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Putnam County, New York

Putnam County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 99,710; the county seat is Carmel. Putnam County formed in 1812 from Dutchess County and is named for Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. Putnam County is included in the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the lower Hudson River Valley. Midtown Manhattan is around a one-hour drive, Grand Central Terminal is 1 hour, 20 minute train ride from the county, it is one of the most affluent counties in America, ranked 21st by median household income, 43rd by per-capita income, according to the 2012 American Community Survey and 2009-2013 American Community Survey, respectively. In 1609, the Wappinger Native American people inhabited the east bank of the Hudson River, they farmed and fished throughout their range encountering Dutch fur traders. They obtained metal goods such as alcohol and firearms in exchange for furs.

The colonial Province of New York and the Connecticut Colony negotiated an agreement on November 28, 1683, establishing their border as 20 miles east of the Hudson River, north to Massachusetts. Dutchess county was organized as one of New York's twelve counties, it included two towns in the present Columbia county. Until 1713, Dutchess was administered by Ulster county. In 1691, a group of Dutch traders purchased a tract of land from the Wappingers that spanned from the Hudson River to the Connecticut border. Six years they sold it to wealthy Dutch-American merchant Adolphus Philipse, who obtained a Royal sanction for a "Highland Patent" that encompassed most of today's Putnam County. Unknown at that time was a northwest veer in the river's path to the northwest at the Hudson Highlands; this generated a dispute over a 2-mile-wide section of border between northern Westchester County and then-Dutchess counties and the Connecticut Colony. In 1737, the New York Colonial Assembly designated the Philipse Patent as the South Precinct of Dutchess County.

The Philipses began leasing farms to migrants from Massachusetts, Long Island, lower Westchester. After Adolph Philipse's death, the Patent was divided in 1754 into nine lots granted to three heirs: Mary Philipse, Philip Philipse, Susannah Philipse Robinson. During the French and Indian War, many of the Wappinger went to Massachusetts. Compared to other parts of the Hudson Valley, Putnam County had slow settlement, it was owned and settlement was limited to tenant farmers willing to pay the Philipse family for leases. Secondly, it was hilly and rocky, making it unappealing to men looking for tillable cropland, its use was limited to dairy farming and wood cutting. The first non-tenant settlers in the county were along its eastern edge; the ambiguous border with Connecticut attracted farmers from New England. They assumed. Among early settlers were the Hayt family, which built a farm called The Elm in 1720. Jacob Haviland settled in the Oblong in 1731 in; the first village in the county was Fredericksburg, now the hamlet of Patterson.

During the American Revolution, the Philipses stayed loyal to the Crown. As a consequence, their lands were confiscated by the New York government, it sold the Philipse Patent along with the rest of their holdings. The dispute over The Oblong was resolved in the aftermath of the war, with the settled tract being incorporated as the first of two versions of the Town of Southeast. Resolved were two "Gores", the Beekman Gore and the Rombout Gore, which being geographically similar to the Livingston and Beekman patents they abutted, were ceded by the Philipses to Dutchess County in 1758 and 1771 respectively. Due to the increasing population of the Southern Precinct of Dutchess County and the great distance of these communities from the county seat in Poughkeepsie, Putnam was split from Dutchess in 1812 and organized as an independent county, it encompassed all of the Philipse Patent and the Oblong abutting it, less a triangular area in the farthest northwest reach of the Patent. There, a lowland near Fishkill Creek isolated from the rest of Putnam County and its adjacent upland drainage leading into the Hudson Highlands to the south, were ceded to Dutchess.

Putnam travelers used boats and ships along the Hudson River. Boats transporting goods traveled up the Hudson to ports at Peekskill, New York, they were transported by road into Putnam County, or goods were unloaded in Putnam County at Cold Spring, New York. Such transport suffered in winter. At that time, little food or goods could be shipped to the county; the Philipstown Turnpike was created in 1815 as a toll road from Cold Spring to Connecticut. The wagons that traveled the road would transport produce from eastern Putnam County and iron ore from the mines; the route of the turnpike can be traced today: Rt 301 from Cold Spring to Farmers Mills Road, to White Pond Road to Pecksville Holmes Rd to Patterson Quaker Hill Rd to Connecticut. Transportation improved with the advent of the railroad, namely the Harlem Line, built in the 1840s, connecting Putnam by rail to New York City. There were four stations on the Harlem line in Putnam County: Brewster, Dykemans and Patterson. Today only the Patterson stops remain.

Putnam County played an important role in the Civil War. One third of the county's men between the ages of 15 and 55 served in the military duri

Visiting Mr. Green

Visiting Mr. Green is a stage play by American author Jeff Baron, performed around the world. Eighty-six-year-old widower Mr. Green is hit by a car driven by young corporate executive Ross Gardiner. Found guilty of reckless driving, Ross is ordered to spend the next six months making weekly visits to Mr. Green. What starts off as a comedy about two people who resent being in the same room together develops into drama, as family secrets are revealed and old wounds are opened. On June 20, 1996 the play had its premiere at the Berkshire Theatre Festival in Stockbridge, with Eli Wallach in the lead role. From 1997 it played a year-long run at the Union Square Theatre in New York, again with Wallach in the lead role, it was nominated for a Molière and a Drama League Award. It won Best Play awards in Greece, Israel, Uruguay and Germany, the Kulturpreis Europa, his newer plays have originated in South America and Europe. The play has gone on to have over 500 productions in 49 countries and has been translated into 23 languages.

So This Is My Family - Mr. Green Part 2, Jeff Baron's sequel to Visiting Mr. Green, had its world premiere at the Avignon Theatre Festival in France in July, 2018. Set three years after the original play, with two additional characters, the play will open in The Netherlands in 2020; the United Nations presented a reading from the play by Eli Wallach in 1999. Drama League, Best Play nominee. C. E. Best Foreign Play nominee.

Kirsten Bos

Kirsten Bos is a Canadian physical anthropologist. She is Group Leader of Molecular Palaeopathology at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, her research focuses on infectious diseases. Bos obtained a BS in Bio-Medical Science from the University of Guelph in 2001; the following year, she studied Anthropology at the University of Manitoba. She received an MA in Anthropology at McMaster University in 2004, earned a PhD in 2012, her thesis title was Genetic investigations into the Black Death. From 2012 to 2015, Bos was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Tübingen. Bos began researching plague as a member of the McMaster University Ancient DNA Centre. Bos and Verena Schuenemann of the University of Tübingen, led a research project, co-sponsored by the McMaster Ancient DNA Centre and the University of Tübingen, to sequence the DNA of the Black Death pathogen, Yersinia pestis, recovered from plague victims at a medieval London burial site; the archaeological excavation of the plague cemetery was managed by the Museum of London Archaeology.

After examining bacterial samples from 46 teeth and 53 bones, the research team was able to establish that Yersinia pestis was the cause of Black Death, which killed over 30 million people in 14th century Europe. The team determined that the ancient pathogen is the predecessor of all modern variants of plague and the medieval bacteria hasn't changed much since the Middle Ages; the team's findings were published in the journal Nature in December, 2011. Bos led a recent study, which discovered that an ancient strain of tuberculosis migrated to the New World by infected sea lions and seals; the research team from the University of Tübingen, examined thousands of skeletons for TB, were able to extract DNA from three skeletons uncovered in southern Peru. It was determined that the remains were buried 1,000 years ago, before the arrival of Europeans to the New World; the researchers established that the ancient TB was different from modern turberculosis bacterium. The study results, which were published in the journal Nature in October, 2014, proposed that a new strain of TB, dissimilar to TB strains that were in existence throughout the world 1,000 years ago, had migrated to South America.

Researchers came to the conclusion that the ancient Peruvian form of TB was identical to TB strains identified in pinnipeds–a group that includes seals, sea lions and walruses. The study's results indicate that TB emerged in Africa 6,000 years ago and the TB bacterium moved from land animals to a sea lion or seal, which traveled across the ocean to the South America; the sea animals, at some point infected people living in coastal Peru and northern Chile. Bos, Kirsten. "Mining Metagenomic Data Sets for Ancient DNA: Recommended Protocols for Authentication". Trends in Genetics. 33: 508–520. Doi:10.1016/j.tig.2017.05.005. PMID 28688671. Retrieved 16 March 2019. Bos, Kirsten. "Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics". Cell Host & Microbe. 19: 874–881. Doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.012. Bos, Kirsten. "Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis". Nature. 514: 494–497. Doi:10.1038/nature13591.

PMC 4550673. PMID 25141181. Bos, Kirsten. "A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes". Biology. 23: 553–559. Doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.044. PMC 5036973. PMID 23523248. Bos, Kirsten. "A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death". Nature. 478: 506–510. Doi:10.1038/nature10549. PMC 3690193. PMID 21993626. Retrieved 15 March 2019

Louis Auguste Say

Louis Auguste Say was a French businessman and economist. He founded large sugar refineries in Nantes and Paris, the sugar company "Say", known after 1972 as Béghin-Sayl. Say was born on 6 March 1774 in France, his father, Jean-Etienne Say, was a Swiss-born silk trader. His mother was Françoise Brun de Castanet, he had a brother, Jean-Baptiste Say, who became a classical liberal economist. His paternal family were Protestants from Nîmes who were exiled in Geneva, Switzerland after the repeal of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, his paternal great-grandfather named Louis Say, moved first to Amsterdam, where he was a member of the Walloon Church, before settling in Geneva in 1694. His paternal grandfather, Jean Say, became a Swiss citizen. Say began his career as a broker in Paris, he moved to Abbeville, where he worked in the calico-whitening industry. In 1813, Say asked Jules Paul Benjamin Delessert to recommend his cousin, Armand Delessert, the owner of a beetroot sugar refinery in Nantes.

Shortly after, Say took over the refinery. After the government changed the law on tariffs in 1814, Say switched to using sugarcane in 1815, he let his son Horace taken over the refinery. The company was known as Louis Say et Cie known as Béghin-Say, now a subsidiary of Tereos. In 1832, with Constant Duméril, Say opened a beetroot sugar factory in Ivry-sur-Seine, known as the "Raffinerie de Jamaïque". In reaction to his brother, Say became an economist at the age of forty-four, after he had become wealthy. For historian Marc Penouil, he was an "amateur" in this field. Say joined the Société Académique de Loire-Inférieure, he met David Ricardo in England. He wrote four books about political economy between 1818 and 1836, he disagreed with Jean-Baptiste, about classical liberalism. Say focused on the relationship between worth and usefulness, he drew distinctions between individual wealth. Contrary to classical liberals, he was in favour of tariffs as a way to encourage production. However, he was vehemently opposed to taxes.

Say married Constance Maressal in 1809. They had four sons: Gustave, Achille and Louis Octave Say. Say died on 6 May 1840 in Paris, he was sixty-six years old. Say's nephew, Horace Say, became a classical liberal economist, his grandnephew, Léon Say, served as the French Minister of Finance from 1872 to 1873, 1875 to 1877, 1877 to 1879, again in 1882. His granddaughter, Princess Marie Say married first Henri Amédée de Broglie, Luís Fernando de Orleans y Borbón. Les principales causes de la richesse ou de la misere des peuples et des particuliers. Considerations sur l'industrie et la legislation sous le rapport de leur influence sur la richesse des Etats et examen critique des principaux ouvrages qui ont paru sur l'economie politique. Traite elementaire de la richesse individuelle et de la richesse publique, et eclaircissement sur les principales questions d'economie politique. Etude sur la richesse des nations et refutation des principales erreurs en economie politique

Normal coordinates

In differential geometry, normal coordinates at a point p in a differentiable manifold equipped with a symmetric affine connection are a local coordinate system in a neighborhood of p obtained by applying the exponential map to the tangent space at p. In a normal coordinate system, the Christoffel symbols of the connection vanish at the point p, thus simplifying local calculations. In normal coordinates associated to the Levi-Civita connection of a Riemannian manifold, one can additionally arrange that the metric tensor is the Kronecker delta at the point p, that the first partial derivatives of the metric at p vanish. A basic result of differential geometry states that normal coordinates at a point always exist on a manifold with a symmetric affine connection. In such coordinates the covariant derivative reduces to a partial derivative, the geodesics through p are locally linear functions of t; this idea was implemented in a fundamental way by Albert Einstein in the general theory of relativity: the equivalence principle uses normal coordinates via inertial frames.

Normal coordinates always exist for the Levi-Civita connection of a Riemannian or Pseudo-Riemannian manifold. By contrast, in general there is no way to define normal coordinates for Finsler manifolds in a way that the exponential map are twice-differentiable. Geodesic normal coordinates are local coordinates on a manifold with an affine connection afforded by the exponential map exp p: T p M ⊃ V → M and an isomorphism E: R n → T p M given by any basis of the tangent space at the fixed basepoint p ∈ M. If the additional structure of a Riemannian metric is imposed the basis defined by E may be required in addition to be orthonormal, the resulting coordinate system is known as a Riemannian normal coordinate system. Normal coordinates exist on a normal neighborhood of a point p in M. A normal neighborhood U is a subset of M such that there is a proper neighborhood V of the origin in the tangent space TpM, expp acts as a diffeomorphism between U and V. On the normal neighborhood U of p in M, the chart is given by: φ:= E − 1 ∘ exp p − 1: U → R n The isomorphism E can be any isomorphism between the two vector spaces, so there are as many charts as there are different orthonormal bases in the domain of E.

The properties of normal coordinates simplify computations. In the following, assume that U is a normal neighborhood centered at a point p in M and x i are normal coordinates on U. Let V be some vector from T p M with components V i in local coordinates, γ V be the geodesic at t = 0 pass through the point p with velocity vector V γ V is represented in normal coordinates by γ V = as long as it is in U; the coordinates of a point p are In Riemannian normal coordinates at a point p the components of the Riemannian metric g i j simplify to δ i j, i.e. g i j = δ i j. The Christoffel symbols vanish at p, i.e. Γ i j k = 0. In the Riemannian case, so do the first partial derivatives of g i j, i.e. ∂ g i j ∂ x k = 0, ∀ i, j, k. On a Riemannian manifold, a normal coordinate system at p facilitates the introduction of a system of spherical coordinates, known as polar coordinates; these are the coordinates on M obtained by introducing the standard spherical coordinate system on the Euclidean space TpM. That is, one introduces on TpM the standard spherical coordinate system where r ≥ 0 is the radial parameter and φ = is a parameterization of the

Murray Saltzman

Murray Saltzman was an American reform Jewish rabbi and civil rights leader. Saltzman was born to a Russian-immigrant family in the youngest of three sons. After first enrolling in Syracuse University, Saltzman attended University of Cincinnati and studied to become a rabbi, he became ordained in 1956 at the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. Saltzman was an assistant rabbi at Congregation Emanu-El B'ne Jeshrun in Milwaukee, rabbi of B'nai Abraham Synagogue in Hagerstown and rabbi at Temple Beth-El in Chappaqua, New York, he spent eleven years as chief rabbi at Indianapolis Hebrew Congregation. From 1978 to 1996, he was chief rabbi at Baltimore Hebrew Congregation. After retiring to Florida, Saltzman became the part-time rabbi of Bat Yam Temple of the Islands Tzedakah in Sanibel, Florida. A leader in both the Indianapolis and Baltimore communities, Saltzman appeared as a co-host with William Hudnut on the Indianapolis public television program Focus on Faith, expanding religious education though the creation of Baltimore Hebrew Day School, instituting several social justice programs in both cities.

Saltzman participated in many civil rights protests throughout the 1960s, marching with Martin Luther King, Jr. on several occasions. In 1964, he was one of several rabbis arrested during the St. Augustine Movement protests in St. Augustine, Florida; the incident was the largest mass arrest of rabbis in history. In 1975, Saltzman was appointed by President Gerald Ford to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights. In 1983, Saltzman co-authored an op-ed column with fellow commissioners Mary Frances Berry and Blandina Ramirez in which the three accused President Ronald Reagan of treating the Commission as "lap dogs" rather than "watch dogs." In a controversial move, President Reagan fired all three commissioners. Berry and Ramirez sued to return to the commission on the grounds that it was meant to be a nonpartisan entity. Saltzman chose not to be part of the suit, he died on January 5, 2010 in Fort Myers, from pancreatic cancer, leaving behind his wife Esther, three children, six grandchildren.