A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
Kukës is a city in the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding municipality of Kukës and county of Kukës, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic, it spans 8.2 square kilometres and had a total population of 16,719 people as of 2011. By air distance, Kukës is located 98 kilometres northeast of Tirana, 75 kilometres to the east of Shkodër and 34 kilometres to the south of Gjakovë and 30 kilometres to the west of Prizren in Kosovo. Geologically, the terrain of the surrounding area is dominated by high terrain; the city sprawls across the Luma Plain within the Albanian Alps between the banks of Lake Fierza and the hills of the northernmost Korab Mountains and westernmost Shar Mountains. At the confluence of the Black and White Drin, the Drin River originates close to the city's territory. Kukës traces its history back over a thousand years; the region that nowadays corresponds to the city territory was inhabited by several ancient Illyrian tribes, as most of Albania.
Numerous tombs from the Illyrians has been identified at Kolsh nearby the city. The residential estate served as a stopping point on a branch road leading to the Via Egnatia, which connected Durrës on the Adriatic Sea in the west with Constantinople on the Marmara Sea in the east. In modern times and due to the close proximity to Kosovo, the city achieved worldwide recognition during the Kosovo War as thousands of Kosovo-Albanian refugees crossed the border and found security in the city; the city was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in regard to hospitality and for embracing thousands of refugees during the Kosovo War. It was the first time. In 2017, the city applied for the 2018 European Green Capital Award to become Europe's Green Capital; the old Kukës was located at the confluence of the White Black Drin. In 1976 the town was submerged beneath the Fierza Reservoir, held back by a dam; the new town was built in the 1970s in the plateau nearby, 320m over the sea level. Kukësi i Ri is surrounded by the artificial lake of Fierza and it looks like a peninsula from the above.
It is linked with the other parts of the country by three bridges. On the east it faces the snow-covered mountain of 2468 m above sea level; the district is impoverished, with poor road connections, major problems with crime. Illyrian tombs were found at Kolsh nearby Kukës, it was a small Roman settlement, a stopping point on a branch road leading to the Via Egnatia, a minor Ottoman market centre and trading post on the road to southern Kosovo. It was there where Albanian resistance stood up against retreating Serbian army in 1912. Kukës attracted international attention during the Kosovo conflict when 450,000 Kosovo Albanian refugees crossed the frontier and were housed in camps in and around Kukës; this led, to a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. It was the first time. There is a mosque and a closed alpine-style hotel, part of a failed attempt to establish a tourist industry there. OSCE maintained a villa there. Kukës is situated in the northeast of the country, it lies between latitudes 42° and 5° N, longitudes 20° and 25° E.
The city extend strategically within the Albanian Alps and is trapped on four sides by numerous two-thousanders including Gjallica in the south, Koritnik in the east, Pashtrik in the northeast and several mountains in the west. It lies on the southern shores of Lake Fierza, it lies 3 kilometres in the southeast of the former location of the city, relocated as part of a hydroelectric scheme. The climate of the city is profoundly impacted by the Albanian Alps in the northeast, Shar Mountains in the east, Korab Mountains in the southeast and the Drin River in the south; the city experiences continental climate. This means that the winters are cold and snowy and the summers are predominantly hot; the city's temperature varies a large deal across the seasons with a mild spring in April and May, hot summer months from June to August rainy and windy autumn months in September and October and cold winter months with snow and frost, from December to March. The mean monthly temperature ranges between − 25 °C in 25 °C in summer.
The mean annual precipitation ranges between 900 millimetres and 3,000 millimetres depending on longitude and latitude. The Kukës municipality was formed in 2015 by the merger of the former municipalities; the municipality spans 933.86 square kilometres and had a total population of 47,985 people as of 2011. There is a local historical museum and a carpet factory; the food industry is confined only to production of alcoholic drinks produced in a drink factory, to some local small workshops producing drinks and dairy products. The Highlanders in the region are well known for their developed agriculture. Kukës has a carpet factory. There is a copper processing factory as the raw material, copper, is found in this place. Kukës is a good centre for walking in the surrounding mountains. Kukës has an international airport of its own, it is located about 3.5 km south of Kukës city centre. The government of Albania granted permission for it to host international passenger traffic in 2016. Low-cost companies like the Irish Ryan Air and the Hungarian Wizz Air, as well the Slovenian Adria Airways have expressed their interest in operating from the Kukës International Airport.
The A1 highway passes through Kukës. Shëngjin, Albania Prizren, Kosovo Lyndhu
The Albanians are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian ancestry, culture and language. They live in Albania, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as in Croatia and Italy, they constitute a diaspora with several communities established in the Americas and Oceania. The ethnogenesis of the Albanians and the Albanian language is a matter of controversy among the historians and ethnologists, they appear for the first time in historical records from the 11th century mentioning a tribe of people living in the area which today constitutes the mountainous region around the Mat and Drin. The Shkumbin splits the Albanians into two cultural and linguistical subgroups, the Ghegs and Tosks, though both groups identify with a common ethnic and national culture; the history of the Albanian diaspora is centuries old and has its roots in migration from the Middle Ages established in Southern Europe and subsequently on across other parts of the world. Between the 13th and 18th centuries, sizeable numbers of Albanians migrated to escape either various social, economic or political difficulties.
One population who became the Arvanites settled Southern Greece between the 13th and 16th centuries assimilating into and now self-identifying as Greeks. Another population who emerged as the Arbëreshës settled Sicily and Southern Italy constituting the oldest continuous Albanian diaspora. Smaller populations such as the Arbanasis whose migration dates back to the 18th century are located in Southern Croatia and scattered across Southern Ukraine. In the 13th century, the Ghegs converted to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy as a means to resist the Slavic Serbs. In the 15th century, Skanderbeg led the medieval Albanian resistance to the Ottoman conquest. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Albanians in large numbers converted to Islam, in part due to the privileged legal and social position of Muslims in the empire and coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of war. Albanians attained important political and military positions within the Ottoman Empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.
Following the Albanian National Awakening, during the Balkan Wars, in 1912, Albanians were partitioned between the newly-formed Independent Albania and Serbia and Montenegro. From 1945 to 1992, Albania was ruled by a communist government. Albanians in neighbouring Yugoslavia underwent periods of discrimination that concluded with the breakup of that state in the early 1990s and the independence of Kosovo in 2008; the Albanians and their country Albania have been identified by many ethnonyms. The most common native ethnonym is "Shqiptar", plural "Shqiptarë". From these ethnonyms, names for Albanians were derived in other languages, that were or still are in use. In English "Albanians"; the term "Albanoi" is first encountered twice in the works of Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, the term "Arvanitai" is used once by the same author. He referred to the "Albanoi" as having taken part in a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 1043, to the "Arbanitai" as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium; these references have been disputed as to.
Historian E. Vranoussi believes, she notes that the same term in medieval Latin meant "foreigners". The reference to "Arvanitai" from Attaliates regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078 is undisputed. In Byzantine usage, the terms "Arbanitai" and "Albanoi" with a range of variants were used interchangeably, while sometimes the same groups were called by the classicising name Illyrians; the first reference to the Albanian language dates to the latter 13th century. The ethnonym Albanian has been hypothesized to be connected to and stem from the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy with their centre at the city of Albanopolis. Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, from which other words such as alps are derived. Through the root word alban and its rhotacized equivalents arban and arbar, the term in Albanian became rendered as Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë for the people and Arbënia/Arbëria for the country.
The Albanian language was referred to as Arbërisht. While the exonym Albania for the general region inhabited by the Albanians does have connotations to Classical Antiquity, the Albanian language employs a different ethnonym, with modern Albanians referring to themselves as Shqiptarë and to their country as Shqipëria. Two etymologies have been proposed for this ethnonym: one, derived from the etymology from the Albanian word for eagle. In Albanian folk etymology, this word denotes a bird totem, dating from the times of Skanderbeg as displayed on the Albanian flag; the other is within scholarship that connects it to the verb'to speak' from the Latin "excipere". In this instance the Albanian endonym like Slav and others would have been a term connoting "those who speak [intelligibly, th
Has of Prizren
The Has of Prizren is a region in southwestern Kosovo. Hasi is an ethno-geographic area with well-defined borders, surrounded by rivers of Drini i Bardh in all sides. Hasi area is located in north-eastern part of Albania, being part of Kukes while the south-western part remaining in Kosovo, in Gjakova area and a part that captures the Prizren area; this division occurred in 1913 at the Ambassadors Conference of London after the Balkan wars. Hasi has an area of 371 kilometers square and has a population of around 40,000 in the Republic of Kosovo, while in the Republic of Albania it has an area of 374 kilometers square and a population of 21,500. In this way, Hasi has an area of 745 kilometers square and a population of 61,500; the name originates from an Ottoman land revenue. The area was first mentioned as a hass in a 1570 document. In the early 17th century many chronicler mention the name of Has referring to the origin of the Kastriotis and the Askol population who struggled in the pronunciation of the letters h and s and in this way its name is seen in form of "Az" or "Ass".
In the early 17th century Has was known as Has Shullaa which in Latin means "dry places" according to its nature which remains the same nowadays which becomes called Dry Has. "Has" region, part of Republic of Albania doesn't contain the whole ethnographic region of Has. Has is an ethnographic province with well defined boundaries, surrounded all around with lakes, its region in the parts of Albania is based on Kukes, through the Kosovo side, it is divided in the Municipality of Gjakova, one part in the Municipality of Prizren. Some of the main rivers in Has are Kruma, Rosman, Vogova, Racica and Deshtica while the main lakes are Kruma's Lake, Zym's Lake, Shigjeq's Lake and Fierza. Hasi contains 37 villages which are divided into flat settlements, hilly settlements and rocky mountains; these villages are: Gorozhup, Planej, Mazrrek, Tupec, Shëngjergj, Lukinaj, Romajë, Lugishtë, Kushnin, Demjani, Lipoveci, Bishtazhi, Godeni, Raca, Zhubi, Pjetërshan, Vogova, Zylfaj, Kusari and Deva. The highland of Has territory, on geographical basis has a climate of three main types such as: a) Continental climate with elements of Mediterrean Climate elements in the valley of the Drina and b) mountain climate which reigns in the hilly areas of Has.
The Has part in which the impact of the Mediterranean climate is felt is characterized with hot and dry summers, with little precipitation. The average annual temperature reaches 11.4C. The month of January is the coldest month in this region where the average temperature is 0.4C - 0.9C, while higher temperatures meet during July and August with 22C and 22 C. Average amount of precipitation in Has ranges from 700 to 800 mm. Hasi is considered to be rich in natural resources and the main region is Vlanes with about 3,000,000 tons of chrome reserves containing 30-32% of Cr2O3 and special troops with over 40%. In this district there are other objects in Gajrep, Gzhime and Mac, which are known with around 300,000 tonnes of chrome reserves. Except chrome, there known other copper vain objects of Quartz - Sulphide in the massive Gabror in the areas of Nikolic 1 and 2 with about 2,000,000 tons of reserves, Golaj is considered to have around 1,000,000 tons. Mines of Golaj and Kurma are closed and are not being used however the natural resources of these areas should not be ignored.
The distinguished copper reserves in the Has district are: Nikolic Golaj area, Krumë, Zahrisht, in the Has district. Albania is a big source of chromium and its areas with deposits are Vlahna and Perollaj. Areas rich in ferronickel and nickel silicate are those of Muc - Has areas with the fields of Gjinaj and Domajve along the lake shore of Fierza. Copper deposits of the Kruma Golaj, though with reservations, are off interest from business use due to the poor quality of the district minerals. Have underground counts for 14 million tons of chrome reserves. Has full province has been divided after the Balkans War in the early twentieth century; this partition was sanctioned in the Ambassadors Conference in London in 1913. In the eastern part of Albania was set the borderline in 1913, in border with the Republic of Kosovo. Hasi’s mutilation of the territory in the twentieth century created not only unprecedented isolation, deeper still, a spiritual division and ethnographic itself, experienced with no less pain.
Today, the area of Hasi contains about 371 km ² and has a population of about 40,000 inhabitants, is part of the Republic of Kosovo. Hasi’s territory was divided after the Balkan wars in the early twentieth century; the Ambassadors’ Conference in London in 1913 sanctioned the partition of the territory. This decision destroyed more than half of Albanian population. Hasi had been this unfortunate as well, losing a part of its territory, given to Serbia without taking into consideration that it composed a unique language and traditions with heritage since antiquity. Long Roman, Byzantine and Turkish invasions have forced populations to move from this area by issuing or thinning settlements by taking refuge in the depths of Dukagjini and returning again. Many medieval chroniclers and scholars have determined Hasi as a Kastriotis country of origin. Many researchers that have dealt with this issue have come up with different opinions but the most convincing v
Skrapar is a municipality in Berat County, southern Albania. It was created in 2015 by the merger of the former municipalities Bogovë, Çepan, Çorovodë, Gjerbës, Leshnjë, Qendër Skrapar, Vendreshë and Zhepë; the seat of the municipality is the town Çorovodë. The total population is 12,403, in a total area of 831.44 km2. It covers part of the area of the former Skrapar District, without the town Poliçan, it is roughly contiguous with the Albanian "ethnographic region" of Skrapar, known for its folklore, its raki production, its high rate of those belonging to the Bektashi order and its scenic mountains. The discovery of the cave settlements, mosaics and the ruins of bridges, castles, have extended knowledge and evidence of an ancient human life in the area. Ancient objects are work tools belonging to the Neolithic period. Illyrian-Roman wars, come out through the pen of historians of different times like, Koragu, etc. According to them, the town was established in III century BC and Illyrians served as a fortress area of Skrapar and strategic character defence.
During the Ottoman period, the region was known as İskarapar. Visit Skrapar
Vladimir Orël was a Russian linguist. At the Moscow State University he studied structural linguistics, he defended his Ph. D. in 1981, on the comparative analysis of Slavic languages in the Balkans. Until 1990 he worked at the Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies in Moscow, where he completed his second doctoral thesis in 1989, on the historical grammar of Albanian. In the period 1989–1990 he taught historical linguistics at Moscow State University. After his emigration to Israel he continued to teach at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he relocated to the Tel-Aviv University, where he taught in the Department of Classical Studies in the period of 1992–97, on comparative linguistics and folklore, history and philosophy. In 1994 he worked at the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem when he was dedicated to the biblical studies, the following two years acting as a visiting scholar at Wolfson College, Oxford; the last two years in Israel he spent at Bar-Ilan University. Afterward he went to Calgary in Canada, where he started to work at Zi Corporation as a director of research and language teaching.
After a brief activity at the Princeton University in New Jersey, where he worked in the department of testing services, he started to work at the universities in Alberta, Canada Athabasca University, Mount Royal College, University of Calgary, University of Lethbridge. There he lectured on comparative linguistics, Biblical Studies, as well as on business English, English literature, creative writing, etc. Since 2005, he ran the Translation Center at the Calgary Regional Health Authority. Though he worked only three decades as a professional research linguist, Orel's work encompassed extraordinary variety of interests: from Slavic via modern Balkan languages to Paleo-Balkan languages, from Proto-Indo-European roots and its Nostratic context on the one hand, to the analysis of Biblical Hebrew and Old Testament texts and Proto-Afroasiatic language on the other hand, he has left behind over two dozen reviews. Above all, are 6 monographs, four of which are etymological dictionaries; the 3rd part of his Russian etymological dictionary was unfinished due to his premature death.
His Albanian Etymological Dictionary is a useful overview of existing etymologies, it well complements his A Concise Historical Grammar of Albanian. The monograph Phrygian Language summarizes the old/neo-Phyrigian epigraphy, interpretation of all the known inscriptions until the 1990s and the corresponding grammatical comments. Orel dealt with the Indo-European languages the Balto-Slavic, Germanic and Celtic branches, he took interest in Semitic languages, Hebrew in the first place, more broadly in Afroasiatic languages as a whole, where lie his most controversial results. Through collaboration with Olga Stolbova he published Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary which on one hand brought a number of interesting and new sub-lexical comparison Semitic-Chadic. On the other hand, the value of the benefits of reduced transcriptions used and inaccurate translations, absence of primary sources for non-written languages, countless pseudo-reconstructions formulated ad hoc on two or a single word were frowned upon by specialists, who pointed out other serious errors in the work.
He published the following monographs: together with Olga Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill, 1995 The Language of Phrygians. Ann Arbor: Caravan Books, 1997 Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill, 1998 A Concise Historical Grammar of Albanian. Leiden: Brill, 2000 Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden: Brill, 2003 Russian Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 1: A–J. Ed. Vitaly Shevoroshkin. Calgary: Octavia, 2007 Russian Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 2: K–O. Ed. Vitaly Shevoroshkin. Calgary: Octavia, 2007 Russian Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 3: P–S. Ed. Vitaly Shevoroshkin. Calgary: Octavia, 2008 Russian Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 4: T–Ja. Ed. Cindy Drover-Davidson. Calgary: Theophania Publishing, 2011 Blažek, Václav. "In Memoriam:Vladimir Orel"