"Master Cat, or The Booted Cat" known in English as "Puss in Boots", is an Italian and European literary fairy tale about an anthropomorphic cat who uses trickery and deceit to gain power and the hand of a princess in marriage for his penniless and low-born master. The oldest telling is by Italian author Giovanni Francesco Straparola, who included it in his The Facetious Nights of Straparola in XIV–XV. Another version was published in 1634 by Giambattista Basile with the title Cagliuso, a tale was written in French at the close of the seventeenth century by Charles Perrault, a retired civil servant and member of the Académie française; the tale appeared in a handwritten and illustrated manuscript two years before its 1697 publication by Barbin in a collection of eight fairy tales by Perrault called Histoires ou contes du temps passé. The book remains popular. Perrault's Histoires has had considerable impact on world culture; the original Italian title of the first edition was Costantino Fortunato, but was known as Il gatto con gli stivali.
The frontispiece to the earliest English editions depicts an old woman telling tales to a group of children beneath a placard inscribed "MOTHER GOOSE'S TALES" and is credited with launching the Mother Goose legend in the English-speaking world."Puss in Boots" has provided inspiration for composers and other artists over the centuries. The cat appears in the third act pas de caractère of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty, appears in the sequels and self-titled spin-off to the animated film Shrek and is signified the face of Japanese anime studio Toei Animation. Puss in Boots is a popular pantomime in the UK; the tale opens with the youngest son of a miller receiving his inheritance -- a cat. At first, the youngest son laments, as the eldest brother gains the mill, the middle brother gets the mules; the feline is no ordinary cat, but one who requests and receives a pair of boots. Determined to make his master's fortune, the cat bags a rabbit in the forest and presents it to the king as a gift from his master, the fictional Marquis of Carabas.
The cat continues making gifts of game to the king for several months. One day, the king decides to take a drive with his daughter; the cat persuades his master to enter the river which their carriage passes. The cat disposes of his master's clothing beneath a rock; as the royal coach nears, the cat begins calling for help in great distress. When the king stops to investigate, the cat tells him that his master the Marquis has been bathing in the river and robbed of his clothing; the king has the young man brought from the river, dressed in a splendid suit of clothes, seated in the coach with his daughter, who falls in love with him at once. The cat hurries ahead of the coach, ordering the country folk along the road to tell the king that the land belongs to the "Marquis of Carabas", saying that if they do not he will cut them into mincemeat; the cat happens upon a castle inhabited by an ogre, capable of transforming himself into a number of creatures. The ogre displays his ability by changing into a lion, frightening the cat, who tricks the ogre into changing into a mouse.
The cat pounces upon the mouse and devours it. The king arrives at the castle that belonged to the ogre, impressed with the bogus Marquis and his estate, gives the lad the princess in marriage. Thereafter, the cat enjoys life as a great lord; the tale is followed by two morals: "one stresses the importance of possessing industrie and savoir faire while the other extols the virtues of dress and youth to win the heart of a princess." The Italian translation by Carlo Collodi notes that the tale gives useful advice if you happen to be a cat or a Marquis of Carabas. This is the theme in France, but other versions of this theme exist in Asia and South America. Perrault's "The Master Cat, or Puss in Boots" is the most renowned tale in all of Western folklore of the animal as helper. However, the trickster cat was not Perrault's invention. Centuries before the publication of Perrault's tale, Somadeva, a Kashmir Brahmin, assembled a vast collection of Indian folk tales called Kathā Sarit Sāgara that featured stock fairy tale characters and trappings such as invincible swords, vessels that replenish their contents, helpful animals.
In the Panchatantra, a collection of Hindu tales from the fifth century A. D. a tale follows a cat who fares much less well than Perrault's Puss as he attempts to make his fortune in a king's palace. In 1553, "Costantino Fortunato", a tale similar to "Le Maître Chat", was published in Venice in Giovanni Francesco Straparola's Le Piacevoli Notti, the first European storybook to include fairy tales. In Straparola's tale however, the poor young man is the son of a Bohemian woman, the cat is a fairy in disguise, the princess is named Elisetta, the castle belongs not to an ogre but to a lord who conveniently perishes in an accident; the poor young man becomes King of Bohemia. An edition of Straparola was published in France in 1560; the abundance of oral versions after Straparola's tale may indicate an oral source to the tale. In 1634, another tale with a
Rove LA is an Australian television comedy talk show which debuted on Fox8 on 19 September 2011. The show is set in Los Angeles; the show is presented in a similar fashion to McManus' previous talk show Rove, featuring comedy segments and interviews with celebrity guests. The show was picked up for a two-year run on the Fox8 subscription channel. Season 3 did not air in 2013, but producers speculated that there may be a season 3 later on. Rove LA began on the Fox8 cable network in September 2011 as a platform for McManus to return to Australian television; the concept of the show being Rove reporting each week in pre-recorded episodes from Los Angeles, this fit with McManus' current residency in the United States while still having a presence on Australian television. The series was picked up for a 10-episode run for 2011 on the network, as a means to test the new shows reception with audiences; the series was renewed for 2012 with the expectation of a longer season run. Rove LA was renewed for a second 13-episode season that premiered on 30 September 2012.
The series was picked up by the TV Guide Network for broadcast in the United States. Similar to McManus' former show Rove, the show starts with Rove performing a comedic monologue about a variety of topics and events covering American culture, he introduces his guests one by one on'The Couch', engaging them in conversations led by various segments such as the "Getting to Know You" and "Random Question Hat". Unlike McManus' previous show, Rove is the only cast member of the show. However, since episode 10 of season 2, Gary Busey has made a guest appearance in each episode as a "Stand-in Guest in case something goes wrong with one of the guests"; the show is notable for allowing its guests to swear on television. Rove LA is broadcast on its Australian cable broadcaster network FOX8. Repeat episodes air on Australian network The Comedy Channel, it can be seen in the United States on The TV Guide Network. Official website
Little Science, Big Science is a book of collected lectures given by Derek J. De Solla Price, first published in 1963; the book presents the 1962 Brookhaven National Laboratory Pegram Lectures, a series of lectures dedicated to discussing science and its place in society. Price's goal in the lectures is to outline what it may look like for science to be analysed scientifically, by applying methods of measuring and deriving to science itself. With this goal in mind, he sets out to define quasi-mathematically how the shape and size of science has shifted from "small science" to "big science" in a historical and sociological way. Price presents a quantification of science as a measurable entity via an analogy to thermodynamics, conceptualizing science like a gas with individual molecules possessing individual velocities and interactions, a total volume, general properties or laws. Price begins the lectures by setting forth a demarcation in science centered around the modern period, he describes the phenomenon that, at the time of the lectures, 80 to 90 percent of important scientific work had occurred in one normal human life span.
With this facet in mind, he sets out to describe the development of the term "Big Science," as coined by Alvin M. Weinberg in 1961; as a general directive, he seeks to show that the transition from "Little Science" to "Big Science," the socio-economic and methodological changes to science in the 20th century, have been gradual. To illustrate this point, he presents empirical statistical evidence from various aspects and fields of science, all of which show that the mode of growth of science is exponential, growing at compound interest; this assertion Price claims is the "fundamental law of any analysis of science," stating that it holds over long time periods. With this fundamental law in mind, he states that for general measures the size of science in manpower or number of publications doubles in size every 10 to 15 years. If this rate of expansion is considered broadly from the 1600s until now such size measures of science have increased by a factor of 106. From this observation, Price moves to describe the "coefficient of immediacy:" the number of scientists alive compared to the number of scientists who have been, a ratio or percentage he states as 7:8 and 87.5% respectively.
This measure serves to show numerically how the majority of important science has taken place within the average human life span at the time of the lecture presentation. As a result of the consistent exponential growth rate and immediacy of science, the statement that the majority of scientists throughout history are alive at any given moment must be consistent throughout history as well, meaning that in 1700 the majority of all scientists were alive, true for 1800 and 1900 and so on; as a result of this facet, Price states that science has been exploding into the population, increasing its size at a rate faster than the increase of total humans able to conduct it. However, Price asserts that this exponential growth rate cannot explain the transition from "Little Science" to "Big Science," as the constant growth would not make the modern period under question any more to produce "Big Science" than any other, he conjectures that two statistical phenomena hold true for science that individual metrics of science may grow at rates different from that of the exponential growth, that the exponential growth rate may be starting to diminish.
In response to his second point, he claims that the normal exponential growth may give way to a logistic growth rate, growing exponentially until it reaches a maximum size and ceasing to grow. The possibility that science follows a rate of growth modeled by a logistic curve is suggested further by the fact that if science had continued to grow at an exponential rate in 1962 by now there would be more scientists than people. With his claim that the growth rate observes a logistic curve, he provides a second basic law of the analysis of science, namely that the exponential growth rates mentioned must be in fact logistic. If this claim is correct the exponential growth rate observed must break down at a point in the future, Price implies as a conclusion to this section that the onset of this breakdown may be associated with an upper bound to the size of science brought on by "Big Science." In this chapter, Price suggests various ideas and methods about conducting a science of science, or scientometrics, by first narrating some peculiar contributions to statistics made by Francis Galton.
His overall goal is to further the possibility of applying scientific methods to science itself by suggesting various metrics and measures of the size, growth rate, distribution of science. He focuses on Galton's work concerning the distribution of high achieving scientists and statesmen in the upper echelons of British society Hereditary Genius and English Men of Science; these works are reviewed with the goal of understanding a basic metric for the number of people or papers in science that reach different levels of quality, an idea basic in Price's formulation of scientometrics. Further, he suggests that understanding such a metric would allow predictions to be made of science and scientists when changes associated with Big Science arrive. Galton's original approach was to estimate the distribution of high achieving practitioners of science among the eminent parts of British society, Price takes this as a starting step in grasping a scientific metric of the productivity of science. In analyzing Galton's work and the work of another statistics researcher, Alfred J. Lotka, Price suggests that there may be a rough inverse-square law of productivity.
Price moves next to define a quantity he