Parliament of Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament. The Parliament assembles in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, located in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The term Member of Parliament usually refers to a member of the Dewan Rakyat, the term Senator usually refers to a member of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament. In line with the nature of the new country, the upper house would have members elected by state legislative assemblies in addition to members appointed by the King. Parliament first sat at the headquarters building of the Federated Malay States Volunteer Force on a hill near Jalan Tun Ismail. The Dewan Negara met in a hall on the floor while the Dewan Rakyat met in the hall on the first floor. In 1963, when Malaya, Sabah and Singapore merged to form Malaysia, both Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara were expanded to include representatives from the new states.
When Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965, it ceased to be represented in the Parliament of Malaysia, significant change regarding the composition of Dewan Negara occurred during this period. Under the 1957 Constitution of Malaya, senators elected by the assemblies were in the majority, totaling 22 members with 2 for each state. Parliament has been suspended only once in the history of Malaysia, from 1969 to 1971 – when Parliament reconvened – the nation was run by the National Operations Council. Debates in Parliament are broadcast on radio and television occasionally, such as during the tabling of a budget, the prohibitive cost was cited as a reason. It is subordinate to the Head of State, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Dewan Rakyat consists of 222 members of Parliament elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population in a general election using the first-past-the-post system. A general election is held five years or when Parliament is dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Suffrage is given to registered voters 21 years and above, however voting is not compulsory, the age requirement to stand for election is 21 years and above. The Dewan Negara consists of 70 members,26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies,4 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to represent the 3 federal territories, the rest 40 members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister. Senators must be 30 years or above, and are appointed to a term for a maximum of two terms. The dissolution of the Parliament does not affect the Dewan Negara, Members of Parliament are permitted to speak on any subject without fear of censure outside Parliament, the only body that can censure an MP is the House Committee of Privileges
Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician who was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1981 to 2003, making him longest-serving holder of that office. His political career spanned more than 70 years since he first joined a newly-formed UMNO in 1946, born and raised in Alor Setar, Mahathir excelled at school and became a medical doctor. He became active in the United Malays National Organisation, Malaysias largest political party and he served one term before losing his seat, subsequently falling out with Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman and being expelled from UMNO. When Abdul Rahman resigned, Mahathir re-entered UMNO and Parliament, and was promoted to the Cabinet, by 1976 he had risen to Deputy Prime Minister, and in 1981 was sworn in as Prime Minister after the resignation of his predecessor, Hussein Onn. During Mahathirs tenure as Prime Minister, Malaysia experienced a period of modernisation and economic growth. Mahathir was a dominant political figure, winning five consecutive general elections, his accumulation of power came at the expense of the independence of the judiciary and the traditional powers and privileges of Malaysias royalty.
He deployed the controversial Internal Security Act to detain activists, non-mainstream religious figures, as Prime Minister, he was an advocate of third-world development and a prominent international activist. He remains a political figure after his retirement. He became a strident critic of his hand-picked successor Abdullah Badawi in 2006 and and his son Mukhriz Mahathir was the Chief Minister of Kedah until early 2016. On 29 February 2016, Mahathir Mohamad quit UMNO in light of UMNOs support for the actions of Prime Minister Najib Razak, among the other reasons are the RM2. 6bil and 1Malaysia Development Berhad issues. On 9 September 2016, the Registrar of Societies gave his stamp of approval for Mahathir Mohamad’s new Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia. Mahathir is currently the chairman of the party, Mahathir was born at his parents home in a poor neighbourhood of Alor Setar, the capital of the state of Kedah, British Malaya, on 10 July 1925. Mahathirs birth certificate gives his date of birth as 20 December and he was actually born on 10 July, his biographer Barry Wain explains that 20 December was an arbitrary date.
An aspect of Mahathirs birth set him apart, he was not born into the aristocracy or a prominent religious or political family, both parents had been married previously, Mahathir had six half-siblings and two full-siblings. Discipline imposed by his father motivated him to study, and he showed little interest in sports and he won a position in a selective English medium secondary school, having become fluent in English well ahead of his primary school peers. With schools closed during the Japanese occupation of Malaya during World War II, he went into business, first selling coffee and pisang goreng and other snacks. After the war, he graduated from school with high marks. There he met his wife, Siti Hasmah Mohamad Ali
1997 Asian financial crisis
At the time, Thailand had acquired a burden of foreign debt that made the country effectively bankrupt even before the collapse of its currency. As the crisis spread, most of Southeast Asia and Japan saw slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and other asset prices, South Korea and Thailand were the countries most affected by the crisis. Hong Kong, Laos and the Philippines were hurt by the slump, China, Singapore and Vietnam were less affected, although all suffered from a loss of demand and confidence throughout the region. Foreign debt-to-GDP ratios rose from 100% to 167% in the four large Association of Southeast Asian Nations economies in 1993–96, in South Korea, the ratios rose from 13% to 21% and as high as 40%, while the other northern newly industrialized countries fared much better. Only in Thailand and South Korea did debt service-to-exports ratios rise, the efforts to stem a global economic crisis did little to stabilize the domestic situation in Indonesia, however. After 30 years in power, President Suharto was forced to step down on 21 May 1998 in the wake of rioting that followed sharp price increases caused by a drastic devaluation of the rupiah.
The effects of the crisis lingered through 1998, in 1998 the Philippines growth dropped to virtually zero. By 1999, analysts saw signs that the economies of Asia were beginning to recover, after the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, economies in the region are working toward financial stability on financial supervision. Until 1999, Asia attracted almost half of the capital inflow into developing countries. The economies of Southeast Asia in particular maintained high interest rates attractive to investors looking for a high rate of return. As a result, the regions received a large inflow of money. At the same time, the economies of Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore. This achievement was widely acclaimed by financial institutions including IMF and World Bank, the causes of the debacle are many and disputed. Thailands economy developed into an economic bubble fueled by hot money and more was required as the size of the bubble grew. The same type of situation happened in Malaysia, and Indonesia, the short-term capital flow was expensive and often highly conditioned for quick profit.
Development money went in an uncontrolled manner to certain people only, not particularly the best suited or most efficient. As the U. S. economy recovered from a recession in the early 1990s, the U. S. Federal Reserve Bank under Alan Greenspan began to raise U. S. interest rates to head off inflation. S. dollar. For the Southeast Asian nations which had pegged to the U. S. dollar
MSC Malaysia, formerly the Multimedia Super Corridor and known as the MSC within Malaysia, is a Special Economic Zone and high-technology business district in Malaysia. It is located in the Sepang district of Selangor state, in the Klang Valley, the Multimedia Super Corridor program was officially inaugurated by the 4th Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad on 12 February 1996. The MSC flagship applications were launched to boost the MSC Malaysia initiatives and to create a multimedia utopia for innovative producers and users of multimedia technology. MSC is a global test bed, where the limits of the possible can be explored, and new ways of living, working and it aims to attract companies with temporary tax breaks and facilities such as high-speed Internet access and proximity to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. MSC Malaysia covers an area of approximately 15 km ×50 km stretching from the Petronas Twin Towers to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport, on 7 December 2006, Port Klang was added to the MSC.
This project was announced by former Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir at the Multimedia Asia Conference on 1 August 1996. Dr Mahathirs visit to the United States of America in January 1997 to promote the MSC to companies there succeeded in attracting the interest of many information technology companies. During the visit, an advisory panel comprising 30 information technology experts were formed to exchange ideas toward the success of the MSC. The Multimedia Development Corporation was created to oversee development of the MSC, though Malaysian law had provided for strict government controls on print media since 1984, a founding principle of MSC Malaysia was that government censorship of the Internet would not be permitted. Seeing a loophole, journalist Steven Gan and colleague Premesh Chandran decided to start a news resource that would be free of the controls that they felt stifled print media. In November 1999, the pair founded Malaysiakini, an online, the site was awarded a Free Media Pioneer award from the International Press Institute in 2001, and Gan was awarded one of the 2000 CPJ International Press Freedom Awards for his work with the site.
Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi, principles of Public Administration, An Introduction. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5 Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, ISBN 978-967-5-04508-0 Mscmalaysia. my, official MSC Malaysia website Mscmalaysia. my, MSC Malaysia Animation and Creative Content Center Mscmalaysia. my, MSC Malaysia Capability Development Programmes
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Selangor /səˈlæŋə/ known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or Abode of Sincerity is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and it surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were previously part of Selangor. The state capital is Shah Alam, however the first city in Selangor, another major urban centre is Petaling Jaya which was awarded city status on 20 June 2006. Selangor is one of only two Malaysian states with more than one city, the other is Sarawak, Selangor has the largest city in Malaysia and it is growing rapidly due to modernisation in the Klang Valley. The state of Selangor has the largest economy in Malaysia in terms of domestic product with RM128.815 billion in 2010 making up 23% of the total GDP of Malaysia. This state is the most developed in Malaysia with good infrastructure such as highways, the state has the largest population in Malaysia, with a high standard of living and the states poverty rate is the lowest in the country.
A more plausible theory claims the name is derived from the term Selang Ur meaning land of the straits Aur means river in Malay. Hence, Selangor may mean river straits, a major problem with this hypothesis is that the word selang does not in fact mean strait in Malay, not even in obsolete usage according to the Kamus Dewan, the proper word for strait is selat. Another possible origin of the name is combination of the words Sela. It may be possible that the banks of the Selangor River was full of bamboo groves in the distant past, however bamboo do not grow well in the marshy soil of the lower reaches of the river. It is possible that the word Selangor is an Orang Asli term as some rivers have Orang Asli names, in the 15th century, Selangor was ruled by the Sultanate of Malacca. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area became disputed between the Portuguese, Johor and Siam. When the Dutch displaced the Portuguese from Malacca in 1641, they brought in Muslim Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi and they established the present hereditary sultanate in 1740.
In many districts, Bugis settlers displaced the Minangkabau settlers from Sumatra, in the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin reserves. In 1854, the Sultan of Selangor granted Raja Abdullah the control of Klang, passing over Raja Mahdi and this would eventually led to the Selangor Civil War of 1867 to 1874, which was essentially a struggle for control of the revenues from tin. Tin Mining attracted an influx of Chinese migrant labourers. Chinese secret clan societies, allied with Selangor chiefs, fought for control of the tin mines, in 1874, Sultan Adbul Samad of Selangor accepted a British Resident in a system allowed the British to govern while the Sultan remained the apparent ruler. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered, the Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957, and Malaysia in 1963
Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language, Banjarese, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two scripts in Brunei, used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay dominated areas in Indonesia. It can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, day-to-day usage of Jawi is maintained in more conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. Jawi is still used on road and building signs, and taught in primary and religious schools in Brunei. The word Jawi is an adjective for the Arabic noun Jawah, both terms may have originated from the term Javadwipa, the ancient name for Java. Prior to the onset of the Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still firmly established in the region and this is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription. The spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century.
The conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136, at the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language and this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the Sri Paduka Tuan of Terengganu, urging his subjects to extend and uphold Islam and this has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu specifically and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing which was restricted to the nobility. The Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class, with the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures originally written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script.
Additionally local religious scholars began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings, there were individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which previously existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form. This was believed to have taken place from the 15th century, other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi. Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several alphabets other than Jawi alphabets to suit the languages, due to their fairly limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script. The script became prominent with the spread of Islam, as the Malays found that the earlier Pallava script was totally unsuited as a vehicle to relay religious concepts.
The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the use of jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua franca of the region, alongside the spread of Islam
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or more commonly called KL is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city. Being rated as an Alpha world city, Kuala Lumpur is the global city in Malaysia which covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur, known as the Klang Valley, is an agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing regions in South-East Asia, in terms of population. Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia, the city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they were moved to Putrajaya in early 1999. Some sections of the judiciary still remain in the city of Kuala Lumpur. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is situated in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a key city. Kuala Lumpur is one of three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades and it is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers, which have become an iconic symbol of Malaysias futuristic development. Kuala Lumpur means muddy confluence, kuala is the point where two rivers join together or an estuary, and lumpur means mud. One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur, it was recorded in 1824 that Sungei Lumpoor was the most important tin-producing settlement up the Klang River. It has proposed that Kuala Lumpur was originally named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu. Another suggestion is that it was initially a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning flooded jungle or decayed jungle, there is however no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes. It is possible that the name is a form of an earlier.
It is unknown who founded or named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur was originally a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened
Vehicle registration plates of Malaysia
Malaysian registration plates are displayed at the front and rear of all private and commercial motorised vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. The issuing of the plates is regulated and administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department or JPJ. Standards for number plate designs have been defined by the Road Transport Department but are practiced to an extent. Character size and colour use are strictly enforced for accurate identification. However, the dimensions of the plates displaying the number are more loosely enforced. A compact version of Arial Bold is currently the typeface preferred by the Road Transport Department and is thus the most commonly used, more obscure custom typefaces have been known to be used primarily on grey import vehicles and aftermarket license plates. Early Malaysian number plates were made of pressed metal, but were superseded by plastic plates since the 1970s. S - The state or territory prefix, the exceptions in the algorithm are as follows, There can be no leading zeroes in the number sequence.
The letters I and O are omitted from the alphabetical sequences due to their similarities with the numbers 1 and 0, the letters Z is omitted and reserved for use on Malaysian military vehicles. The algorithm started with a prefix and a number sequence which ranged from 1 to 9999. For example, P1 would be the first registration plate of Penang, once P9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the state prefix, PA1 was the result. When PA9999 was reached, the sequence was reset. After PY9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the first alphabetical sequence. When PAY9999 was reached, the alphabetical sequence was reset. To allow further W plates, the algorithm was altered to feature an alphabetical suffix behind the number sequence, when W9999 Y was achieved, the second alphabetical sequence emerged between the state prefix and number sequence, leading to WA1 A. When WA9999 Y is met, the first alphabetical sequence will reset, when WY9999 Y is reached, a third new alphabetical sequence will be spliced into the algorithm, between the second alphabetical sequence and number sequence, resulting in WAA1 A.
The series will end when WYY9999 Y is reached, the decision was made in response to massive declines in bidding for extended W series plates as the public was gauged to favour a Sxx #### format over Kuala Lumpurs Sxx #### x format. The V series has launched on 1 October 2016 after completion of WD9999 F, vehicles in Langkawi, a Kedahan resort archipelago, are issued KV series plates after the islands achieved duty-free status
Tunku Abdul Rahman
As such, he is often referred to as Bapa Kemerdekaan or Bapa Malaysia. Tunku Abdul Rahman was born on 8 February 1903, in Alor Setar, the son of Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah. Tunkus mother was Che Manjalara, the wife of Sultan Abdul Hamid. When Tunku was 16, he won a scholarship to further his studies at Cambridge University, after about a year, Tunku realised that he was making very little progress in his studies. After a meeting with Mr. Ezekiel, his guardian, in the office of the Crown Agents, Ezekiel arranged for Tunku to move to Cambridge and to be taught by and live with Basil Atkinson. Atkinson was a tutor and he prepared Tunku to sit for university entrance examinations known as Little Go. The following year, he took the exams and he obtained high marks for all his papers with a Pass for the whole examination. He was accepted as an undergraduate at St Catharines College, one of the colleges of the University of Cambridge, five years after sailing from Singapore, at the age of 23, he sailed home.
The Crown agents secured Tunku a berth in a passenger ship, Tunku Ibrahim, the Regent and his eldest brother, was unhappy with Tunkus choice of degrees and he ordered Tunku to return to England to be admitted to the English Bar. In May 1930, Tunku sat for Part One of the Bar examination, although he managed to pass three papers, his failure in one paper resulted in him failing the whole examinations in Part One. Tunku sailed to Penang in January 1931, since Tunku was on a State scholarship, he was automatically a government servant when he returned. Tunku Ibrahim, was still the regent and he told Tunku that he was in disgrace for failing the Bar examinations in London, on January 1931, Tunku was appointed a Cadet in the Kedah Civil Service. Later, he was transferred to Kulim as Assistant District Officer, in Kulim, Tunku devoted much of his time touring the district and getting to know the problems of the peasants who made up 90% of the population. Tunku devoted some of his time to prepare for Cadets Law exam to qualify for promotion and he took the exams and passed it on his first attempt.
About a year later, Tunku was promoted to be District Officer of Padang Terap, the post of District Officer Padang Terap was unpopular because Kuala Nerang was rife with malaria. Unfortunately, Tunkus plea for funds were rejected and he wrote again to the State Secretariat, asking that funds be made available to drain the swamps and to rid Kuala Nerang of the main breeding place of the carriers of malaria. This time the money came and the work was carried out under Tunkus supervision, in 1934, the Regent died unexpectedly and was succeeded as Regent by Tunku Mahmud, the Sultans younger brother, who was more broad-minded and gave consent to the marriage. This enabled Violet to move to Kuala Nerang, but the Secretary to the Government showed his disapproval by transferring Tunku to the isolated post of District Officer at Langkawi, the district consisted of a group of islands, thinly populated, sparsely cultivated and without roads
A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate information and communication technology and Internet of things technology in a secure fashion to manage a citys assets. A smart city is promoted to use urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services, through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices – processed and analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling inefficiency, Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A smart city may therefore be prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple transactional relationship with its citizens. Yet, the term remains unclear to its specifics and therefore. The European Union has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving smart urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions, the EU has developed a range of programmes under Europes Digital Agenda. In 2010, it highlighted its focus on strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public services, arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020.
Examples of Smart City technologies and programs have been implemented in Milton Keynes, Amsterdam, Madrid, Stockholm and in China. Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, deakin defines the smart city as one that utilises ICT to meet the demands of the market, and that community involvement in the process is necessary for a smart city. A smart city would thus be a city not only possesses ICT technology in particular areas. Alternative definitions include, Giffinger et al, Smart Cities Council, A smart city is one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong human capital, social capital, learn and innovate and thereby respond more effectively and promptly to changing circumstances by improving the intelligence of the city. They evolve towards a strong integration of all dimensions of human intelligence, collective intelligence, the intelligence of cities resides in the increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks, ubiquitously embedded intelligence and tags, and software.
This has been referred to as the first example of a city or an intelligent community. Empowerment intelligence, Cities provide open platforms, experimental facilities and smart city infrastructure in order to cluster innovation in certain districts and these are seen in the Kista Science City in Stockholm and the Cyberport Zone in Hong Kong. Similar facilities have established in Melbourne. Instrumentation intelligence, Where city infrastructure is made smart through real-time data collection, with analysis, there is much controversy surrounding this, particularly with regards to surveillance issues in smart cities. Examples of Instrumentation intelligence have been implemented in Amsterdam and this is implemented through, A common IP infrastructure that is open to researchers to develop applications