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In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity. Qi translates as "air" and figuratively as "material energy", "life force", or "energy flow". Qi is the central underlying principle in Chinese martial arts; the practice of cultivating and balancing qi is called qigong. Believers of qi describe it as a vital energy. Qi is a pseudoscientific, unverified concept, which has never been directly observed, is unrelated to the concept of energy used in science; the cultural keyword qì is analyzable in terms of Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Possible etymologies include the logographs 氣, 气, 気 with various meanings ranging from "vapor" to "anger", the English loanword qi or ch'i; the logograph 氣 is read with two Chinese pronunciations, the usual qì 氣 "air. Pronunciations of 氣 in modern varieties of Chinese with standardized IPA equivalents include: Standard Chinese qì /t͡ɕʰi˥˩/, Wu Chinese qi /t͡ɕʰi˧˦/, Southern Min khì /kʰi˨˩/, Eastern Min ké /kʰɛi˨˩˧/, Standard Cantonese hei3 /hei̯˧/, Hakka Chinese hi /hi˥/.

Pronunciations of 氣 in Sino-Xenic borrowings include: Japanese ki, Korean gi, Vietnamese khi. Reconstructions of the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 氣 standardized to IPA transcription include: /kʰe̯iH/, /kʰĭəiH/, /kʰiəiH/, /kʰɨjH/, /kʰɨiH/. Reconstructions of the Old Chinese pronunciation of 氣 standardized to IPA transcription include: /*kʰɯds/ and /*C.qʰəp-s/. The etymology of qì interconnects with Kharia kʰis "anger", Sora kissa "move with great effort", Khmer kʰɛs "strive after. In the East Asian languages, qì has three logographs: 氣 is the traditional Chinese character, Korean hanja, Japanese kyūjitai kanji 気 is the Japanese shinjitai kanji 气 is the simplified Chinese character. In addition, qì 炁 is an uncommon character used in writing Daoist talismans; the word qì was written as 气 until the Han dynasty, when it was replaced by the 氣 graph clarified with mǐ 米 "rice" indicating "steam" This primary logograph 气, the earliest written character for qì, consisted of three wavy horizontal lines seen in Shang dynasty oracle bone script, Zhou dynasty bronzeware script and large seal script, Qin dynasty small seal script.

These oracle and seal scripts logographs 气 were used in ancient times as a phonetic loan character to write qǐ 乞 "plead for. The vast majority of Chinese characters are classified as radical-phonetic characters; such characters combine a semantically suggestive "radical characters" with a phonetic element approximating ancient pronunciation. For example, the known word dào 道 "the Dao. Although the modern dào and shǒu pronunciations are dissimilar, the Old Chinese *lˤuʔ-s 道 and *l̥uʔ-s 首 were alike; the regular script character qì 氣 is unusual because qì 气 is both the "air radical" and the phonetic, with mǐ 米 "rice" semantically indicating "steam. This qì 气 "air/gas radical" was only used in a few native Chinese characters like yīnyūn 氤氲 "thick mist/smoke", but was used to create new scientific characters for gaseous chemical elements; some examples are based on pronunciations in European languages: fú 氟 "fluorine" and nǎi 氖 "neon". Others are based on semantics: qīng 氫 "hydrogen" and lǜ 氯 " chlorine".

Qì 氣 is the phonetic element in a few characters such as kài 愾 "hate" with the "heart-mind radical" 忄or 心, xì 熂 "set fire to weeds" with the "fire radical" 火, xì 餼 "to present food" with the "food radical" 食. The first Chinese dictionary of characters, the Shuowen Jiezi notes that the primary qì 气 is a pictographic character depicting 雲气 "cloudy vapors", that the full 氣 combines 米 "rice" with the phonetic qi 气, meaning 饋客芻米 "present provisions to guests". Qi is a polysemous word; the unabridged Chinese-Chinese character dictionary Hanyu Da Cidian defines it as "present food or provisions" for the xì pronunciation but lists 23 meanings for the qì pronunciation. The modern ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary, which enters xì 餼 "grain. N. ① air. Qi was an early Chinese loanword in English, it was romanized as k'i in Church Romanization in the early-19th century, as ch'i in Wade–Giles in the mid-19th century, as qi in Pinyin in the mid-20th century. The Oxford English Dictionary entry for qi gives the pronunciation as IPA, the etymology from Chinese qì "air.

Prepare to Be Wrong

Prepare to Be Wrong is an EP by Straylight Run, released on October 4, 2005 by Victory Records. The song "It Never Gets Easier" was titled "Costello". "Hands in the Sky" was released to radio on October 25, 2005. In October and November, the band supported Simple Plan; the band supported Motion City Soundtrack on the mtvU Campus Invasion tour in April 2006. In May, the band toured Australia alongside Matchbook Romance. All songs written by Straylight Run, except where noted "I Don't Want This Anymore" – 3:43 "It Never Gets Easier" – 4:09 "A Slow Descent" – 5:12 "Hands in the Sky" – 5:42 "Later That Year" – 4:16 "With God on Our Side" – 6:19 Isaac Burker – guitar Shaun Cooperbass Jeff DaRosa – backing vocals John Nolan – vocals, piano Michelle Nolan – vocals, piano Will Noon – drums

Charles W. Lyon

Charles W. Lyon was an American attorney from California who served as a Republican in the California State Assembly and the California State Senate. Lyon was Assembly Speaker from 1943 to 1946. Lyon was admitted to the bar in 1910 and was first elected to the Assembly in 1914. Lyon served numerous terms in the Senate and Assembly and authored the legislation creating the UCLA campus. Lyon was born in Los Angeles on September 13, 1887, he was the eighth of nine children of James H. and Laura Emma Lyon, who had moved to California from Maine. The family was distantly related to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. James Lyon was architect. Charles attended the public schools in Los Angeles and San Francisco studied law at night while working for the Title Insurance and Trust Company in Los Angeles, he was admitted to the California Bar at the age of 23 in 1910. He went into private practice as a member of the firm of Fredericks & Hanna, he married Nancy Janney, daughter of a well known Utah mining engineer on September 21, 1912, the couple would have three children.

At age 21, Lyon was elected president of Los Angeles Parlor No. 45 of the Native Sons of the Golden West. Lyon became state president of the California State Aerie of Eagles, which had over thirty thousand members in California. In 1919, he was elected exalted ruler for 1919–20 of Santa Monica Elks Lodge. In 1914, Lyon became City Attorney of Venice, where he and his family were living as of 1921; that year, Lyon was elected to the California State Assembly as a Republican, was reelected in 1916. While in the Assembly, he opposed the Populist reforms being enacted at that time. In 1918, he ran for the State Senate, was elected, he remained in the Senate until defeated for re-election in 1930. After two years out of office, Lyon ran for and was elected to the Assembly again, would serve there until 1946. In the Assembly, he feared that Governor Frank Merriam would move to the left in response to the Depression, opposed Merriam's Democratic successor, Culbert Olson. While Lyon's 1938 re-election did not get any especial note at the time, it is remembered today because of the careers of the opponents whom he defeated.

Lyon cross-filed, running in both the Republican and Democratic primaries, secured his re-election by defeating future Richard Nixon campaign manager Murray Chotiner in the Republican poll, narrowly beating Robert A. Heinlein in the Democratic contest. Heinlein's political short story, "A Bathroom of Her Own" is based on Heinlein's own political experiences in the race against Lyon. In 1939, Lyon became Assembly minority leader; the following year, during the special session and conservative Democrats formed a ruling coalition, Lyon became Chairman of the Rules Committee. The Republicans won a majority in the Assembly in 1942, Lyon was elected Speaker the following year, a post he held for two terms. By this time, Republican Earl Warren had defeated Olson for reelection, Lyon cooperated with Warren on such issues as postwar planning. In 1946, Lyon ran unsuccessfully for the position of Lieutenant Governor of California. In 1950, he recaptured a seat in the Assembly, was reelected in 1952. Lyon's political career ended in scandal when, in 1954, he was convicted in connection with a liquor license bribery scheme in Southern California.

Lyon was convicted of grand conspiracy to commit grand theft. Lyon was paroled on November 5, 1956, after serving 18 months of a 5-year sentence at San Luis Obispo's Men's Colony. In 1958, he was pardoned by Governor Goodwin Knight, he spent his final years as a lobbyist for the Southern California Merchants Association. Lyon died of cancer in Beverly Hills, California. In December 1961, Governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown pardoned Lyon's fellow conspirator, former Assembly Member Delbert Morris. Charles W. Lyon is buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery


Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, felicitously daring in his choice of words."Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses and caustic iambic poetry. The hexameters are amusing yet serious works, friendly in tone, leading the ancient satirist Persius to comment: "as his friend laughs, Horace slyly puts his finger on his every fault, his career coincided with Rome's momentous change from a republic to an empire. An officer in the republican army defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs and became a spokesman for the new regime. For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".

Horace can be regarded as the world's first autobiographer. In his writings, he tells us far more about himself, his character, his development, his way of life, than any other great poet of antiquity; some of the biographical material contained in his work can be supplemented from the short but valuable "Life of Horace" by Suetonius. He was born on 8 December 65 BC in the Samnite south of Italy, his home town, lay on a trade route in the border region between Apulia and Lucania. Various Italic dialects were spoken in the area and this enriched his feeling for language, he could have been familiar with Greek words as a young boy and he poked fun at the jargon of mixed Greek and Oscan spoken in neighbouring Canusium. One of the works he studied in school was the Odyssia of Livius Andronicus, taught by teachers like the'Orbilius' mentioned in one of his poems. Army veterans could have been settled there at the expense of local families uprooted by Rome as punishment for their part in the Social War.

Such state-sponsored migration must have added still more linguistic variety to the area. According to a local tradition reported by Horace, a colony of Romans or Latins had been installed in Venusia after the Samnites had been driven out early in the third century. In that case, young Horace could have felt himself to be a Roman though there are indications that he regarded himself as a Samnite or Sabellus by birth. Italians in modern and ancient times have always been devoted to their home towns after success in the wider world, Horace was no different. Images of his childhood setting and references to it are found throughout his poems. Horace's father was a Venutian taken captive by Romans in the Social War, or he was descended from a Sabine captured in the Samnite Wars. Either way, he was a slave for at least part of his life, he was evidently a man of strong abilities however and managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position. Thus Horace claimed to be the free-born son of a prosperous'coactor'.

The term'coactor' could denote various roles, such as tax collector, but its use by Horace was explained by scholia as a reference to'coactor argentareus' i.e. an auctioneer with some of the functions of a banker, paying the seller out of his own funds and recovering the sum with interest from the buyer. The father spent a small fortune on his son's education accompanying him to Rome to oversee his schooling and moral development; the poet paid tribute to him in a poem that one modern scholar considers the best memorial by any son to his father. The poem includes this passage: If my character is flawed by a few minor faults, but is otherwise decent and moral, if you can point out only a few scattered blemishes on an otherwise immaculate surface, if no one can accuse me of greed, or of prurience, or of profligacy, if I live a virtuous life, free of defilement, if I am to my friends a good friend, my father deserves all the credit... As it is now, he deserves from me unstinting praise. I could never be ashamed of such a father, nor do I feel any need, as many people do, to apologize for being a freedman's son.

Satires 1.6.65–92 He never mentioned his mother in his verses and he might not have known much about her. She had been a slave. Horace left Rome after his father's death, continued his formal education in Athens, a great centre of learning in the ancient world, where he arrived at nineteen years of age, enrolling in The Academy. Founded by Plato, The Academy was now dominated by Epicureans and Stoics, whose theories and practises made a deep impression on the young man from Venusia. Meanwhile, he mixed and lounged about with the elite of Roman youth, such as Marcus, the idle son of Cicero, the Pompeius to whom he addressed a poem, it was in Athens too that he acquired deep familiarity with the ancient tradition of Greek lyric poetry, at that time the preserve of grammarians and academic specialists. Rome's troubles following the assassination of Julius Caesar were soon to catch up with him. Marcus Junius Brutus came to Athens seeking support for the republican cause. Brutus was fêted around town in grand receptions and he made a point of attending academic lectures, all the while recruiting supporters am

Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is an American family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather, stealth multirole combat aircraft, designed for both air superiority and strike missions. The aircraft was developed and is built by Lockheed Martin and its subcontractors, which include Northrop Grumman, Pratt & Whitney, BAE Systems; the F-35 has three main variants: the conventional takeoff and landing F-35A, the short take-off and vertical-landing F-35B, the carrier-based F-35C. The aircraft descends from the Lockheed Martin X-35, which in 2001 beat the Boeing X-32 to win the Joint Strike Fighter program, its development is principally funded by the United States, with additional funding from program partners from NATO and close U. S. allies, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, the Netherlands, Turkey. The partners receive subcontracts to manufacture F-35 components. Several other countries are considering ordering, the aircraft; the program has drawn much scrutiny and criticism for its unprecedented size, ballooning costs, much-delayed deliveries.

The acquisition strategy of concurrent production the aircraft while it was still in development and testing led to expensive design changes and retrofits. By 2014, the program was "US$163 billion over budget seven years behind schedule"; the F-35B entered service with the U. S. Marine Corps in July 2015, followed by the U. S. Air Force F-35A in August 2016 and the U. S. Navy F-35C in February 2019; the F-35 was first used in combat by the Israeli Air Force. In service, some USAF pilots have nicknamed the aircraft "Panther" in lieu of the official "Lightning II"; the U. S. had plans to buy 2,443 F-35s through 2037 as of 2013, which will represent the bulk of the crewed tactical airpower of the U. S. Air Force and Marine Corps for several decades; the aircraft is projected to operate until 2070. The F-35 was the product of the Joint Strike Fighter program, the merger of various combat aircraft programs from the 1980s and 1990s. One progenitor program was the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Advanced Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing which ran from 1983 to 1994.

K. Royal Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps. Under one of ASTOVL's classified programs, the Supersonic STOVL Fighter, Lockheed Skunk Works conducted research for a stealthy supersonic STOVL fighter intended for both U. S. Air Force and USMC. Lockheed's concept was a single-engine canard delta aircraft weighing about 24,000 lb empty. ASTOVL was rechristened as the Common Affordable Lightweight Fighter in 1993 and involved Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, Boeing. In 1993, the Joint Advanced Strike Technology program emerged following the USAF's Multi-Role Fighter and U. S. Navy's Advanced Fighter-Attack programs cancellations. MRF, a program for a affordable F-16 replacement, was scaled back and delayed due to post-Cold War defense cuts easing the F-16 service life situation and increasing budget pressure from the USAF's F-22 program; the A/F-X known as the Advanced-Attack, began in 1991 as the USN's follow-on to the Advanced Tactical Aircraft program for an A-6 replacement. In the same year, the termination of the Naval Advanced Tactical Fighter, an offshoot of USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter program, to replace the F-14 resulted in additional fighter capability being added to A-X, renamed A/F-X.

Amid increased budget pressure, the Department of Defense's Bottom-Up Review in September 1993 announced MRF's and A/F-X's cancellation, with applicable experience brought to the emerging JAST program. JAST was not meant to develop a new aircraft, instead developing requirements, maturing technologies, demonstrating concepts for advanced strike warfare; as JAST progressed, the need for concept demonstrator aircraft by 1996 emerged, which would coincide with the full-scale flight demonstrator phase of ASTOVL/CALF. Because the ASTOVL/CALF concept appeared to align with the JAST charter, the two programs were merged in 1994 under the JAST name, with the program now serving the USAF, USMC, USN. JAST was subsequently renamed the Joint Strike Fighter in 1995, with STOVL submissions by McDonnell Douglas, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Boeing; the JSF was expected to replace large numbers of multi-role and strike fighters in the inventories of the US and its allies, including the Harrier, F-16, F/A-18, A-10, F-117.

International participation is a key aspect of the JSF program, starting with United Kingdom participation in the ASTOVL program. Many international partners requiring modernization of their air forces that deployed the F-16 and F/A-18 were interested in the JSF; the United Kingdom joined JAST/JSF as a founding member in 1995 and thus became the only Tier 1 partner of the JSF program. The aircraft was developed in cooperation with international partners and available for export. Boeing and Lockheed Martin were selected in early 1997 for CDP, with their concept demonstrator aircraft designated X-32 and X-35 respectively; each firm would produce two prototype air vehicle

Jack Morris

John Scott Morris is an American former professional baseball starting pitcher. He is a color commentator for the Detroit Tigers on Fox Sports Detroit, he played in Major League Baseball between 1977 and 1994 for the Detroit Tigers. Morris won 254 games throughout his career. Armed with a fastball, a slider, a forkball, Morris was a five-time All-Star, played on four World Series Championship teams, he went 3–0 in the 1984 postseason with two complete game victories in the 1984 World Series, 4–0 in the 1991 postseason with a ten-inning complete game victory in Game 7 of the 1991 World Series. Morris won the Babe Ruth Award in both 1984 and 1991, was named World Series MVP in 1991. While he gave up the most hits, most earned runs, most home runs of any pitcher in the 1980s, he started the most games, pitched the most innings, had the most wins of any pitcher in that decade, he is one of seven players in MLB history to have won back-to back World Series championships on different teams, the other six being Ben Zobrist, Jake Peavy, Bill Skowron, Clem Labine, Don Gullett, Ryan Theriot.

Since retiring as a player, Morris has worked as a broadcast color analyst for the Blue Jays and Tigers. He has been an analyst for MLB broadcasts on Fox Sports 1. Morris was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2018. Morris attended Highland Park High School in Saint Paul, graduating in 1973, he attended Brigham Young University, played college baseball for the BYU Cougars. The Detroit Tigers selected Morris in the fifth round of the 1976 MLB draft, he was first called up to the Tigers in 1977 after Mark Fidrych was placed on the disabled list with an injury. Morris broke into the Tigers' starting rotation in 1979, posting a 17–7 record and a 3.29 ERA and establishing himself as the ace of the Detroit staff. Morris, along with catcher Lance Parrish, shortstop Alan Trammell, second baseman Lou Whitaker, outfielder Kirk Gibson, manager Sparky Anderson, played a notable role in turning the Tigers into a contending team for most of the 1980s. In 1980, Morris learned to throw the split-finger fastball from newly hired pitching coach Roger Craig, it became an effective pitch for the rest of Morris' career.

He led the major leagues with 14 wins in the strike-shortened 1981 season. Despite playing for the notorious "Captain Hook", nicknamed because of his tendency to pull his starters at the first sign of weakness, Morris was known for finishing what he started, he racked up 175 complete games in his career. He compiled double-digit complete game totals in 10 of his 12 full seasons as a Tiger. In 1983, Morris completed 20 of his 37 starts; that year, he led the league in innings pitched, batters faced and strikeouts, while posting his first 20-win season. On April 7, 1984, Morris no-hit the Chicago White Sox at Comiskey Park, beginning what would be an excellent season for both him and the Tigers; the no-hitter was the first by a Tiger since Jim Bunning in 1958. By the end of the 1984 campaign, he had notched 19 wins and a 3.60 ERA, leading Detroit into the postseason. He scored a win over the Kansas City Royals in the ALCS, added two more complete-game victories in the World Series against the San Diego Padres as the Tigers concluded their wire-to-wire 1984 campaign with the World Championship.

While teammate Alan Trammell was named World Series MVP, Morris was given the Babe Ruth Award for most outstanding performance in the 1984 postseason. In 1986, Morris racked up 21 wins, had a stretch from July 9–18 in which he threw three consecutive complete game shutouts; the Tigers headed to the postseason again in 1987 behind a team-leading 18 wins from Morris, but this time Morris' postseason performance was below expectations. He lost his only start in the ALCS, surrendering six runs in eight innings to the eventual World Champion Minnesota Twins. Despite a sub-par season in 1989 when he made only 24 starts and won just 6 games, he finished the 1980s with 162 wins, the most by a major league pitcher during the decade. In 1990, his final season in Detroit, Morris lost a career-high 18 games, though he led the Tiger staff with 15 wins and led the AL with 11 complete games. Morris had a 3–1 post-season record as a Tiger, with a 2.73 ERA. When playing for the Tigers, Morris was approached for a locker room interview by Jennifer Frey.

At the time, Frey was an intern with the Miami Herald. Morris responded to Frey that, "I don’t talk to women when I’m naked unless they’re on top of me or I’m on top of them"; when The Herald complained about his actions, Bo Schembechler, the president of the Tigers at the time, said that the newspaper had a "lack of common sense" for assigning a woman to a locker room interview. In 1991, Morris signed a one-year contract with his hometown Minnesota Twins, he enjoyed another great season, posting 18 wins with a 3.43 ERA, an better postseason after Minnesota won the AL West. Morris won both of his starts over the Toronto Blue Jays in the ALCS, his team went on to face the Atlanta Braves in the World Series. Morris started for the Twins three times in the series, going 2–0 with a 1.17 ERA, making his final outing in the deciding Game 7. In a postseason performance for the ages, the 36-year-old hurler threw 10 innings of shutout baseball against the Braves, as the Twins won the game 1–0 on a 10th-inning single by Gene Larkin that scored Dan Gladden.

Morris was named the World Series MVP for his performance, joined fellow pitcher Sandy Koufax as the only play