dropped Baboon over the latter's reluctance to alter their image and sound to suit the label's demands. Meltzer said that she heard "an arena band". Within the same week, together with Wind-up president Steve Lerner, CEO Alan Meltzer, A&R representative Joel Mark, flew to Tallahassee to see Creed perform live and decide for certain whether to offer them a contract. "Seeing the energy in the room when Scott Stapp stepped up to the mic, hearing his powerful voice fill the room, alongside Mark Tremonti's now legendary guitar riffs and that big Creed anthemic rock sound, was all I needed," she told HitQuarters.
According to Tremonti in his "Wikipedia: Fact or Fiction" video, Creed had been rejected by Arctic and Cherry Universal Records before Wind-Up flew down to sign them. The band has been signed with Wind-Up records since. Stapp and Marshall signed the contract in blood. My Own Prison was remixed, given a more radio-friendly sound, re-released by Wind-up Records in 1997. Four singles were released from the album: "My Own Prison", "Torn", "What's This Life For", "One"; each of these songs reached No. 1 on the Billboard Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart, making Creed the first band to accomplish such a feat with a debut album. With little MTV exposure, media coverage, or label support, My Own Prison sold well, moving over six million copies and going six times platinum. Creed continued to top year-end charts and was recognized as the Rock Artist of the Year at the 1998 Billboard Music Awards. My Own Prison was the highest-selling heavy music record of 1998 on Nielsen SoundScan's Hard Music chart; the band's hit song "My Own Prison" was featured as a live performance on the charity album Live in the X Lounge in 1998.
The band covered Alice Cooper's song "I'm Eighteen" for The Faculty soundtrack in 1998. Critical reception toward My Own Prison was favorable. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic gave it four out of five stars and said that Creed "work well within their chicken tender d
Anthrax (American band)
Anthrax is an American heavy metal band from New York City, formed in 1981 by rhythm guitarist Scott Ian and bassist Dan Lilker. The group is considered one of the leaders of the thrash metal scene from the 1980s and is one of the "Big Four" thrash metal bands with Metallica and Slayer; as of April 2017, the band has released 11 studio albums, several other albums, 26 singles, including collaborating on a single with American hip hop group Public Enemy. According to Nielsen SoundScan, Anthrax sold 2.5 million records in the United States from 1991 to 2004, with worldwide sales of 10 million. Noted for its live performances, Anthrax signed with the independent label Megaforce Records, which released the band's debut studio album in 1984. Lilker soon left the band to form Nuclear Assault, was replaced by roadie Frank Bello. Lead vocalist Neil Turbin was replaced after two years by Matt Fallon, subsequently replaced in 1984 by Joey Belladonna. With a new lineup, the band recorded Spreading the Disease in 1985.
Anthrax's third album, Among the Living, was released in 1987 to critical praise. The band experienced another lineup change in 1992, when John Bush from Armored Saint replaced Belladonna as lead vocalist. Sound of White Noise was released the following year, peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200. Studio recordings during the 1990s saw the band, influenced by other genres, experimenting with its sound. Anthrax's lineup has changed several times over their career; the band has had a number of vocalists including Neil Turbin, Joey Belladonna, Dan Nelson and John Bush. Founding member Scott Ian and early arrival Charlie Benante, who joined Anthrax in 1983, are the only band members to appear on every album. Bassist Frank Bello has played on every album, except for the band's debut Fistful of Metal, which featured Dan Lilker. After rejoining the band from 2005 to 2007, Belladonna returned to Anthrax once again in 2010, the band has since recorded two more studio albums with him: Worship Music and For All Kings.
Anthrax was formed in Queens, New York City, on July 18, 1981 by guitarists Scott Ian and Dan Lilker. The band was named after the disease of the same name which Ian saw in a biology textbook, chosen because it sounded "sufficiently evil". Anthrax's initial line-up was completed by singer John Connelly, drummer Dave Weiss and bassist Paul Kahn. Kahn was replaced by bassist Kenny Kushner before Lilker took over on bass and Greg Walls joined as lead guitarist. Weiss was replaced early on by Greg D'Angelo, recommended to the band by Greg Walls. Scott Ian's younger brother Jason Rosenfeld was a temporary vocalist until Ian's former schoolmate Neil Turbin joined the band in late August 1982; the band recorded its first demo tape during this time. The band's first performance with Neil Turbin was at Great Gildersleeves, a New York club, in September 1982; this line-up played in the New York-New Jersey area over the next several months. Anthrax were on the same bill as the up-and-coming Metallica for several shows in the spring of 1983.
Guitarist Greg Walls left Anthrax that summer and was replaced by Bob Berry, recommended to Turbin by Rhett Forrester of Riot. Berry was in turn soon replaced by Dan Spitz, a member of the New Jersey thrash band Overkill. A second demo was recorded soon after. Drummer Charlie Benante replaced D'Angelo in September 1983 after a several-month courtship by Ian. By this time and Lilker had befriended New Jersey record store owner Jon Zazula, to whom they had given their demo tapes to critique. Zazula's new record label Megaforce Records had released Metallica's debut album Kill'Em All to great success. In late 1983, Zazula agreed to sign Anthrax and the band recorded the "Soldiers of Metal" single, produced by Ross the Boss of Manowar; the B-side was the song "Howling Furies", taken from a previous demo with Greg D'Angelo on drums. Anthrax released their debut album Fistful of Metal in January 1984. However, tensions were building between Lilker and the rest of the band for various reasons leading to the band firing Lilker.
He would soon form the band Nuclear Assault with former Anthrax roadie John Connelly. Lilker was replaced by roadie Frank Bello; the band went on a successful US tour opening for Raven and others to support Fistful of Metal. In August 1984, Neil Turbin and Anthrax went their separate ways after long standing personal issues. In his book Eddie Trunk's Essential Hard Rock and Heavy Metal, music journalist Eddie Trunk admits pressuring Jon Zazula, Scott Ian and Anthrax into firing Turbin because of his personal taste in vocals. Singer Matt Fallon was hired in late 1984, but he and the band soon parted ways; the remaining members decided to play live shows as a four-piece billed as "The Diseased" with Scott Ian on vocals, performing hardcore punk covers until a permanent singer could be found. In 1985, Joey Belladonna was chosen as the new vocalist; the Armed and Dangerous EP marked Belladonna's recording debut though it featured two live tracks from 1984 and the two songs from the "Soldiers of Metal" single that all had Neil Turbin performing on them.
Anthrax's second album Spreading the Disease was released in October 1985. With left over studio time from the sessions for the album Ian and former bandmate Dan Lilker collaborated with vocalist Billy Milano and formed the side project Stormtroopers of Death and recorded the album Speak English or Die in three days, whic
Grinspoon is an Australian rock band from Lismore, New South Wales formed in 1995 and fronted by Phil Jamieson on vocals and guitar with Pat Davern on guitar, Joe Hansen on bass guitar and Kristian Hopes on drums. In 1995, they won the Triple J-sponsored Unearthed competition for Lismore, with their post-grunge song "Sickfest", their name was taken from Dr. Lester Grinspoon an Associate Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, who supports marijuana for medical use. Grinspoon changed their sound to more mainstream rock by their 2002 album, New Detention, gaining fans and peaking at No. 2 on the ARIA Albums Charts. Their 2004 album, Kills & Sunday Pills, which peaked at No. 4, won the 2005'Best Rock Album Award' at the ARIA Music Awards. The band was signed to Universal Records in United States by late 1998, they were promoted by the songs "Champion", which featured in Gran Turismo 3. On 4 December 2013 they announced that they were going on an indefinite hiatus to pursue individual projects.
In July 1995, Pat Davern, Joe Hansen, Kristian Hopes and Phil Jamieson met at a Lismore hotel, The Gollan, for a jam night—they decided to form a band and enter the Triple J-sponsored Unearthed competition. Their name was taken from Dr. Lester Grinspoon, an Associate Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, who supports marijuana for medical use. After winning the competition, with their post-grunge song "Sickfest", they gained considerable airplay and used this to secure gigs, they developed a strong following among the Australian "alternative" and "mosh pit crowd." Their debut was the six-track EP, released in 1995 through the independent Oracle Records. It contained the songs "Sickfest" and "More Than You Are" that became popular with fans and were rerecorded on releases. Grinspoon's second EP, Licker Bottle Cozy, recorded in June 1996 and produced by Phil McKellar, was released by Grudge Records in December, it had a heavier sound than their earlier EP with five tracks including the songs "Champion" and "Pig Pen".
In September 1997 they released their first full-length album, Guide to Better Living, co-produced by McKellar and well-known Swiss-American heavy metal producer Ulrich Wild. The album peaked at No. 11 on the ARIA Albums Charts and went platinum with sales of over 70,000 in Australia. It represents the Helmet-influenced alternative metal sound of their early career with heavier songs like "Pressure Tested 1984"; the Australian version of the album features five live songs—illustrating the band's sense of humour and ability to play live—and a hidden track, the acoustic "Protest". US branch of Universal Records signed the band by late 1998 and released an altered version of Guide to Better Living in March 1999. Whilst in US touring for ten months as support act for Creed, Lit and Anthrax, Grinspoon released a six track EP, Pushing Buttons, for their Australian market in September 1998, it featured the popular heavy song "Black Friday" and the lighter songs "Busy" and "Explain". After the intense US touring, Grinspoon released their second album, Easy in September 1999, which peaked at No. 4 and went platinum in Australia.
It contained the singles "Ready 1" and "Rock Show". After a break to reconsider their direction and sound Grinspoon started recording their next album, New Detention, in Sydney's Festival Studios in September 2001 but prior to finishing the studios were shut down and so vocals and guitars were recorded in smaller studios. Further delays occurred. New Detention was released in June 2002 and was more commercial—it peaked at No. 2 on the ARIA Albums Charts and went platinum. The first single from the album, "Chemical Heart", released in February had created a stir with long term fans and the media because it was different from their previous grunge sound; the band was an improvement. The band still performs older tracks in their live shows, they released a four track EP in March 2003, Panic Attack—containing a cover of INXS's "Don't Change"—which reached No. 13 on the ARIA Singles Chart. In August 2004, they released a new single, "Hard Act To Follow", which reached the Top 30, it was from the September album Thrills, Kills & Sunday Pills, which peaked at No. 4 and went platinum.
Grinspoon performed at the 2004 NRL grand final before a second single, "Better Off Alone", issued in November reached the Top 30. The third single was "Hold on Me" released in February 2005. For Thrills, Kills & Sunday Pills, the band agreed that they were deliberately seeking a new audience, claiming they wrote a number of songs for the release and rejected any that sounded like earlier work, it won the 2005'Best Rock Album Award' at the ARIA Music Awards. They had been nominated 9 times. Grinspoon had built a strong local following after their rise, they were regulars at Australian music festivals. On 26 March 2006, Grinspoon performed "Hard Act To Follow" and "Better Off Alone" at the 2006 Commonwealth Games Closing Ceremony in Melbourne, they headlined the inaugural "Thank God It's Over" in Melbourne, at "BOBFest'06" in South Australia in October and at Odyssey 2006 at Dreamworld for New Year's Eve. In February 2007, Jamieson admitted himself to rehab due to addiction to crystal methamphetamine.
On Andrew Denton's Enough Rope in July, Jamieson discussed his drug addictions, an extramar
Godsmack is an American rock band from Lawrence, formed in 1995. The band is composed of founder and songwriter Sully Erna, guitarist Tony Rombola, bassist Robbie Merrill, drummer Shannon Larkin. Since its formation, Godsmack has released seven studio albums, one EP, four DVDs, one compilation album, one live album; the band has had three consecutive number-one albums on the Billboard 200. The band has 23 top ten rock radio hits, including 17 songs in the top five; the band's seventh album, When Legends Rise was released on April 27, 2018. Since its inception, Godsmack has toured on Ozzfest on more than one occasion, has toured with many other large tours and festivals, including supporting its albums with its own arena tours. Godsmack has sold over 20 million records in just over a decade. In honor of the band's success and the release of their sixth studio album, 1000hp, Mayor Marty Walsh declared August 6 as "Godsmack Day" in the city of Boston. In February 1995, Sully Erna decided to start a new band as the lead singer after playing the drums for more than 23 years, including more than two years in the now-defunct band Strip Mind.
His new band, The Scam, formed with Erna on vocals, Robbie Merrill on bass, local guitarist and friend Lee Richards on guitar, Tommy Stewart on drums. The Scam changed its name to Godsmack, after recording one demo; the newly formed band started playing small bars in their hometown of Boston. Locally popular songs such as "Keep Away" and "Whatever" soon brought them to the top of the hit charts in the Boston/New England area. Many people think the band's name stemmed from another band's song, but according to Erna, the band's name came from a small and personal incident. "I was making fun of somebody who had a cold sore on his lip and the next day I had one myself and somebody said,'It's a godsmack.' The name stuck. We were aware of the Alice In Chains song but didn't think much about it." In 1996, Tony Rombola and Joe D'Arco joined Godsmack as the guitarist and drummer, after Richards left upon learning he had a six-year-old child and Stewart left due to personal differences. In the same year, the band entered the studio for the first time, recording its first CD titled All Wound Up.
The CD was recorded in just three days for $2,600. For the next two years, the band played throughout the Boston area. Godsmack's CD landed in the hands of Rocko, the night-time DJ for Boston radio station WAAF; the radio station put "Keep Away" into heavy rotation and the song rose to the number one spot at the station quickly. Newbury Comics, a New England record store chain, agreed to sell the CD on consignment. Shortly after the success of "Keep Away," Godsmack went back into the studio and recorded a single titled "Whatever," which became the new local favorite on WAAF. In an interview Sully Erna stated, "We had been selling maybe 50 copies a month at the time WAAF picked up the album. All of a sudden we started moving over a thousand records a week. I was doing all this from my bedroom. After years of grinding away, things started taking off." In mid-1998, Universal/Republic Records signed the band to their label. Joe D'Arco was dismissed from the band, he was replaced by former drummer Tommy Stewart, who returned after expressing a desire to be in the band again.
The band's first studio recording All Wound Up was re-mastered, the finished self-titled debut CD album Godsmack was released to the public six weeks later. This led to the band's first headlining tour, "The Godsmack Tour" with Jim Rose Circus as the opening act. After the album's release the band went on the street playing club shows as well as playing at Ozzfest and Woodstock'99; this was followed by a tour in Europe supporting Black Sabbath. Roxanne Blanford from Allmusic gave the album three out of five stars, stating, "Godsmack confidently brought metal into the technological age"; the album entered the Billboard 200 at number twenty-two, was certified 4x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2001 after being certified gold in 1999. The album sold well despite being pulled from the shelves in some stores due to concerns over some of its lyrical content; the band and its record label added a Parental Advisory sticker to the album, some stores ordered amended copies of the album.
Erna commented in Rolling Stone magazine stating, "Our record has been in the marketplace for more than a year now without a parental advisory sticker and this is the one and only complaint... Stickers and lyrics are by nature subjective... We have decided to put a sticker on the record." This controversy did not appear to adversely affect album sales but, according to Erna, helped. The album had four successful singles which were "Whatever," "Keep Away," "Voodoo" and "Bad Religion." In 2000, Godsmack returned to the studio after the multi-platinum success of Godsmack to start recording Awake. The album was released on October 31, 2000; the album debuted at number five on the Billboard 200, has been certified 2x platinum by the RIAA. "Vampires", a song on the album earned the band a Grammy nomination for Best Rock Instrumental Performance in 2002. With the release of Awake, Godsmack toured Europe supporting Limp Bizkit. Erna said at the time, "We've been touring nonstop since August 1998, So most of Awake was written on tour while we were ping-ponging between America and Europe, building up the band.
"Ozzfest" was the only big tour where we rode under someone else's wings. The band played Ozzfest in 2000 again as
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Best in Show (Grinspoon album)
Best in Show is a compilation album by Australian post-grunge band Grinspoon. The album was released on 7 November 2005 to coincide with the ten-year anniversary of the band; the album was certified Gold. The album featured the band's hits and several older songs, like "Champion", which landed the song on Gran Turismo 3; the first track, "Sweet as Sugar", was specially recorded for this album and, appropriately, is a return to the earlier style of the band. The rest of the tracks are listed chronologically, from "Champion", recorded in 1996, to "Hard Act to Follow", recorded in 2004; the linear notes contain photography of the band from their beginnings to the present, details the history of the band in the form of a fairy tale about the'Knights of Grinspoon' from the'Land of Oz'. The limited edition bonus disc includes a collection of covers recorded over the years. All tracks written by Phil Jamieson and Pat Davern, unless otherwise shown
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt