click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

QWERTY

QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard; the QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873, it became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, remains in ubiquitous use. The QWERTY layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Kenosha, Wisconsin. In October 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his early writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soulé; the first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as shown below: The construction of the "Type Writer" had two flaws that made the product susceptible to jams. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or type bars, which would clash and jam if neighbouring arms were pressed at the same time or in rapid succession.

Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Jams were serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed; the solution was to place used letter-pairs so that their type bars were not neighbouring, avoiding jams. Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement; the study of bigram frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the array of letters, but the contribution was called into question. Others suggest instead. In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left. In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowel letters, A, E, I, O, U, Y, to the upper row as follows: In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons.

The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was presented: After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that this change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER QUOTE" from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated. Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL; the modern layout is: The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key. The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's 1878 patent is different from the modern layout, most notably in the absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each of the remaining numerals shifted one position to the left of their modern counterparts.

The letter M is located at the end of the third row to the right of the letter L rather than on the fourth row to the right of the N, the letters X and C are reversed, most punctuation marks are in different positions or are missing entirely. 0 and 1 were omitted to reduce the manufacturing and maintenance costs. Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I for the digit one, the uppercase O for the zero. In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on post-mechanical keyboards, could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace, a period. A semicolon was produced by printing a comma over a colon; as the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters, a more professional approach was to block the carriage by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position.

To make this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar. The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the 1970s. In the era of mechanical typewriters, combined characters such as é and õ were created by the use of dead keys for the diacritics, which did not move the paper forward, thus the ′ and e would be printed at the same location on the paper, creating é. There were no particular technological requirements for the QWERTY layout, since at the time there were ways to make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised. Not only were there rival machines with "down-stroke" and "frontstroke" positions that gave a visible printing point, the problem of typebar clashes could be circumvented completely: examples include Thomas Edison's 1872 electric print-wheel device which became the basis for Teletype machines.

NUI Galway

The National University of Ireland Galway is located in the city of Galway in Ireland. A third-level teaching and research institution, the University has been awarded the full five QS stars for excellence, is ranked among the top 1 percent of universities according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the University was founded in 1845 as "Queen's College Galway", was more known as "University College Galway". NUI Galway is a member of a network of 40 long-established European universities; the University opened for teaching in 1849 as "Queen's College Galway" with 37 professors and 91 students. A year it became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the Irish Universities Act, 1908 made this college a constituent college of the new National University of Ireland, under a new charter the name of the University changed to "University College Galway". It was given special statutory responsibility under the University College Galway Act, 1929 with respect of the use of the Irish language as a working language of the University.

It retained the title of University College Galway until the Universities Act, 1997 changed it to the "National University of Ireland, Galway". Located close to the city centre, it stretches along the River Corrib; the oldest part of the University, the Quadrangle with its Aula Maxima was designed by John Benjamin Keane. The stone from which it is built was supplied locally. Fine Gael's youth wing took a hold on the university in 1973 during the Liam Cosgrave-led Fine Gael/Labour Coalition government, with Enda Kenny and Madeleine Taylor-Quinn among those behind its establishment there. More modern parts of the university sprang up in the 1970s and were designed by architects Scott Tallon Walker; the 1990s saw considerable development, including the conversion of an old munitions factory into a student centre. Under the early 21st-century Presidency of Iognáid G. Ó Muircheartaigh, NUI Galway announced details of plans to make the University a "campus of the future" at a cost of around €400 million.

Ó Muircheartaigh's successor James J. Browne continued with that plan; the University launched its Strategic Plan "Vision 2020" in 2015. 21st-century developments include a state-of-the-art University Sports Centre, Áras Moyola, J. E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics, the Alice Perry Engineering Building, the BioSciences Research Building, the Life Course Institute, the Lambe Institute and the O'Donoghue Centre for Drama and Performance. A new Human Biology Building completed in summer 2017. Nelson Mandela made a memorable appearance at the University in 2003. On what was his last visit to Ireland, Mandela condemned U. S. foreign policy and received an honorary doctorate from NUI Chancellor Garret FitzGerald. In 2014 the Equality Tribunal ruled in favor of Dr Micheline Sheehy Skeffington, granddaughter of the famous Irish feminist couple Hannah Sheehy Skeffington and Francis Sheehy Skeffington, who claimed she had been discriminated against on the grounds of gender during 2009; the university "unreservedly" accepted the decision that the "hiring process was flawed".

In 2015 with "widespread concern" among staff, mandatory unconscious bias training was introduced for senior staff, including heads of school and interview boards. In 2017 Dr Elizabeth Tilley was deemed to have exceeded qualifications for senior lectureship following a Labour Court hearing and promoted. In 2018 a further four female lecturers who had applied for promotion in 2009 were promoted having settled their cases "amicably". In 2017, the gender ratio of senior NUIG lecturers is 60:40 in favor of men; the ratio of professorships, the most senior academic grade, is 87:13 in favor of men. In 2018 the university achieved bronze status in the Athena SWAN recognizes a commitment to advancing gender equality in higher education and research careers; the five Colleges of the University are: College of Arts, Social Sciences and Celtic Studies College of Business, Public Policy and Law College of Engineering and Informatics College of Medicine and Health Sciences College of ScienceSince January 2006, St. Angela's College, Sligo has been a college of Galway.

As a result, those admitted to St. Angela's College are registered as students at Galway. Since 2015 the Shannon College of Hotel Management is incorporated into the University — becoming part of the College of Business, Public Policy & Law at Galway — formally marked by the Minister for Education and Skills Jan O'Sullivan at an event held in Shannon College on 9 November 2015. All staff of Shannon College of Hotel Management became staff of Galway and all students of Shannon College of Hotel Management became students at Galway. There are several Research Institutes and Centres at NUI Galway including: National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science Irish Centre for High-End Computing Insight Centre for Data Analytics Ryan Institute - Marine, Energy & Environment CÚRAM Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change Institute for Lifecourse and Society Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies Irish Centre for Human Rights Constituent schools found in the relevant colleges include: Galway University Foundation was established in 1998 with the intention of generating financial support from private individuals and institutions for NUI Galway.

It nurtures relationships with donors for. The Foundation has many'Priority Projects' in development; the National Univers

Waurika, Oklahoma

Waurika is the county seat of Jefferson County, United States. The population was 2,064 at the 2010 census, a 4.36 percent decrease from 2,158 at the 2000 census. A newspaper article claimed that Waurika promoted itself as "The Parakeet Capital of the World", it gave no explanation for using this slogan. The name is the anglicized version of the Comanche compound woarɨhka from woa + tɨhka and refers to a group of Comanche living in the area or to some early European settlers whose plowing may have humorously resembled digging for worms; such humorous names were common in Comanche culture, such as the word for "rice", woarɨhkapɨh "worm food". Waurika was settled after the Comanche and Apache Reservation was opened to non-Indians on August 6, 1901; the first white settler was James McGraw, who homesteaded on the present town site after moving from Burlington, Iowa. The first sale of town lots was held on June 18, 1902. Nearly three thousand people attended the sale. Waurika was incorporated in May 1903.

On May 8 of that year, C. A. McBrian was sworn in as the town's first mayor; the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway came to Waurika on January 1902 after the railroad superintendent "designated the town as a flag station." Waurika was the northern terminus for the Wichita Falls and Southern Railroad, one of the 20th century properties of Frank Kell and Joseph A. Kemp of Wichita Falls, Texas. Waurika is located in northwestern Jefferson County at 34°10′12″N 98°0′5″W. U. S. Route 70 passes through the southern side of the city, leading east 49 miles to Ardmore and west 27 miles to Randlett. U. S. Route 81 crosses US 70 in the southeastern corner of Waurika, leading north 26 miles to Duncan and south 24 miles to Ringgold. Oklahoma State Highway 5 leads northwest 19 miles to Temple. Waurika is about 109 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. According to the United States Census Bureau, Waurika has a total area of 12.5 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.08%, are water. The city center lies on the east side of the valley of Beaver Creek, a south-flowing tributary of the Red River.

Waurika Lake is 6 miles northwest of the city center. Waurika's economy has been based on cattle raising and petroleum production since the founding of the city; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,988 people, 741 households, 500 families residing in the city. The population density was 168.0 people per square mile. There were 929 housing units at an average density of 78.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.41% White, 1.81% African American, 4.28% Native American, 3.37% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.36% from other races, 2.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.00% of the population. There were 741 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,800, the median income for a family was $31,594. Males had a median income of $24,844 versus $16,286 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,496. About 6.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 17.4% of those age 65 or over. Waurika has a home rule charter form of government. Irene Champlin, actress born in Waurika Gary Chapman and songwriter born in Waurika Bennie G. Adkins, US Army Medal of Honor recipient born in WaurikaThere is a Chisholm Trail Historical Museum in Waurika; the 1996 murder of Heather Rich brought notoriety to Waurika. Rich, a 16-year-old sophomore at the local high school, was murdered by two classmates and an acquaintance in a case that attracted national media coverage

Caption That

Caption That is an online multiplayer caption writing game where players write captions for a given image and vote for their favourite from the list others have written. Players wait for a game to start; the game requires at least 2 people to be in a room before a game will start, however games are best if they have 4 or more players. When a game commences, all players in the room will be shown the same picture and will get the chance to write a funny caption within the time limit. Once the timeslot for caption writing is complete, a voting round ensues, where players pick their favourite from the list of captions displayed. Players cannot vote for their own caption! If a player does not vote within the specified countdown time limit, they will score no points for this round; this is to stop people cheating by writing captions and not voting for the captions of others. Once the voting round is over, the current scores are displayed in descending order next to the player names. At this point, the game round is considered over, a new one begins.

Caption That is loosely based on the popular Bezerk game'Get the Picture', abandoned in the late 90s due to non-profitability. Two other popular games at the time were Acrophobia, recreated several times since, You Don't Know Jack – The Netshow; the standalone version of You Don't Know Jack is still popular. Acroblast

Lansdowne Yonkers FC

Lansdowne Yonkers FC is a soccer club that holds an American amateur soccer team and a youth soccer program based in Yonkers, New York, United States. Founded in 1997, the team plays in Region I of the United States Adult Soccer Association. Lansdowne Yonkers FC known as the ‘Bhoys’, was formed by Irish American immigrants in 1997 and wears the same colours as Celtic FC. While including Irish players on its teams, there is a distinct multinational feel to the club as they have featured players from the USA, New Zealand, Ivory Coast, Germany and Gambia; the Lansdowne Yonkers FC honorary President is ESPN soccer analyst Tommy Smyth. Cosmopolitan Soccer League Division 1 winner: 2013-14, 2014–15, 2015-16, 2016–17 The Lamar Hunt US Open Cup is the American version of the FA Cup in England; the U. S. Open Cup includes professional teams from the USASA, NPSL, PDL, USL, as well as NASL and MLS. Similar to the FA Cup in England, amateur teams can qualify their way through their regions to take on the top Professional teams.

In 2016 Lansdowne Yonkers FC made its way to the 3rd Round proper of the 2016 Lamar Hunt US Open Cup, eliminating the Long Island Rough Riders of the Premier Development League and Pittsburgh Riverhounds of United Soccer League. On August 6, 2017, Lansdowne Yonkers FC won the National Amateur Cup. After capturing the USASA Region I title, Lansdowne Yonkers FC traveled to Milwaukee to compete in the National Amateur Cup. Lansdowne defeated LA Wolves FC 1-0 in the semi-final, went on to beat Milwaukee Bavarian SC in the final 9-8 in a penalty shoot out; the winning penalty was scored by Momodou Sawaneh. In 2019 they won their second second Werner Fricker Amateur Open Cup title over Texas side ASC New Stars in the final, 1-0; the team reached the final by downing 6-0, two days prior. Lansdowne's Werner Fricker Open Cup Opponents: USASA Region I Opponents: New York Athletic Club New York Greek Americans New York Pancyprian Freedom Kosmo Olimpious Cedar Stars Academy FC Motown Brockton United Yinz United USASA Champion of Regions: Fort Wayne ASU New Stars In 2016, Lansdowne Yonkers FC signed an international club partnership with the Celtic FC.

This partnership allows Lansdowne Yonkers FC: To access to academy standard coaching curriculum Provide opportunities to visit Celtic FC Receive visits from Celtic FC coaches to partner club Provide opportunities for players to attend official Celtic FC coaching in Glasgow Allow Lansdowne Yonkers FC to host Celtic FC soccer camps/clinics Lansdowne Yonkers FC had an affiliation with Yonkers United and their 25 youth teams. In 2016, Lansdowne sent teams to compete in the international SuperCupNI in Derry. Previous winners of this tournament include world-famous clubs such as Manchester United, Newcastle United, FC Barcelona. Lansdowne's youth system is run by Jim Kelly, the club's Youth Director of Football and an experienced UEFA'A Licensed' coach, Michael Holzer, the club's Technical Director and a former New York Cosmos player. LYFC's youth system consists of 20 teams, ranging from ages 8 to 18; the club's youth teams play in the Westchester Youth Soccer League, National Premier League, the New York Club Soccer League.

The club holds various youth events throughout the year, including tournaments, clinics and travel programs. Emmanuel Gomez Kevin Grogan Daryl Kavanagh Gareth McGlynn Ciaran McGuigan Stephen Roche Lansdowne Yonkers FC website Cosmo Soccer League Yonkers United

Heaven (Nina Girado album)

Heaven is the debut studio album by Filipina singer Nina, released in the Philippines on August 20, 2002 by Warner Music. The album is influenced by jazzy lounge pop-R&B and composed of songs that are reminiscent to the sound of international records at that time. Under the direction of Warner managing head Ricky R. Ilacad, foreign songwriters and arrangers from the United States and Korea including Shelly Peiken and Guy Roche were hired for the production of the album. Ilacad was so impressed when he reviewed Nina's demo disc, enabling one song, a cover of Steve Perry's hit, to make it to the final cut of the album's track list; the album features a cover of a Ric Segreto song. Upon release, the album received positive reviews. Most critics applauded skills, as well as the composition of songs, it is credited for being one of the main reasons why the acoustic phenomenon is much popular in the country. It won numerous awards from different major organizations and was one of the best-selling OPM albums in 2003.

The album has brought back inclusions of whistle register to pop albums at that time. In addition, Nina was given favorable comparisons to Mariah Carey. Heaven was made available on digital download through iTunes and Amazon.com MP3 Download on January 23, 2007. As of October 2003, the album has reached double platinum status by the Philippine Association of the Record Industry, denoting over 60,000 copies sold in the Philippines. Five singles were released from the album, all of which became commercially successful in the country. "Heaven", the first single, was released alongside the album. "2nd Floor" was released as a promo single. Both the album and the first single did not perform well on charts as expected. However, when the second single "Jealous" was released, it became a hit, enabling the album to increase in sales and place at the top of album charts. Following the success of the second single, two cover versions were released. "Foolish Heart", a song included on Nina's demo, began receiving numerous airplay and charted at number one in the country, staying at the position longer than "Jealous".

"Loving You" was released as the final single from the album. It reached the top 5 of the Singles Chart. Nina was five years old, her father, noticed her potential and trained her to hone her skills by doing several techniques such as submerging her into a drum of water, while belting out her high notes. All the hard work paid off a few months when she was declared as daily winner on GMA-7 Lunchdate's "Bulilit Jamboree" in 1985. In 1991, she joined the most popular defunct talent search in the Philippines, Tanghalan ng Kampeon, where she became a champion for seven weeks; when she went to Miriam College and took up a bachelor's degree in Accountancy, her father had a sudden change of heart. Instead of a professional music career, he wanted his daughter to finish her studies and join him in the United States to work; because of too much love for singing, she joined different bands. He gave up on trying to stop her, just told her to maintain good grades. At seventeen, she became a vocalist of The Big Thing, MYMP, Silk and lastly, the Essence.

After college, she recorded an amateur demo CD with the help of a friend. It was composed of three tracks, including the Steve Perry song "Foolish Heart", "Breathe Again" and "Against All Odds", recorded in a home studio with only a guitar for accompaniment. After listening to the demos, Warner Music managing director at that time, Ricky Ilacad wanted to sign her up without seeing or hearing her in person. Two months after her father died of heart attack in the United States, she signed her first contract with Warner Music. In 2000, after Nina finished college, she recorded and sent a demo to Warner Music Philippines. Ricky lacad, the head of Warner Management at that time, was so impressed that he wanted to sign her up without seeing or hearing her in person. Believing that she has the potential to be the next superstar, Ilacad made a huge preparation for the release of Nina's debut album. "Foolish Heart", a song included on her demo, became her first recording. The arrangement showed her range from falsetto to high vocal belting.

It became her trademark single, specially when it comes to the use whistle register. Aside from "Foolish Heart", she recorded another cover version, "Loving You", released by late Ric Segreto, it was released as a single. Unlike all the other OPM records of 2002, Heaven was influenced by jazzy lounge pop-R&B. International songwriters Shelly Peiken, Guy Roche, Brett Laurence and Gary Haase contributed some of the album's tracks. Peiken is responsible for the songs "First Kiss" and "Jealous" which became Nina's first chart-topper. Laurence, this time with Haase contributed her first single "Heaven". Additional lyrics for the official remix of "Heaven" were made by Artstrong, featured on the rap part of the song. Arnie Mendaros, vocal coach of Nina and composed "2nd Floor", which became an award-winning and charting promotional single, it became one of the first Taglish Filipino pop, R&B songs released, with lyrics of "Sa bawat sandali Up, movin' all around." Nina described Heaven as "a mix of pop and R&B," while critics noted the heavy influence of hip-hop to the album.

Paolo Reyes of The Philippine Star stated the album "features 10 smooth and euphonic tracks infused with an eclectic blend of styles ranging from rap to romantic. Armed