Larnaca District is one of the six districts of Cyprus. Its capital is Larnaca, it is bordered on the east by Famagusta District, on the north by Nicosia District and on the west by Limassol District. A small part of the district was occupied by the Turkish army in 1974, is now de facto administered as part of Northern Cyprus' Lefkoşa District; the communities of Melouseia and Arsos lie in the occupied zone, while the municipal/community areas of Athienou and Pergamos are occupied. Located in the district are Larnaca International Airport, the island's primary airport, the Hala Sultan Tekke and the towns of Larnaca, Aradippou and Lefkara. In 2011, Larnaca District had a population of 143,192. During Turkish rule, Larnaca was one of the six cazas. Cazas were subdivided into nahiehs, but in the case of Larnaca there was only one, coterminous with the caza; the caza was headed by a Kaimakan. When the British took control of Cyprus in 1878, these administrative units were retained. A British officer styled a Commissioner was appointed for the caza of Larnaca, while the Turkish Kaimakan was retained with certain of his functions.
Some northern parts of the present District were at that time included in Famagusta District, namely Arsos, Melousia, Troulli and Pergamos. At the first British Census Larnaca District had a population of 20,766. By 1891 Athienou had been moved to Nicosia District, while the other villages were moved to Larnaca District. Athienou was united to Larnaca District in the 1920s. According to Statistical Codes of Municipalities and Quarters of Cyprus per the Statistical Service of Cyprus, Larnaca District has 6 municipalities and 53 communities. Municipalities are written with bold
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
Larnaca is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015. Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront, the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, Larnaca Castle, it is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to Larnaca International Airport, it has a seaport and a marina. The word Larnaca derives from the Greek n. larnax, meaning: "coffer", "box", "chest", e.g. for household stores, "cinerary urn", "sarcophagus" or "coffin". An informal etymology, attributes the origin of the name to. Sophocles Hadjisavvas, a state archeologist, states that " consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town". In the vernacular, Larnaca is known as Scala (Greek: Σκάλα from the word.
During the Middle Ages, until the end of the 18th century, a small port-anchorage close to Larnaca Bay refers to maps, travel descriptions and documents as Scala di Saline and may account for this second name. The former city-kingdom of Kition was established in the 13th century BC. New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area. At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture; the remains of the sites include a complex of five temples and a naval port. It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus.
On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both the Persians. Strong earthquakes hit the city in the year after. Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but of Salamis and Pafos". Kition's harbor silted up, the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this; the commercial port was located during the Ottoman Period. Skala is the name of the seashore south of the Larnaca castle—and its neighborhood; the city is sometimes colloquially referred to as "Skala" meaning "ladder" or "landing stage", referring to the historical port. The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around six miles from the city; the Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It dries up in the summer. In the past, it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface; the salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption.
The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate due to its low annual rainfall and strong summer drought. It is sometimes described as a mediterranean climate, but its winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification; the city's landmarks include: the Church of Saint Lazarus. So-called "Foinikoudes" is the promenade along Athenon Avenue on the seafront. A row of palm trees lines either side of it. A bust of "Kimon the Athenian" stands on the Foinikoudes Promenade, with this quote referring to him on the pedestal: "Even in death he was victorious"; the marble bust of Zeno stands at the crossroads near the American Academy. Zeno was born in Kition in 334 BC. After studying philosophy in Athens, he founded the famous Stoic school of philosophy; the Armenian Genocide Memorial stands on Athinon Avenue. Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975, after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had important roles in the economy of the island.
A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed. The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labor force. Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have their head offices in Larnaca. There are over a hundred educational institutions in the city, including the American Academy, Larnaca Nareg Armenian school and the Alexander College. Larnaca has an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality; the Cornaro Institute was a cultural centre fo
Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks are ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus. Following the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers were given land once they arrived in Cyprus. Additionally, many of the islanders converted to Islam during the early years of Ottoman rule. Nonetheless, the influx of Muslim settlers to Cyprus continued intermittently until the end of the Ottoman period. Today, while Northern Cyprus is home to a significant part of the Turkish Cypriot population, the majority of Turkish Cypriots live abroad, forming the Turkish Cypriot diaspora; this diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred the control of the island to the British Empire, as many Turkish Cypriots emigrated to Turkey and the United Kingdom for political and economic reasons. The emigration was exacerbated by the intercommunal violence in the 1950s and 1960s, as Turkish Cypriots had to live in enclaves in Cyprus; the vernacular of Turkish spoken by Turkish Cypriots is Cypriot Turkish and Standard Turkish, influenced by Cypriot Greek as well as English.
Although there was no settled Muslim population in Cyprus prior to the Ottoman conquest of 1570-71, some Ottoman Turks were captured and carried off as prisoners to Cyprus in the year 1400 during Cypriot raids in the Asiatic and Egyptian coasts. Some of these captives were forced to convert to Christianity and were baptized. By 1425 some of these slaves helped the Mamluke army to gain access to Limassol Castle. Despite the release of some of the captives, after the payment of ransoms, most the baptized Turks continued to remain on the island; the medieval Cypriot historian Leontios Machairas recalled that the baptized Turks were not permitted to leave Nicosia when the Mamlukes approached the city after the battle of Khirokitia in 1426. According to Professor Charles Fraser Beckingham "there must therefore have been some Cypriots, at least nominally Christian, who were of Turkish, Arab, or Egyptian origin." By 1488 the Ottomans made their first attempt at conquering Cyprus when Sultan Bayezid II sent a fleet to conquer Famagusta.
However, the attempt failed due to the timely intervention of a Venetian fleet. Thereafter, the Queen of Cyprus, Caterina Cornaro, was forced to relinquish her crown to the Republic of Venice in 1489. In the same year Ottoman ships were seen off the coast of Karpas and the Venetians began to strengthen the fortifications of the island. Nonetheless, by 1500 coastal raids by Ottoman vessels resulted in the heavy loss of Venetian fleets forcing Venice to negotiate a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire in 1503. However, by May 1539 Suleiman I decided to attack Limassol because the Venetians had been sheltering pirates who continuously attacked Ottoman ships. Limassol stayed under Ottoman control until a peace treaty was signed in 1540. Nonetheless, Cyprus continued to be a haven for pirates who interrupted the safe passage of Ottoman trade ships and Muslim pilgrims sailing to Mecca and Medina. By 1569 pirates captured the Ottoman defterdar of Egypt and Selim II decided to safeguard the sea route from Constantinople to Alexandria by conquering the island and clearing the eastern Mediterranean of all enemies in 1570-71.
The basis for the emergence of a sizeable and enduring Turkish community in Cyprus emerged when Ottoman troops landed on the island in mid-May 1570 and conquered it within a year from Venetian rule. The post-conquest established a significant Muslim community which consisted of soldiers from the campaign who remained behind and further settlers who were brought from Anatolia as part of a traditional Ottoman population policy. However, there were new converts to Islam on the island during the early years of Ottoman rule. Genetic analysis of Y chromosomes revealed that Turkish and Greek Cypriots have a high genetic affinity and share a common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry. Both Turkish and Greek Cypriots have a minor genetic relation with surrounding populations with Calabrians, Albanians and Libyans; the genetic affinity between Calabrians and Cypriots could be a result of a common ancient Greek genetic contribution to both populations. In addition to documented settlement of Anatolian peasants and craftsmen, as well as the arrival of soldiers, decrees were issued banishing Anatolian tribes, "undesirable" persons and members of various "troublesome" Muslim sects, principally those classified as "heretic".
This influx of Muslim settlers to Cyprus continued intermittently until the end of the Ottoman period. By the second quarter of the nineteenth century 30,000 Muslims were living in Cyprus, comprising about 35% of the total population; the fact that Turkish was the main language spoken by the Muslims of the island is a significant indicator that the majority of them were either Turkish-speaking Anatolians or otherwise from a Turkic background. Throughout the Ottoman rule, the demographic ratio between Christian "Greeks" and Muslim "Turks" fluctuated constantly. During 1745-1814, the Muslim Turkish Cypriots constituted the majority on the island against the Christian Greek Cypriots However, by 1841, Turks made up 27% of the island's population. One of the reason for this decline is because the Turkish community were obliged to serve in the Ottoman army for years away from home
Pyli is a municipality in the Trikala regional unit, Greece. Situated 18 km west of Trikala, right at the bottom of two mountains Itamos, Koziakas, which mark the beginning of the Pindos mountainline, Pyli marks the entrance to a great gorge and the natural path that leads to the city of Arta; the river Portaikos, a tributary of the river Pineios, runs through this location. The municipality of Pyli contains 7 municipal units, but the town itself has a population of about 2,000. Most inhabitants work in Trikala. Agriculture and animal herding as an occupation has been abandoned, though the surrounding area is ideal for both. Pyli had always been the major trade center for the surrounding settlements; the settlement of Pyli has been referenced since antiquity. It is first mentioned in the work of Pausanias, Description of Greece, a travel and cultural guide of ancient Greece, referenced as "Great Gates", because the location is a natural passage between Epirus and Thessaly. There was a temple devoted to Aphaia Athena in the surrounding area, whose ruins can be still seen.
It is recorded that Alexander the Great passed through Epirus and came to Thessaly through Pyli, in order to ensure Thessaly's support in his plans. It was later visited by King Philip V of Macedon. During Greco-Roman times, the location was found to be of strategic importance and the castle of Athinaion was used as an outpost, enabling monitoring of the plains in distances of up to 30 or 40 km. In Byzantine times, after the first fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD, various independent states emerged, among which the Despotate of Epirus and the principality of Thessaly. In 1283, the ruler of Thessaly, John I Doukas, founded the monastery of Porta Panagia in the area. Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, the town prospered and while it had been situated in the north side of the river Portaikos, it is mentioned in the writings of Cosmas of Aetolia that he visited Pyli, the residents gave no heed to his teachings, it is said that he cursed Pyli and its residents, they relocated to the south bank, where Pyli stands today.
During the Ottoman era, Ali Pasha of Ioannina rebelled against the Ottoman Empire and tried to turn his domain into an independent state. During his campaign, his army camped at Pyli, lit a large and venerable platanus, badly burnt, but survived due to its large and strong roots, still survives to this day. During World War II, the area came under the authority of Italian occupation forces, was the site of the Battle of Porta between the Greek partisans of ELAS and the Italians in June 1943. In 1943-1944 it was under German occupation; the Germans set fire to the monastery of the Dormition of Theotokos, believing that ELAS forces were in hiding there. In modern years, Pyli has been the local trading and education center for the surrounding villages and settlements those situated in the mountainous area west of Pyli. Since Thessaly was merged into the Kingdom of Greece in 1888, Pyli was always intensely populated and bristling with activity, being characterized as a'small town' and electing a mayor of its own.
With the Kapodistrias plan in the late 1990s, Pyli became a municipality with 6 municipal prefectures under its jurisdiction, St. Vissarion, Palaiokarya, Petrohori, St. Prokopios and Kotroni; the municipality Pyli was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 7 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Aithikes Gomfoi Myrofyllo Neraida Pialeia Pindos PyliThe municipality has an area of 748.938 km2, the municipal unit 100.075 km2. After the 2014 elections, the new mayor is Kostas Maravas A place of great historic importance due to its strategic location as well its unique landscape, Pyli boasts a large number of monuments considering its size; the basilica of Porta Panagia that dates back to 1264, on the north bank of the river Portaikos. The basilica of Porta Panagia was the katholikon of the monastery of the Irresistible Theotokos and is dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos, it was built in 1283 by the ruler of John I Doukas. The church is divided into the main church and the outer section.
The main church is a three section cross roofed basilica, while the outer section is a cross shaped escribed dome. There are still pieces of marble decoration and structured that date back to the original ancient temple on top of which the church was built, but most were destroyed in a fire in 1855; the icons are in need of restoration but they are still visible, though another fire in 1980 nearly destroyed them totally. The monastery of St. Vissarion, where women are not allowed to enter and has a total of 365 cells for the monks, situated on Mount Koziakas; the monastery was re-established by St. Vissarion sometime between 1527 and 1535; the church that still stands today was built from scratch in 1557 by the archbishop of Larissa Neophytos II, the bishops Joseph of Demetrias, Luke of Litzas, Martyrios of Fanari. The church of the monastery is situated at the location the church St. Vissarion built with the help of his brother, Ignatios; the iconography was completed in November 1557 by the painter George from Constantinople.
The monastery was one of the richest and most active of the area. It has land property in Romania, a rich library with important manuscripts. In 1823 the mona
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Choirokoitia is a village in the Larnaca District of Cyprus, located 2 km north of Tochni, near the UN World Heritage Site of Choirokoitia