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Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was a medieval capital of the Safavid dynasty for over forty years and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran, it is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, political newspaper and Pahlavi influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598. Located in 150 km northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m above sea level; the climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya. The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in 1548–1598, it is a provincial capital today, an important cultural center throughout history. Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages; the city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.

Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of Iranian history. It was destroyed by Hulagu Khan. After the Ottoman capture of Tabriz, Shah Tahmasp made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire, a status that Qazvin retained for half a century until Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan. In 1210 the city was damaged by the forces of Kingdom of Georgia sent by Tamar the Great, as per the retribution for destroying Georgian-controlled Ani by the Muslim forces that left 12,000 Christians dead. In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade volume grew, its bazaars were enlarged. In the middle of the century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre of Babis occurred in Qazvin in 1847. In the second half of the 19th century Qazvin was one of the centers of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here.

From 1893 this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction in Persia which connected Qazvin by roads to Tehran and Hamadan. The company built the St. Nicolas Church. In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce; the 1921 Persian coup d'état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched from Qazvin. Qazvin has been one of the main pivots on which Persia's history has revolved and this is where its reputation as an impenetrable fortress originates. During the fall of the Safavids, Qazvin was the centre of Persians reunion for the liberation of Persian territories invaded by Ottoman and Afghan forces in the west and east, respectively; the deployed swordsmen from Qazvin not only retrieved Safavid boundaries, but contributed to their expansion up to China, after occupying India by Nader Shah The Great and Baghdad. Qazvin hosted the base of Assassins and was the training centre of the Nehzat-e Jangal revolutionaries. Qazvin became a state in 1996. In Autumn 2015 portions of Qazvin were struck by a meteorite.

The majority of the people of the city of Qazvin are Persians. The majority language is Persian with a Qazvini accent. Azerbaijanis and Tats are the other ethnic groups of the city of Qazvin, they speak Tati. Qazvin has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area. Qazvin contains several buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia; the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, today a museum in central Qazvin. After Islam, the popularity of mystics, as well as the prominence of tradition, religious jurisprudence, philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools, they include: Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin Heydarieh mosque Masjed Al-nabi: With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavieh's monarchy era.

Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran. Its present-day form is attributed to the Seljukian era. Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period. Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription. Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried. Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648. Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani. Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903. Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period. Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians. Shazdeh Hosein Shrine. Aminiha Hosseiniyeh About 100 km south-west of Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, Abu Mansur Iltai, son of Takin — locat

Artyom Zub

Artyom Valeriyevich Zub is a Russian professional ice hockey defenseman playing for SKA Saint Petersburg in the Kontinental Hockey League. Zub played as a youth with the junior affiliate to Amur Khabarovsk, he made his professional debut with Amur Khabarovsk in the Kontinental Hockey League during the 2014–15 season. During the 2016–17 season, his third with Khabarovsk, Zub contributed with 9 points in 32 games before he was traded to a powerhouse club SKA Saint Petersburg on 1 December 2016. Zub maintained a regular role on the SKA blueline to close out the season. In the post-season, he helped, he played for the Russian national team at the 2017 IIHF World Championship. He is a member of the Olympic Athletes from Russia team at the 2018 Winter Olympics. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Mihr-un-Nissa Begum

Mihr-un-Nissa Begum, meaning "Sun among women", was a Mughal princess, the fifth daughter of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and his consort Aurangabadi Mahal. Mihr-un-Nissa Begum was born on 28 September 1661, her mother was a concubine named Aurangabadi Mahal. She was the ninth child and fifth daughter the only child of her mother. Mihr-un-Nissa Begum married her first cousin, Izzad Bakhsh Mirza, the son of her paternal uncle Prince Murad Bakhsh Mirza, youngest son of Emperor Shah Jahan; the marriage took place on 10 7 December 1672, after Izzad Bakhsh's release from Gwalior fort. The marriage was performed in the presence of Qaz Abdul Wahhab, Shaikh Nizam, Bakhtawar Khan an Darbar Khan, she was the mother of Princes Dawar Bakhsh Mirza and Dadar Bakhsh Mirza. Mihr-un-Nissa Begum died on 2 April 1706, a year before her father's death, her husband died along with her


Viterbo is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo. It absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento in its early history, it is 80 kilometres north of GRA on the Via Cassia, it is surrounded by the Monti Cimini and Monti Volsini. The historic center of the city is surrounded by medieval walls, still intact, built during the 11th and 12th centuries. Entrance to the walled center of the city is through ancient gates. Apart from agriculture, the main resources of Viterbo's area are pottery and wood; the town is home to the Italian gold reserves, an important Academy of Fine Arts, the University of Tuscia, the Italian Army's Aviation Command headquarters and training centre. It is located in a wide thermal area; the first report of the new city dates to the eighth century AD, when it is identified as Castrum Viterbii. It was fortified in 773 by the Lombard King Desiderius in his vain attempt to conquer Rome; when the popes switched to the Frankish support, Viterbo became part of the Papal States, but this status was to be contested by the emperors in the following centuries, until in 1095 it is known it was a free comune.

In a period in which the popes had difficulties asserting their authority over Rome, Viterbo became their favourite residence, beginning with Pope Eugene III, besieged in vain in the city walls. In 1164, Frederick Barbarossa made Viterbo the seat of his antipope Paschal III. Three years he gave it the title of "city" and used its militias against Rome. In 1172, Viterbo started its expansion, destroying the old city of Ferento and conquering other lands. In this age it was a rich and prosperous comune, one of the most important of Central Italy, with a population of 60,000. In 1207, Pope Innocent III held a council in the cathedral, but the city was excommunicated as the favourite seat of the heretical Patarines and defeated by the Romans. In 1210, Viterbo managed to defeat Emperor Otto IV and was again at war against Rome. In the thirteenth century it was ruled alternately by the tyrants of the Di Vico families. Frederick II drew Viterbo to the Ghibelline side in 1240, but when the citizens expelled his turbulent German troops in 1243 he returned and besieged the city, but in vain.

From that point Viterbo was always a loyal Guelph city. Between 1257 and 1261 it was the seat of Pope Alexander IV, who died there, his successor Urban IV was elected in Viterbo. In 1266–1268, Clement IV chose Viterbo as the base of his ruthless fight against the Hohenstaufen. Here, from the loggia of the papal palace, he excommunicated the army of Conradin of Swabia, passing on the Via Cassia, with the prophetical motto of the "lamb, going to the sacrifice". Other popes elected in Viterbo were Gregory X and John XXI, Nicholas III and the French Martin IV; the Viterbese, who did not agree with the election of a foreigner directed by the King of Naples, Charles I of Anjou, invaded the cathedral where the conclave was held, arresting two of the cardinals. They were subsequently excommunicated, the popes avoided Viterbo for 86 years. Without the popes, the city fell into the hands of the Di Vicos. In the fourteenth century, Giovanni di Vico had created a seignory extending to Civitavecchia, Bolsena, Todi and Amelia.

His dominion was crushed by Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1354, sent by the Avignonese popes to recover the Papal States, who built the castle. In 1375, the city gave its keys to Francesco Di Vico, son of the previous tyrant, but thirteen years the people killed him and assigned the city first to Pope Urban VI, to Giovanni di Sciarra di Vico, Francesco's cousin, but Pope Boniface IX's troops drove him away in 1396 and established a firm papal suzerainty over the city. The last Di Vico to hold power in Viterbo was Giacomo, defeated in 1431. Thenceforth Viterbo became a city of secondary importance, following the vicissitudes of the Papal States. In the 16th century it was the birthplace of Latino Latini, it became part of Italy in 1871. In 1927 Viterbo was made a provincial capital. During World War II Viterbo was occupied by the Wehrmacht after the Armistice of Cassibile and bombed by the Allies, suffering over twenty raids between July 1943 and June 1944. Viterbo has two heraldic badges in its coat of the Lion and the Palm Tree.

The lion represents one of the mythological founders of Viterbo. The palm tree was added sometime in the early Middle Ages when Viterbo conquered and absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento; the letters FAUL surround the badges. It is unclear; some suggest the four legendary Etruscan nobles families, believed to be involved in the founding of the city, while others claim that they are in reference to the four hills of Viterbo. Viterbo experiences a border line humid subtropical climate and Mediterranean climate as only one summer month is below the 40 mm precipitation limit. Viterbo's historic center is one of the best preserved medieval towns of central Italy. Many of the older buildings are built on top of ancient ruins, recognizable by their large stones, 50 centimeters to a side. Viterbo is unique in It

Yasantha Kodagoda

Yasantha Kodagoda is a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. He was called to the Bar as an Attorney-at-Law of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka on 28 October 1988. Prior to being appointed by the President of Sri Lanka as the President of the Court of Appeal in March 2019, he served as an Additional Solicitor General of the Attorney General's Department. Having joined the Attorney General's Department of Sri Lanka in 1989 as a State Counsel, he rose to the positions of Senior State Counsel, Deputy Solicitor General, Senior Deputy Solicitor General and Additional Solicitor General, he has 30+ years of experience as a Public Prosecutor and Legal Advisor to the Government of Sri Lanka. His specialization is in the field of criminal justice. In 2015, in recognition of his eminence in the legal profession, he was appointed President's Counsel, he completed his primary and secondary education at Ananda College Colombo he was a president Scout of ananda college and attended Sri Lanka Law College.

He obtained Master's degree in Public International Law with Merit from the University College London He acted as the Director of the Advanced Legal Studies Unit of the Sri Lanka Law College and the Director of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies of the Incorporated Council of Legal Education. He has served many Commissions of Inquiry as representative Counsel of the Attorney General. For over a decade, he has represented Sri Lanka before the UN Human Rights Commission and the UN Human Rights Council, he has represented Sri Lanka before the UN Security Council's Working Group on Children in Armed Conflict, has served as the Accredited Representative of the Government of Sri Lanka at the UN Committee Against Torture. He was a member of the EU-Sri Lanka Working Group on Trade and Economic Relations Cooperation 2016 and participated in Sri Lanka gaining the GSP+ trade concessions. Kodagoda is known as a book reviewer Attorney General's Department

I Am Seven

I Am Seven is the third mini-album by South Korean recording artist Seven. It was released on October 14, 2016, under Eleven9 Entertainment and distributed by LOEN Entertainment. Following a hiatus lasting nearly five years, the record is his first release since his military service scandal in 2013 and departure from YG Entertainment the following year. Seven was subject to conscription in South Korea and enlisted for military service on March 19, 2013. In June of that year, Seven was among three celebrities filmed "visiting illegal massage parlors that provide adult services while on official leave to perform at a concert"; as a result, he split from longstanding girlfriend Park Han-byul. He completed his service in December 2014. In his first endeavor thereafter, Seven was cast in the musical Elisabeth. Seven's return to the music industry was first announced on December 31, 2015. In addition to Rain, MC Mong, Shin Hye-sung, Seven was among the singers who experienced commercial success in the 2000s who planned to release music in 2016.

Seven went on to invest ₩6,000,000,000 in order to establish his own agency Eleven9 Entertainment. Scheduled to be released as early as March, the mini-album would be first record under the agency; the title I Am Seven serves as his reintroduction. Seven took part in the songwriting and record production of all tracks on I Am Seven, a first in his career. Musically, the record encompasses R&B, pop and funk. "Give It to Me" is described as a "retro" funk song coupled with acoustic brass. Written in midst of his military service, "I'm Good" is slow-tempo R&B track. A music video teaser for the song "I'm Good" was released on July 6, 2016. I Am Seven was announced as Seven's third mini-album on the September 29, with a release date of October 14, four years and eight months after his previous release Seven New Mini Album. On October 2, Seven previewed the lead single in Busan at the One Asia K-pop Concert; the music video teaser for "Give It to Me" was published on October 11. I Am Seven and the music video for "Give It to Me" were released on October 14.

Initiating the day prior, Seven began promoting the song by performing it on weekly music chart shows, including Mnet's M Countdown, Korean Broadcasting System's Music Bank, Seoul Broadcasting System's Inkigayo, SBS MTV's The Show, MBC Music's Show Champion. Writing for TV Daily, Kim Ji-ha commended I Am Seven for its "impressive" and "addictive" beats and melodies. Rating the mini-album two and a half stars out of five, Lee Jong-min of Diffsound described it as a "reckless challenge" which resulted in a "crushing defeat". Due to his military scandal, the mini-album received negative sentiments on online music stores, where netizens contributed to the album's low ratings. On the chart dated October 9–15, 2016, I Am Seven debuted at number eight on the Gaon Album Chart. By the end of the month, the record sold 4,285 copies in South Korea. In Japan, the mini-album debuted at number 245 on the weekly Oricon Albums Chart, selling 226 copies in its first week, it sold an additional 269 copies in its second week, ranking at number 233