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Puyi

Puyi was the last Emperor of China as the 12th and final Emperor of the Qing dynasty, China's last imperial dynasty. As a child, he reigned as the Xuantong Emperor in China and Khevt Yos Khaan in Mongolia from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the Xinhai Revolution, he was restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun from 1 July to 12 July 1917. In 1932, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, he was chosen to become "Emperor" of the new state using the era-name of Datong. In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. Puyi's name is romanized in English as either "Puyi" or "Pu-yi".

This naming is in accordance with the Manchu tradition of avoiding the use of a person's clan name and given name together, but is in complete contravention of Chinese tradition, whereby the given name of a ruler was considered taboo and ineffable. After Puyi lost his imperial title in 1924, he was styled "Mr. Puyi" in Chinese, his clan name "Aisin Gioro" was used. Puyi adopted other names – his zi was "Yaozhi", his hao was "Haoran". Puyi is known to have used a Western given name, "Henry", which he chose from a list of English kings given to him by his English-language teacher, Scotsman Reginald Johnston, after Puyi asked for an English name; the personal translator of the captured emperor Georgy Permyakov in his memoir “Emperor Puyi. Five years together” writes that in Khabarovsk Puyi was known by the Russian nickname Yegor the First; when he ruled as Emperor of the Qing Dynasty from 1908 to 1912 and during his brief restoration in 1917, Puyi's era name was "Xuantong", so he was known as the "Xuantong Emperor" during those two periods of time.

As Puyi was the last ruling Emperor of China, he is known as "The Last Emperor" in China and throughout the rest of the world. Some refer to him as "The Last Emperor of the Qing Dynasty". Due to his abdication, Puyi is known as "Xun Di" or "Fei Di". Sometimes a "Qing" is added in front of the two titles to indicate his affiliation with the Qing dynasty; when Puyi ruled the puppet state of Manchukuo and assumed the title of Chief Executive of the new state, his era name was "Datong". As Emperor of Manchukuo from 1934 to 1945, his era name was "Kangde", so he was known as the "Kangde Emperor" during that period of time. Chosen by Empress Dowager Cixi, Puyi became emperor at the age of 2 years and 10 months in December 1908 after the Guangxu Emperor died on 14 November. Titled the Xuantong Emperor, Puyi's introduction to the life of an emperor began when palace officials arrived at his family residence to take him. On the evening of 13 November 1908, without any advance notice, a procession of eunuchs and guardsmen led by the palace chamberlain left the Forbidden City for the Northern Mansion to inform Prince Chun that they were taking away his two-year-old son Puyi to be the new emperor.

The toddler Puyi screamed and resisted as the officials ordered the eunuch attendants to pick him up. Puyi's parents said nothing; as Puyi cried, screaming that he did not want to leave his parents, he was forced into a palanquin that took him back to the Forbidden City. Puyi's wet nurse Wang Wen-Chao was the only person from the Northern Mansion allowed to go with him, she calmed the distraught Puyi down by allowing him to suckle one of her breasts. Upon arriving at the Forbidden City, Puyi was taken to see Cixi. Puyi wrote: I still have a dim recollection of this meeting, the shock of which left a deep impression on my memory. I remember finding myself surrounded by strangers, while before me was hung a drab curtain through which I could see an emaciated and terrifying hideous face; this was Cixi. It is said that I started to tremble uncontrollably. Cixi told someone to give me some sweets, but I threw them on the floor and yelled "I want nanny, I want nanny", to her great displeasure. "What a naughty child", she said.

"Take him away to play." His father, Prince Chun, became Prince Regent. During Puyi's coronation in the Hall of Supreme Harmony on 2 December 1908, the young emperor was carried onto the Dragon Throne by his father. Puyi was frightened by the scene before him and the deafening sounds of ceremonial drums and music, started crying, his father could do nothing except comfo

Clayton & Shuttleworth

Clayton & Shuttleworth was an engineering company located at Stamp End Works, Lincolnshire, England. The company was established in 1842 when Nathaniel Clayton formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Joseph Shuttleworth. In 1845 the company built its first portable steam engine, in 1849 its first threshing machine; these products became the mainstay of its business. Clayton & Shuttleworth became one of the leading manufacturers in the country at the time, it supplied steam engines and threshing machines to other manufacturers, as well as selling under its own name. In 1851 it sold more than 200 steam engines, boosted by the Great Exhibition. By 1857 it had made a total of 2,400 steam engines, by 1890 total output had reached 26,000 steam engines and 24,000 threshing machines. In 1870 the company's workforce in Lincoln numbered 1,200; the export trade was important to the firm. The firm became a limited company in 1901, Alfred Shuttleworth, son of the founder, became chairman. For a short time in the 20th century Clayton & Shuttleworth made tractors.

In 1911 it built a four-cylinder oil engine with sheet-metal bonnet and cab roof. This was followed in 1916 by a four-cylinder gas-kerosene engine crawler tractor; this 40 horsepower machine was produced until 1929. The company built a 100 hp gun tractor, similar to a Holt tractor, it was the first British company to make a combine harvester. In 1916 the company made parts for the Supermarine Scout airship for the Admiralty, during the First World War it won a number of contracts to build aircraft for both the War Office and the Admiralty; the first contract was to build the Sopwith Triplane. The company built the aircraft in the eastern end of the Titanic works, from where they were pushed outside for engine runs. Following ground tests the aircraft were dismantled and taken to Robey's Aerodrome at Bracebridge Heath for test flying and delivery. In March 1917 the company received a contract to build the Sopwith Camel, this remained in production until 1919, by which time more than 500 aircraft had been constructed.

In 1916 a new works was built to enable the company to produce the large Handley Page O/400 bomber. When completed, the aircraft – unlike the smaller Sopwith aircraft – were flown out for testing and delivery from a field to the east of the works. After completion of the O/400 contract an order was received to build the Vickers Vimy, but only one was constructed before the Armistice and the contract was cancelled. One of the most notable aircraft built by Clayton & Shuttleworth was Sopwith Camel B7270, flown by Canadian pilot Roy Brown, credited with shooting down the Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen; the company issued a souvenir leaflet after the war to celebrate the success. Modern research indicates, that Brown may not in fact have fired the fatal shot. Richard Ormonde Shuttleworth, the grandson of Joseph Shuttleworth, co-founder of the company, was a noted racing motorist and collector of cars and aircraft. Cars and aircraft acquired by him formed the basis of what is now known as the Shuttleworth Collection.

An officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, he was killed in a night flying accident in World War II. Handley Page 0/400 Sopwith Camel Sopwith Triplane Vickers Vimy The company failed in 1929, were taken over by Marshall, Sons & Co. of Gainsborough, for its combine harvester technology. Clayton Forge and the Abbey Works on Spa Road, Lincoln were purchased by Smith's Castings of Coventry in 1929 and became Smith-Clayton Forge Ltd; the Austrian and Romanian branch had been merged into the Hofherr-Schrantz Machine Factory in 1911 creating Hofherr-Schrantz-Clayton-Shuttleworth AG. The company survived the Great Depression in the Second World War. After the war the Soviet Red Army occupied Hungary, the newly formed Communist government started nationalising the industry; the factory became state property in 1948 and was renamed to Vörös Csillag Traktorgyár in 1951. Its independent operation ceased in 1973; the factory was closed in 2010, however many of the hundred-year-old buildings are still in use by smaller companies.

Baldwin, Nick. Classic Tractors of the World. Birch N. Clayton Shuttleworth and Co.- early successes and a strike. Lincolnshire Past and Present, no.50, pp.3-6. Moore N, Pictures from Budapest: Who were Hofherr-Schrantz-Clayton-Shuttleworth?, Lincolnshire Past and Present, No.115, Spring 2019, pp. 3-8. Ruddock J. G. and Pearson R. E. Clayton Wagons Ltd.: Manufacturers of Railway Carriages and Wagons 1920-30 Ruddock, Lincoln Walls, John. Clayton & Shuttleworth and Marshall Aircraft Production. Lincoln: Control Column. Wheeler R. C; the Rise of Clayton and Shuttleworth, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Vol.47, pp. 61-71. Museum of English Rural Life MERL

Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh Railway

The Glasgow and Helensburgh Railway was independently sponsored to build along the north of the River Clyde. It opened in 1858. Both were taken over by the powerful North British Railway in 1865, for some time the line was the main route in the area; as industry developed other lines were opened to serve it, the line formed the core of a network in the area. The line was electrified as part of a modernisation scheme in 1960, it continues today as the trunk of the North Clyde network west of Glasgow; the communities of Dumbarton and Helensburgh were important staging points on the road from Glasgow to the western seaboard of Scotland, were well served by small boats on the River Clyde. Most of the first railways in Scotland were the coal railways, designed to convey coal or other minerals from a pit to a port or a canal for onward conveyance; these lines used horse traction and were short. In 1842 the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway started its operations, showed what an inter-city railway could do, carrying passengers and goods over a longer distance.

Towns served by the new railway felt the advantage, as the necessities of life coal and line for farm use, became much cheaper, the transport to market of locally manufactured goods was immeasurably improved. The notion of long distance railways, a network, took hold of the public imagination, the available money of the 1840s led to a frenzy of Scottish railway promotion. Intrinsic in this was the question of how the cities of central Scotland might best be linked with the emerging English railway network; this culminated in the authorisation of a large number of Scottish lines in 1844 - 1845. Those railways, notably the North British Railway, the Caledonian Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway, had their own priorities, which in most cases was to consolidate the area in which they were dominant. At first the north bank of the Clyde was left to the river boats. In 1846 the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction Railway was authorised, to connect with the E&GR near Cowlairs and to build a railway to Balloch, on Loch Lomond.

The C&DJR was unable to raise the capital necessary to build all of its line, it had to content itself with building from Bowling through Dumbarton to Balloch, relying on Clyde steamers to close the gap to the city. The C&DJR line was remarkably successful, that only emphasised the potential of a railway that connected the area north and west of Dumbarton with Glasgow. Local people promoted a railway to close the gap, the Glasgow and Helensburgh Railway was authorised on 15 August 1855, to build a line from Cowlairs, on the Edinburgh and Glasgow line, to Helensburgh. Trains would use the Queen Street passenger terminus and Sighthill goods depot of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway; the authorised capital was £240,000. The line was to link with the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire line and run over it in the centre of its route, the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway was to operate it; the planned line ran round the north of Glasgow. The directors were proud of their local support; the company agreed to repay the C&DJR company half of the cost of the River Leven bridge at Dumbarton.

When the construction was nearly complete, a disagreement with the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway arose over the terms of using the Queen Street station. Instead of using that company's terminal facilities, on opening day the GD&HR trains ran to the Caledonian Railway Buchanan Street station from Sighthill; the opening took place on 28 May 1858. However a month agreement emerged with the E&GR and the more convenient arrangement of running to Queen Street resulted from 30 May 1858; the line west of Dumbarton was single, with spartan accommodation at the stations. The GD&HR was working collaboratively with the C&DJR and most trains and goods, divided at Dumbarton, with a portion continuing to Helensburgh and Balloch. Steamer operators had run from Glasgow to Bowling Pier for the onward connection over the C&DJR; the GD&HR had intended to operate onward steamer connections from Helensburgh to the Clyde Estuary locations in 1858, but they discovered that the Caledonian Railway, established at Greenock on the south bank, had chartered all the available vessels and were monopolising the service from their own side of the river.

The GD&HR had to wait until the following season to start a serious train-and-steamer operation. They suffered a rebuff in Helensburgh, where the pier was some distance from the railway station; as the line was operated by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, the question arose of selling the line to that company. The absorption took place on 14 August 1862 when the GD&HR and the C&DJR ceased to exist: the line was owned by the E&GR; the E&GR itself did not have a long independent existence after that date. The NBR was conducting a competitive war against the rival Caledonian Railway, it established a stea