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Put-in-Bay, Ohio

Put-in-Bay is a village located on South Bass Island in Put-in-Bay Township, Ottawa County, United States 35 miles east of Toledo. The population was 138 at the 2010 census; the village is recreational destination. Ferry and airline services connect the community with Catawba Island, Kelleys Island, Port Clinton, Sandusky, Ohio; the bay played a significant role in the War of 1812 as the location of the squadron of U. S. naval commander Oliver Hazard Perry, who sailed from the port on September 10, 1813, to engage a British squadron just north of the island in the Battle of Lake Erie. The first known people to use the island were different groups of Native American tribes; the island provided great shelter for. Early historic evidence and records show that the Ottawas, Shawnee, Senecas and the Eries were amongst the different Native American tribes to visit and use the island; some remains were discovered. In 1679 Robert LaSalle and thirty-two of his men were the first to sail a large vessel in the Great Lakes, named the Griffon.

They would transport fur and pelts from Ontario to Green Bay, Wisconsin. Stopping at Middle Bass Island, were they found unique undiscovered flowers, they named the island Isle des Fleurs because of the flowers, the name stayed for the next 200 years. During the War of 1812, Put-in-Bay was an important base of operations for the US Naval fleet, commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry. Captain Perry and his fleet arrived at the island on August 16, 1813, they used the island to train and spy on the British, who were located at Fort Malden, Canada. The 32 month long conflict was not looking good for the Americans. Detroit was surrendered to the British and every attempt to invade Canada was unsuccessful for the Americans. September 10, 1813, Captain Robert H. Barclay, the commander for the British was seen by a lookout on Captain Perry's flagship, the Lawrence. Captain Perry and his fleet hid behind the Bass islands and waited for the British to unknowingly cross their path; the British fleet was caught off guard by the surprise attack from the Americans.

The battle began at 11:45 am about eight miles away from Put-in-Bay. Around 3:00 pm in the afternoon, on the same day Captain Perry and his fleet defeated the British; the British lost control of Lake Erie and their entire fleet of ships were captured. The fleet consisted of 6 ships; this event single handedly was the turning point in the war. Captain Perry’s used Put-in-Bay and the surrounding islands to his advantage, which resulted in a victory over the British; this was the first and only time in history the British Navy was defeated, changing the face of the war in a single day. Two iconic American Navy slogans came from The Battle of Lake Erie. "Don't Give Up The Ship" and "We have met the enemy and they are ours," was said by Oliver Hazard Perry. During the years of 1820 and 1830, the island was under the jurisdiction of Ohio. Put-in-Bay Township was established after 1830; the island was only sparsely inhabited and there was no actual village prior to the creation of the township. The first known Caucasian resident on the island was Alexander Ewen, who had about 1,000 hogs roaming the island in 1810.

The name "Put-in-Bay" only referred to the harbor because it was "shaped like a pudding bag with a soft bottom," showed in a 1879 journal. In the later-1700s, the schooners sailing on Lake Erie would put in to this bay, to wait out bad weather on Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay is located 15 miles northwest of Sandusky, at 41°39′11″N 82°49′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.63 square miles, of which 0.45 square miles is land and 0.18 square miles is water. Put-in-Bay is the site of Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial commemorating Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's September 10, 1813, naval victory over British ships in the War of 1812. Construction of the monument began in 1912 and it opened to the public on June 13, 1915, it is 352 feet tall and made up of 78 layers of pink granite, topped with an eleven ton bronze urn. Its height makes it the highest open-air observatory operated by the U. S. National Park Service; the remains of six naval officers, three British and three Americans, were interred beneath the floor of the monument's rotunda.

As of the census of 2010, there were 138 people, 70 households, 43 families residing in the village. The population density was 306.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 263 housing units at an average density of 584.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. There were 70 households of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.6% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.44. The median age in the village was 54.7 years. 15.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 52.9%

GNU C Library

The GNU C Library known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library. Despite its name, it now directly supports C++, it was started in the early 1990s by the Free Software Foundation for their GNU operating system. Released under the GNU Lesser General Public License, glibc is free software; the GNU C Library project provides the core libraries for the GNU system and GNU/Linux systems, as well as many other systems that use Linux as the kernel. These libraries provide critical APIs including ISO C11, POSIX.1-2008, BSD, OS-specific APIs and more. These APIs include such foundational facilities as open, write, printf, dlopen, pthread_create, login and more; the glibc project was written by Roland McGrath, working for the Free Software Foundation in the 1980s as a teenager. In February 1988, FSF described glibc as having nearly completed the functionality required by ANSI C. By 1992, it had the ANSI C-1989 and POSIX.1-1990 functions implemented and work was under way on POSIX.2.

In September 1995 Ulrich Drepper made his first contribution to the glibc project and over the 1990s became the core contributor and maintainer of glibc. Drepper held the maintainership position for many years and until 2012 accumulated 63% of all commits to the project. In the early 1990s, the developers of the Linux kernel forked glibc, their fork, called "Linux libc", was maintained separately for years and released versions 2 through 5. When FSF released glibc 2.0 in January 1997, it had much more complete POSIX standards compliance, better internationalisation and multilingual function, IPv6 capability, 64-bit data access, facilities for multithreaded applications, future version compatibility, the code was more portable. At this point, the Linux kernel developers discontinued their fork and returned to using FSF's glibc; the last used version of Linux libc used the internal name libc.so.5. Following on from this, glibc 2.x on Linux uses the soname libc.so.6. The *.so file name is abbreviated as libc6 following the normal conventions for libraries.

According to Richard Stallman, the changes, made in Linux libc could not be merged back into glibc because the authorship status of that code was unclear and the GNU project is quite strict about recording copyright and authors. Starting in 2001 the library's development had been overseen by a committee, with Ulrich Drepper kept as the lead contributor and maintainer; the steering committee installation was surrounded by a public controversy as it was described by Ulrich Drepper as a failed hostile takeover maneuver by Richard Stallman. While in a CVS repository, in 2009 glibc was migrated to a Git repository on Sourceware. After longstanding controversies around Drepper's leadership style and external contribution acceptance, Debian switched publicly to the glibc fork EGLIBC in 2009, back with the Debian 8.0 in April 2015. In March 2012, the steering committee voted to disband itself and remove Drepper in favor of a community-driven development process, with Ryan Arnold, Maxim Kuvyrkov, Joseph Myers, Carlos O'Donell, Alexandre Oliva holding the responsibility of GNU maintainership.

After the change in glibc maintainership and other projects that had switched to alternatives migrated back to glibc. From the beginning of 2014, the glibc fork EGLIBC is no longer being developed since its "goals are now being addressed directly in GLIBC". In July 2017, 30 years after he started glibc, Roland McGrath announced his departure, "declaring myself maintainer emeritus and withdrawing from direct involvement in the project; these past several months, if not the last few years, have proven that you don't need me any more". For most systems, the version of glibc can be obtained by executing the lib file. Glibc provides the functionality required by the Single UNIX Specification, POSIX and some of the functionality required by ISO C11, ISO C99, Berkeley Unix interfaces, the System V Interface Definition and the X/Open Portability Guide, Issue 4.2, with all extensions common to XSI compliant systems along with all X/Open UNIX extensions. In addition, glibc provides extensions that have been deemed useful or necessary while developing GNU. glibc is used in systems that run many different kernels and different hardware architectures.

Its most common use is in systems using the Linux kernel on x86 hardware, however supported hardware includes: 32-bit ARM and its newer 64-bit ISA, C-SKY, DEC Alpha, IA-64, Motorola m68k, MicroBlaze, MIPS, Nios II, PA-RISC, PowerPC, RISC-V, s390, SPARC, x86. It supports the Hurd and Linux kernels. Additionally, there are patched versions that run on the kernels of FreeBSD and NetBSD, as well as a forked-version of OpenSolaris, it is used and named libroot.so in BeOS and Haiku. Glibc has been criticized as being "bloated" and slower than other libraries in the past, e.g. by Linus Torvalds and embedded Linux programmers. For this reason, several alternative C standard libraries have been created which emphasize a smaller footprint. However, many small-device projects use GNU libc over the smaller alternatives because of its application support, standards compliance, completeness. Examples include Openmoko and Familiar Linux for iPaq handhelds (when using the GPE d

Olga Andreyeva Carlisle

Olga Andreyeva Carlisle is a French-born American novelist and painter. Carlisle, with her husband Henry Carlisle, is notable for translating Alexander Solzhenitsyn's work into English. Although Solzhenitsyn criticized the translations, Carlisle felt they helped bring his work to a wider audience and contributed to Solzhenitsyn's Nobel Prize. Carlisle was born in Paris to a Russian literary family, her father, Vadim Andreyev, was the son of major Russian writer Leonid Andreyev. Her mother, Olga Chernova-Andreyeva, was the stepdaughter of Viktor Chernov, a Russian revolutionary and one of the founders of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Carlisle attended Bard College in New York from 1949-1953, she met her husband Henry Carlisle during this time and they moved to New York City in 1953. She now lives in San Francisco; as an artist, Carlisle's paintings have been shown across the United States. She was mentored by Louis Schanker in the 1940s. Voices in the Snow Poets on Street Corners Solzhenitsyn and the Secret Circle Under a New Sky The Idealists Far from Russia