Pyongyang, P'yŏngyang or Pyeongyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 109 kilometres upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288. Pyongyang is a directly-administered city with equal status to North Korean provinces. Pyongyang is considered one of the oldest cities in Korea, it was the capital of two ancient Korean kingdoms, including Gojoseon and Goguryeo, served as the secondary capital of Goryeo. Much of the city was destroyed during the First Sino-Japanese War, but it was revived under Japanese rule and became an industrial center. Following the establishment of North Korea in 1948, Pyongyang became its de facto capital; the city was again devastated during the Korean War, but was rebuilt after the war with Soviet assistance. Pyongyang is the political and transport center of North Korea, it is home to North Korea's major government institutions, as well as the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.
The city's other historic names include Kisong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Hogyong and Heijō. There are several variants. During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism during the Pyongyang revival of 1907. After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City", but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", in the end neither proposal was implemented; the Russian transliteration Пхёнья́н was adapted into Polish and Romanian as Phenian, among other variants in the former Eastern bloc, including Hungarian Phenjan, Georgian Pkheniani. In Poland and Hungary the hyperforeignist pronunciation /ˈfɛɲ.jan/ is more common than the original /ˈpxɛɲ.jan/. In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods.
North Koreans associate Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal", or Wanggeom-seong, the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa. Historians deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much "Joseon"; the connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon. Korean mythology asserts that Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the legendary king Dangun. Wanggeom-seong, in the location of Pyongyang, became the capital of Gojoseon from 194 to 108 BC, it fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 樂浪. Several archaeological findings from the Eastern Han period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces launched brief incursions around these parts.
The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang, Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313. Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land". In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was left on the border between Silla and Balhae. Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later Silla period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese and held until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang. In the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China.
While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city. In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants, it was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese. Pyongyang in the 1920s In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers. By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000. On 25 August 1945, the Soviet
Fish Leong is a Malaysian singer. Having sold more than 18 million records, she achieved popularity and success in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Malaysia. Leong was born in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, she debuted her singing career in Taiwan and signed to Rock Records in October 1997. She adopted the English name "Fish", because the last character of her Chinese name "茹" sounds the same as "魚" in Cantonese, her debut album, Grown Up Overnight, was released in September 1999. Her singing career managed to take off after the release of Courage. Grown Up Overnight Courage Shining Star Sunrise Beautiful Wings of Love Silkroad of Love Kissing the Future of Love J'Adore Fall in Love & Songs What Love Songs Didn't Tell You Love in Heart The Sun Also Rises The Power of Love I Love You Hereafter Time & Love Love Parade Today Is Our Valentine's Day In February 2010, Leong married with Taiwanese wine merchant Tony Chao in Boracay and their child Anderson Chao was born in April 2014. Leong announced their divorce at a press conference in Taipei to promote her new album on September 8, 2019.
"Wetsuit / Tiger Blood" is a single from London-based quartet The Vaccines from their debut album, What Did You Expect from The Vaccines?. The single was released in the United Kingdom as a digital download on 11 December 2011, it was released as on 7" vinyl limited to 500 copies. The single debuted at number 164 on the UK Singles Chart. A music video to accompany the release of "Wetsuit" was first released onto YouTube on 5 October 2011; this was the world's first Instagram crowdsourced music video. Performed by – The Vaccines Produced by – Dan Grech-Marguerat, Albert Hammond, Jr. & Gus Oberg Engineered by – Gus Oberg Lyrics – Justin Hayward-Young Music – The Vaccines Label – Columbia Records