St. Marys, Georgia
St. Marys is a city in Camden County, United States; the city is the gateway to Cumberland Island National Seashore, the largest of the Georgia Coast's barrier islands. The National Seashore's visitor center and boat access are both located at the St. Marys waterfront; the city is home to the annual St. Marys Rock Shrimp Festival, the St. Marys Submarine Museum, Crooked River State Park, its territory is bordered by Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, the home port for several Ohio-class submarines. The population of St. Marys was 17,121 as of the 2010 Census. St. Marys is located along the southern border of Camden County at 30°45′23″N 81°34′17″W, on the north bank of the St. Marys River; the state of Florida is across the river. The city of Kingsland borders St. Marys to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Marys has a total area of 24.9 square miles, of which 22.5 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles, or 9.57%, is water. The closest major city is Florida, 38 miles south.
The St. Marys area was first explored in the mid 16th century as part of the settlement of Spanish Florida, with nearby St. Augustine as the established capital. Settlement for Georgians became legal after the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Local inhabitants of Camden County gathered on Cumberland Island and signed a charter for "a town on the St. Marys" on November 20, 1787. There were twenty charter members who each received one marsh lot; these twenty city founders are named on an historical marker in downtown St. Marys: Isaac Wheeler, William Norris, Nathaniel Ashley, William Ashley, Lodowick Ashley, James Seagrove, James Finley, John Fleming, Robert Seagrove, Henry Osborne, Thomas Norris, Jacob Weed, John Alexander, Langley Bryant, Jonathan Bartlett, Stephen Conyers, William Keady, Prentis Gallup, Simeon Dillingham and Richard Cole; the original boundaries of the town correspond to the modern waterfront, Bartlett Street, North Street, a block east of Norris Street. There were two public town squares.
However, in the original deed the town was unnamed, for several years afterwards in public documents it was referred to as either St. Marys or St. Patrick's, colloquially as "the New Town". Accounts differ regarding the origin of the name itself—some say it is named after the St. Marys River, while others say it comes from a seventeenth-century Spanish mission, Santa Maria, on nearby Amelia Island, Florida. St. Marys was recognized by an act of the Georgia legislature on December 5, 1792, with the result of incorporation in November 1802. Oak Grove Cemetery is included in the St. Marys Historic District and was laid outside the western border of St. Marys during its founding in 1787. On June 29, 1796, the Treaty of Colerain was signed just up the river from St Marys between the United States and the Creek Nation. St. Marys town founder Langley Bryant served as the official interpreter between the Creek Indians and the United States. St. Marys was made a United States port of entry by act of the U.
S. Congress March 2, 1799; the first Collector was James Seagrove. During the antebellum period, Archibald Clark served as the U. S. Customs Collector from 1807 until his death in 1848. After the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves took effect in 1808, St. Marys became, along with Spanish Amelia Island, a center for smuggling during the period between 1812-1819 when various rebel groups held Amelia Island. During the War of 1812 the Battle of Fort Peter occurred near the town, at the fort on Point Peter along the St. Marys River; the British occupied it for about a month. The United States Navy bombarded the town's shoreside buildings during the American Civil War. St. Marys served as Camden County's seat of government from 1869 until 1923; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,761 people, 4,837 households, 3,758 families residing in the city. The population density was 733.8 people per square mile. There were 5,351 housing units at an average density of 285.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.78% White, 19.99% African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 2.09% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.46% of the population. There were 4,837 households out of which 47.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families. 16.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 15.6% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,087, the median income for a family was $46,065. Males had a median income of $35,419 versus $24,449 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,099. About 9.6% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Cumberland Island Duck House Orange Hall List of county seats in Georgia St. Marys Historic District St. Marys Railroad St. Marys Airport St
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Florida's 3rd congressional district
The Third Congressional District of Florida is an electoral district of the United States House of Representatives located in the U. S. state of Florida. It presently comprises a large section of northernmost Florida, including the entire counties of Alachua, Putnam and Union, along with the majority of Marion county; the cities of Gainesville and Palatka are in the district as well as part of Ocala. Some Jacksonville suburbs such as Middleburg, Green Cove Springs, Orange Park are in the district. Redistricting in Florida, effective for the 2012 federal elections, radically altered the nature of the 3rd District. From 1993 through 2012 the district called the 3rd District comprised an different territory similar to the 5th District as of 2013; the present territory of the new 3rd District, as of the 2012 elections, is made up of parts of the former 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th districts, though it is geographically similar to the pre-2013 6th district. The former 3rd District was an intentionally gerrymandered territory designed to unite disparate areas of northeastern Florida with significant African-American populations into a black-majority district, was overwhelmingly Democratic in voting patterns.
The new 3rd District has a majority white population in rural areas and small towns. The only cities of any size in the district are Ocala; the new 3rd District is represented by Republican Ted Yoho, elected on November 6, 2012, taking office on January 3, 2013. The old 3rd District was represented from 1993 through 2012 by Corrine Brown, elected to the similar new 5th District in the November 2012 elections; the old 3rd district was a gerrymandered congressional district. The district included portions of Alachua, Duval, Marion, Putnam and Volusia counties. While Florida has had at least three congressional districts since the 1900 U. S. Census, the 1993–2012 3rd Congressional District dates to reapportionment done by the Florida Legislature after the 1990 U. S. Census; because Florida has a large population of African Americans, but not a large enough concentration anywhere in the state to configure a congressional district with a majority, there were several attempts to create a few gerrymandered districts which were certain to elect an African American candidate.
This created an odd coalition of black Republicans who supported such districts. This effort was opposed by many white Democrats, but this idea won the support of the state legislature and this district was created as a result; the 1993–2012 3rd Congressional District was geographically diverse. Starting from the southern part of the district, it included the Pine Hills area of the Orlando-Kissimmee Metropolitan Area with small pockets of African-American neighborhoods in the cities of Sanford, Gainesville and the larger African American communities of Jacksonville. Connecting these areas were regions which are sparsely populated—either expansive rural areas or narrow strips which are only a few miles wide. Barack Obama received 73% of the vote in this district in the 2008 Presidential election; as of January 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Florida's 3rd congressional district, living at this time. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Corrine Brown's official House of Representatives website
Volusia County, Florida
Volusia County is located in the east-central part of the U. S. state of Florida, stretching between the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010 census, the county was home to 494,593 people, an increase of 11.6% from 2000. It was founded on December 29, 1854 from part of Orange County and was named for the community of Volusia, located in northwestern Volusia County, its first county seat was Enterprise. Since 1887, its county seat has been DeLand. Volusia County is part of the Deltona–Daytona Beach–Ormond Beach, FL metropolitan statistical area, is part of the larger Orlando–Deltona–Daytona Beach, FL Combined Statistical Area. Volusia County was named after its largest community, when the Florida legislature created it by dividing Orange County on December 29, 1854. At the time, Volusia County had about 600 residents; the origins of the word "Volusia" are unclear, though there are several theories: The name came from a word meaning "Land of the Euchee," from the Euchee Indians who migrated into the area after the Timucua Indian cultures declined in the early 1700s.
The Euchees lived in the area of Spring Gardens, about ten miles south of Volusia. It was named after a British settler named Voluz who owned a plantation located on the St. Johns River in the late 1700s; the name originated from the Veluche, the surname of a French or Belgian owner of the trading post in Volusia. According to some, this was during the British regime, according to others, it was around 1818. Over time, the name Veluche became anglicized to Volusia; the town was named for Jere Volusia. The settlement was named by the Spanish after the celebrated Roman jurist Volusio, who wrote 30 books and tutored Marcus Aurelius, the Roman emperor and philosopher; the land area of present-day Volusia County was long inhabited by the indigenous Timucua, Mayaca people. Neither historic group exists today as distinct ethnic tribes, having been decimated by disease and war in the decades after contact with European traders and settlers; the large shell middens at Tomoka State Park and other evidence of their historic habitation can still be seen in various areas of Volusia County.
During the British occupation of Florida, a colony known as New Smyrna was started in southeast Volusia County by Andrew Turnbull. This colony was connected to the capital of East Florida, via the Kings Road. After the failure of the colony the settlers, many of whom were ethnic Menorcan and Greek, traveled the 70-mile to move to St. Augustine; the Seminole Indians, descendants of the Creek tribe of Alabama and Georgia who resisted forced relocation to Indian Territory camped in various parts of Volusia County. During the Second Seminole War, the Seminole burned a large sugar plantation in what is today the city of Daytona Beach. On the east shore of the St. Johns River in Volusia, in present-day DeBary, General Winfield Scott established a fort/depot in 1836 named Fort Florida. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,432 square miles, of which 1,101 square miles is land and 331 square miles is water. Volusia County is bordered on the west by the St. Johns River and Lake Monroe, by the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
The size of Rhode Island, Volusia is situated 50 miles northeast of Orlando, 60 miles north of the Kennedy Space Center, 89 miles south of Jacksonville. The Volusia County Government divides the county into three regions; this parallels the three calling regions used by BellSouth, the regional phone company: East Volusia - known as the Greater Daytona Beach Area, or the Halifax Area, this region includes the cities of Daytona Beach, Daytona Beach Shores, Holly Hill, Ormond Beach, Ponce Inlet, Port Orange and South Daytona. Southeast Volusia - known as the Greater New Smyrna Beach Area, this region includes the cities of New Smyrna Beach and Oak Hill. West Volusia - called Saint John's River Country, this region includes the cities of Barberville, DeBary, DeLand, DeLeon Springs, Glenwood, Lake Helen, Orange City and Seville. Deltona is the largest city in Volusia County. Flagler County - north Brevard County - south Orange County - south Seminole County - southwest Lake County - west Marion and Putnam counties - northwest Barberville Pioneer Settlement in Barberville Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach Jackie Robinson Ballpark in Daytona Beach New Smyrna Speedway in New Smyrna Beach Ponce de Leon Inlet Lighthouse and Museum in Ponce Inlet Cracker Creek in Port Orange The Ocean Center in Daytona Beach Volusia County Fair and Expo Center in DeLand Volusia Speedway Park in Barberville Under Volusia County's council-manager form of government, voters elect a county council which consists of seven members who serve four-year terms.
Five are elected by district, the county chairman and at-large representative are elected county-wide. The county council establish policies for the county, it reviews and approves the county budget annually. The county council appoints a county manager, who carries out the will of the council and handles day-to-day business. County Chair: Ed Kelley Commissioner-At-Large: Ben Johnson District 1 Commissioner - Barbara Girtman District 2 Commissioner - Billie Wheeler District 3 Commissioner - Deborah Denys District 4 Commissioner - Heather Post District 5 Commissioner and Vice Chair - Fred
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Marion County, Florida
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 331,298, its county seat is Ocala. Marion County comprises FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it includes part of Ocala National Forest, which extends into three other counties. Evidence of ancient cultures has been found in Marion County, as well as of the earliest encounter between European explorers and historic indigenous peoples. In 1976, an archaeological investigation found ancient artifacts in Marion County that appear to be the oldest in mainland United States. Excavations at an ancient stone quarry yielded "crude stone implements". Thousands of pieces of chert were found at the site; these showed signs of extensive wear and were found in deposits below those holding Paleo-Indian artifacts. Thermoluminescence dating and weathering analysis independently gave dates of 26,000 to 28,000 Years Before Present for the production of these artifacts, prior to Clovis points; the findings suggested human habitation in this area much earlier than documented by other evidence.
Barbara Purdy had bipoint evidence from the CCA site which she reported in a 2008 paper. The county seat of Ocala, Florida is named for an Indian site visited and recorded by the Hernando de Soto Expedition in the sixteenth century. During the colonial period and Great Britain traded control of this area. After acquisition of the Florida territory by the United States in the 1820s, Marion County was created in 1844 from portions of Alachua and Hillsborough counties; until 1853, Marion County included most of what are now Sumter counties. In 1849, Putnam County took the northeast portion of Marion. Levy County’s creation took some of the western portion of Marion in 1877, near the end of the Reconstruction era. Marion County is named after General Francis Marion of South Carolina, a guerrilla fighter and hero of the American Revolutionary War, known as the "Swamp Fox". Numerous early settlers of this area were natives of South Carolina and picked their local hero as the county's namesake; the Act creating the county of Marion of the Territory of Florida was signed on March 14, 1844, by the territorial governor, R. K. Call.
The county motto is "Kingdom of the Sun." During the post-Reconstruction period, there was considerable racial violence by whites against blacks in Marion County. Whites lynched 19 African Americans here from 1877-1950; this was the 4th highest total of any county in the state. The rural area has been developed for breeding racehorses, some farms have been quite successful. Since the mid-20th-century, thoroughbred farms in the county have become known for such race champions as Needles, bred at Bonnie Heath Farm, in 1956 becoming the first Florida-bred horse to win the Kentucky Derby. Carl G. Rose, who had come to Florida in 1916 from Indiana to oversee construction of the first asphalt road in the state, developed the first horse farm in 1943; as an engineer, he had become familiar with the area's limestone, which he realized supported good pasture for raising strong horses. In 1943, Rose bought land at $10 per acre, which became Rosemere Farm; the next year one of his horses, won at Miami's Tropical Park, becoming the first Florida-raised thoroughbred to win a Florida race.
Close on Rose's heels, entrepreneur Bonnie Heath set up his own thoroughbred farm, producing Needles, which in 1956 became the state's first native-bred winner of the Kentucky Derby.. Bonnie Heath Farm is operated by Bonnie Heath III and his wife Kim. Rosemere Farm was sold long ago, the large site was redeveloped for the retail center Paddock Mall and the College of Central Florida. In 1956, the Ocala-area Thoroughbred industry received a boost when Needles became the first Florida-bred to win the Kentucky Derby. In 1978, Marion County-bred-and-raised Affirmed won the Triple Crown. Today, Marion County is a major world thoroughbred center with more than 1200 horse farms, including about 900 thoroughbred farms, totaling some 77,000 acres. Ocala is well known as a "horse capital of the world." The nearby community of Silver Springs developed around the Silver Springs, a group of artesian springs on the Silver River. In the 19th century, this site became Florida's first tourist destination. Today, well known for glass-bottom boat tours of the area, Silver Springs is owned by the State of Florida and was incorporated into Silver Springs State Park in 2013.
Other nearby natural attractions include the Florida Trail. Several prominent man-made attractions in the Ocala area existed in the past, such as the Western-themed Six Gun Territory theme park and the Wild Waters water park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,663 square miles, of which 1,585 square miles is land and 78 square miles is water. Marion County is composed of rolling hills, some high and some low; the majority of its trees consist of live oaks and palm trees. Marion County is considered the southernmost county in North Central Florida, the northernmost county in Central Florida, it is about a two-hour drive from many of Florida's major cities, Orlando is 75 minutes to the southeast while Daytona Beach is about 90 minutes to the east. Tampa is about 75 minutes to the southwest. Jacksonville is a two-hour drive northeas
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website