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Pyramid of Djoser

The Pyramid of Djoser, or Step Pyramid is an archaeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, northwest of the city of Memphis. The 6-tier, 4-sided structure is the earliest colossal stone building in Egypt, it was built in the 27th century BC during the Third Dynasty for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser by his vizier, Imhotep. The pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration; the pyramid went through several redevelopments of the original plan. The pyramid stood 62.5 metres tall, with a base of 109 m × 121 m and was clad in polished white limestone. The step pyramid is considered to be the earliest large-scale cut stone construction, although the nearby enclosure of Gisr el-Mudir predates the complex, the South American pyramids at Caral are contemporary. Djoser was the second king of the 3rd Dynasty of the Egyptian Old Kingdom, he is believed to have ruled for 19 years or, if the 19 years were biennial taxation years, 38 years.

He reigned long enough to allow the grandiose plan for his pyramid to be realized in his lifetime. Djoser is best known for his innovative tomb. In this tomb he is referred to by his Horus name Netjeriykhet. Djoser's step pyramid is astounding in its departure from previous architecture, it sets several important precedents the most important of, its status as the first monumental structure made of stone. The social implications of such a large and sculpted stone structure are staggering; the process of building such a structure would be far more labor-intensive than previous monuments of mud-brick. This suggests that the state, therefore the royal government had a new level of control of resources, both material and human. From this point on, kings of the Old Kingdom are buried in the North, rather than at Abydos. Although the plan of Djoser's pyramid complex is different than complexes, many elements persist and the step pyramid sets the stage for pyramids of the 4th, 5th, 6th Dynasties, including the great pyramids of Giza.

Another intriguing first is the identification of the architect of the project, credited with the design and construction of the complex. Djoser's Pyramid draws ideas from several precedents; the most relevant precedent is found at Saqqara mastaba 3038. The substructure lay in a 4 m deep rectangular pit, had mudbrick walls rising to 6 m. Three sides were extended and built out to create eight shallow steps rising at an angle of 49°; this would have been an elongated step pyramid. In another parallel to Djoser's complex, to complete this mastaba complex a niched enclosure wall was erected. Imhotep used royal cubits in its design; the superstructure of the Step Pyramid is six steps and was built in six stages, as might be expected with an experimental structure. The pyramid began as a square mastaba, enlarged, first evenly on all four sides and just on the east side; the mastaba was built up in two stages, first to form a four-stepped structure and to form a six-stepped structure, which now had a rectangular base on an east–west axis.

The fact that the initial mastaba was square has led many to believe that the monument was never meant to be a mastaba, as no other known mastabas had been square. When the builders began to transform the mastaba into the four step pyramid, they made a major shift in construction. Like in the construction of the mastaba, they built a crude core of rough stones and cased them in fine limestone with packing in between; the major difference is that in mastaba construction they laid horizontal courses, but for the pyramid layers, they built in accretion layers that leaned inwards, while using blocks that were both bigger and higher quality. Much of the rock for the pyramid was quarried from the construction of the great trench, it is accepted that ramps would have been used to raise heavy stone to construct the pyramid, many plausible models have been suggested. For transport, apparatuses like rollers were used in which the heavy stone could be placed and rolled. Under the step pyramid is a labyrinth of tunneled chambers and galleries that total nearly 6 km in length and connect to a central shaft 7 m square and 28 m deep.

These spaces provide room for the king's burial, the burial of family members, the storage of goods and offerings. The entrance to the 28 m shaft was built on the north side of the pyramid, a trend that would remain throughout the Old Kingdom; the sides of the underground passages are limestone inlaid with blue faience tile to replicate reed matting. These "palace façade" walls are further decorated by panels decorated in low relief that show the king participating in the Heb-sed. Together these chambers constitute the funerary apartment that mimicked the palace and would serve as the living place of the royal ka. On the east side of the pyramid, eleven shafts 32 m deep were constructed and annexed to horizontal tunnels for the royal harem; these were incorporated into the pre-existing substructure. In the storerooms along here over 40,000 stone vessels were found; these would have served Djoser's visceral needs in the afterlife. An extensive network of underground galleries was located to the north and south of the central bur

Peter Doyle (politician)

Peter Doyle was a politician from the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Born in Myshall, County Carlow, Doyle moved with his parents to Franklin, Wisconsin, in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin in 1850. Doyle studied law in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he served as that state's eleventh Secretary of State, serving for two terms from January 5, 1874 to January 7, 1878. He served under governors William Robert Taylor and Harrison Ludington, he served in the Wisconsin State Assembly from Crawford County, Wisconsin in 1873. He resided in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin at the time of his election and served as secretary to John Lawler and Hercules Dousman. From 1884 to 1900, Doyle practiced law in Wisconsin, he took a law course at Yale University. In 1900, Doyle moved to Jersey City, New Jersey, where he died on October 27, 1900. Anderson, William J.. The Wisconsin Blue Book 1929. Madison, Wis.: Democrat Printing Company. P. 144. Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, ed.. State of Wisconsin 2007–2008 Blue Book. Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin Legislature Joint Committee on Legislative Organization.

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Dalnaglar Castle

Dalnaglar Castle is a 19th century "castle", about 6.0 kilometres south of Spittal of Glenshee and Kinross, Scotland, on the east of the Shee Water. It is thought that the estate was formed in early 19th century. ‘Dalnaglar Cottage’ seems to have been the precursor of and core to the present castle, built as a hunting lodge. The present baronial mansion or ‘castle’ was built in 1864 for Robertson, from Blairgowrie, banker to Queen Victoria. Part of the castle is available as holiday accommodation; the main block is harled. Historic Environment Scotland's comment is "Detail coarse and incorrect", while describing the whole as a "Mid-Victorian baronial curiosity". Part of the ground may at one time have been set out in the style of a Japanese garden. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in Scotland