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Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1735 to 1796. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor—a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Retired Emperor until his death in 1799; as a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy. As a military leader, he led military campaigns expanding the dynastic territory to the largest extent by conquering and sometimes destroying Central Asian kingdoms; this turned around in his late years: the Qing empire began to decline with corruption and wastefulness in his court and a stagnating civil society.

A British valet who accompanied his diplomat master to the Qing court in 1793 described the emperor: The Emperor is about five feet ten inches in height, of a slender but elegant form. His dress consisted of a loose robe of yellow silk, a cap of black velvet with a red ball on the top, adorned with a peacock's feather, the peculiar distinction of mandarins of the first class, he wore silk boots embroidered with gold, a sash of blue girded his waist. Hongli was adored by both his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, his father, the Yongzheng Emperor; some historians argue that the main reason why the Kangxi Emperor appointed the Yongzheng Emperor as his successor was because Hongli was his favourite grandson. He felt that Hongli's mannerisms were similar to his own; as a teenager, Hongli possessed literary ability. After his father's enthronement in 1722, Hongli was made a qinwang under the title "Prince Bao of the First Rank". Like many of his uncles, Hongli entered into a battle of succession with his elder half-brother Hongshi, who had the support of a large faction of the officials in the imperial court, as well as Yinsi, Prince Lian.

For many years, the Yongzheng Emperor did not designate any of his sons as the crown prince, but many officials speculated that he favoured Hongli. Hongli went on inspection trips to the south, was known to be an able negotiator and enforcer, he was appointed as the chief regent on occasions when his father was away from the capital. Hongli's accession to the throne was foreseen before he was proclaimed emperor before the assembled imperial court upon the death of the Yongzheng Emperor; the young Hongli was the favourite grandson of the Kangxi Emperor and the favourite son of the Yongzheng Emperor. In the hope of preventing a succession struggle from occurring, the Yongzheng Emperor wrote the name of his chosen successor on a piece of paper and placed it in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity; the name in the box was to be revealed to other members of the imperial family in the presence of all senior ministers only upon the death of the emperor.

When the Yongzheng Emperor died in 1735, the will was taken out and read before the entire Qing imperial court, after which Hongli became the new emperor. Hongli adopted the era name "Qianlong", which means "Lasting Eminence"; the Qianlong Emperor was a successful military leader. After ascending the throne, he sent armies to suppress the Miao rebellion, his campaigns expanded the territory controlled by the Qing Empire. This was made possible not only by Qing military might, but by the disunity and declining strength of the Inner Asian peoples. Under the Qianlong Emperor's reign, the Dzungar Khanate was incorporated into the Qing Empire's rule and renamed Xinjiang, while to the west, Ili was conquered and garrisoned; the incorporation of Xinjiang into the Qing Empire resulted from the final defeat and destruction of the Dzungars, a coalition of Western Mongol tribes. The Qianlong Emperor ordered the Dzungar genocide. According to the Qing dynasty scholar Wei Yuan, 40% of the 600,000 Dzungars were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to the Russian Empire or Kazakh tribes, 30% were killed by the Qing army, in what Michael Edmund Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."

Historian Peter Perdue has argued that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of massacre launched by the Qianlong Emperor. The Dzungar genocide has been compared to the Qing extermination of the Jinchuan Tibetan people in 1776, which occurred during the Qianlong Emperor's reign; when victorious troops returned to Beijing, a celebratory hymn was sung in their honour. A Manchu version of the hymn was sent to Paris; the Qing Empire hired Zhao Yi and Jiang Yongzhi at the Military A

Kagor (wine)

Kagor is a fortified dessert wine made from cabernet sauvignon and other grapes on the Black Sea coast of the former Russian Empire in Moldova and Crimea. Its name comes from France. Conversely, the dominant grape variety in French Cahors wine is Malbec. Kagor originated as a sacramental wine for use in Russian Orthodox liturgy, it was Peter the Great who started importing them in bulk. The Russian clergy was so impressed with its blood-red color that the Holy Synod adopted Cahors as a preferred wine for sacraments in 1733; the modern type of Kagor was developed for Prince Lev Golitsyn in the late 19th century. Its production involves heating the seeds and skins to 65 °C or higher

Santos FC (women)

Santos Futebol Clube known as Santos or Sereias da Vila, is a Brazilian women's Association football club, based in the city of Santos, São Paulo state, Brazil. They won the Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol Feminino once, the Copa do Brasil twice and the Copa Libertadores Femenina twice; the club was created in 1997 as part of Santos, in a partnership with Fundação Pró-Esportes de Santos. They won two national competitions, which are the Liga Nacional in 2007, the Copa do Brasil in 2008; the club won the Copa Mercosul in 2006, the Campeonato Paulista in 2007. The Campeonato Paulista organized by LINAF was won by Santos in 2009, beating Corinthians in the final. Santos competed in the 2009 Copa Libertadores, winning the competition after beating Universidad Autónoma of Paraguay 9–0 in the final, played on October 18, they won the 2009 Copa do Brasil on December 1, 2009, after beating Botucatu 3–0 in the final, played at Estádio do Pacaembu. In 2010, they won again the Copa Libertadores, after beating Everton 1–0 in Arena Barueri, in 2011 they won the Campeonato Paulista again, after they beat Centro Olímpico in the final.

The women's section was closed in 2012. The club's president Luis Álvaro de Oliveira Ribeiro closed down the women's team and the men's futsal team because an alleged lack of sponsorship meant they were not self-sustaining, it was attributed to the effort of holding male star player Neymar at Santos. In 2015 incoming Santos president Modesto Roma Júnior reinstated the women's team, as part of wider reforms aimed at repairing the previous regime's financial mismanagement; as of 8 February 2020Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Santos play their home games at Estádio Vila Belmiro, hence the club's nickname Sereias da Vila, meaning Vila's Mermaids; the stadium has a maximum capacity of 16,798 people. Copa Libertadores Femenina: Winners: 2009, 2010 Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol Feminino: Winners: 2017 Copa do Brasil: Winners: 2008, 2009 Liga Nacional de Futebol Feminino: Winners: 2007 Campeonato Paulista: Winners: 2007, 2010, 2011, 2018 Runners-up: 2009, 2016, 2017 Regional Games: Winners: 2006, 2007, 2008 Official website

Rupert Watson, 3rd Baron Manton

Rupert Eric Robert Watson, 3rd Baron Manton, DL, of Houghton Hall in the parish of Sancton, was a British soldier and racehorse owner who served as Senior Steward of the Jockey Club. He was the only son and heir of Miles Watson, 2nd Baron Manton by his first wife Alethea Langdale, the younger of the two daughters and co-heireses of Colonel Philip Joseph Langdale, OBE, JP, DL, of Houghton Hall. In 1936 when Watson was 12 years of age, his parents were divorced and his father remarried two years later, he was educated at Eton. He inherited the barony on the death of his father in 1968, he was given Houghton Hall by his aunt Countess FitzWilliam who from 1956 was the wife of William Thomas George Wentworth-FitzWilliam, 10th Earl FitzWilliam. With her husband's home, Wentworth Woodhouse, near Rotherham, being the largest private residence in England, with his second seat of Milton Hall, being the largest house in Cambridgeshire at her disposal, she may have felt little need to retain Houghton for her own use.

In 1942 Watson joined the next year was commissioned into the Life Guards. He saw service in Egypt and Italy, he was promoted captain and retired in 1947. In 1951 he returned to the army and served in the 7th Queen's Own Hussars until 1956, he served in the Leicestershire Yeomanry, in which he was appointed Adjutant. From a young age, Watson was a successful jockey having won 130 times as an amateur, he won the Kim Muir Chase at the Cheltenham Festival in 1955 riding Gay Monarch. Following the example of his father, who had established a stud at Plumpton Place in Sussex, he became a successful owner and breeder of racehorses. In 1970 he was a director of Thirsk Racecourse in Yorkshire. From 1970 to 1975 he was a member of the Horserace Betting Levy Board, created to divert monies from bookmakers to the racing industry. In 1982 he was appointed Senior Steward of the Jockey Club, becoming chief executive of the British horse racing, which term ended in 1985; as Senior Steward he led the campaign to allow betting shops to show televised races.

Manton was a steward at several racecourses, Doncaster and York Racecourse. He was a Tattersalls Committee member and between 1985 and 1991 he chaired the York Race Committee. In 1998 he entered a horse he bred and owned, Silver Stick, in the Horse & Hound Grand Military Gold Cup at Sandown Park, his son Miles won the race. When the Queen Mother presented Manton with his trophy he told her: "I saddled the horse, he was Field Master of both the Belvoir and the Quorn Foxhounds and was a "well known" hunter in Leicestershire. On 9 January 1951 Lord Manton married Mary Hallinan, known as Mimi, the daughter of Major Thomas Dennehy Hallinan, of County Cork, they lived near Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire. They had a daughter who were triplets and two elder daughters, he was given Houghton Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire the ancient seat of the extinct Barony of Langdale, by his aunt Joyce Elizabeth Mary, Countess FitzWilliam, heiress of her father Lieutenant-Colonel Philip Joseph Langdale and wife of the 10th Earl Fitzwilliam.

He moved to the East Riding of Yorkshire to run its 5,000-acre estate. He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Humberside in 1980. On his death on 8 August 2003 the title passed to his eldest son. Miles was a successful amateur jockey and was an officer in the Life Guards. Charles Roger Dod. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. Dod's Limited. P. 237. Who's Who in European Politics. Bowker-Saur. December 1990. ISBN 978-0-86291-911-5. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Manton


Haukivesi is a lake in southeastern Finland and a part of the Saimaa lake system. Haukivesi is the central basin of the system, collecting 80% of the water that flows into Lake Ladoga through River Vuoksi, its area is 562.31 square kilometres. Like other lakes in the system, it has a convoluted shoreline with numerous islands and is divided into a number of smaller regions such as Siitinselkä, Tahkoselkä, Vuoriselkä, Kuokanselkä, Kuivaselkä, Heposelkä, Peonselkä, Tuunaanselkä, Hiekonselkä, Varparannanselkä, Iso-Haukivesi. Haukivesi stretches from Varkaus to Savonlinna in a northeast-southwest direction; the northern part is shallow, at less than 20 metres, but deepens toward the southeast, up to 60 metres at Kuivaselkä. Most water flows from the east, through Tappuvirta and Haponlahti locks. A smaller inflow is through Pirtinvirta in Varkaus. Of the lakes in the Saimaa lake system, Haukivesi receives the most nutrients; the water quality varies with location, because of the differences between the water qualities of the inflows.

In Haukivesi, more nutrient-rich water flowing from the north mixes with purer waters from the east. The largest individual pollution sources are the city of Varkaus and its pulp mills, although smaller settlements and diffuse pollution from agriculture and forestry contribute; the lake was polluted by the pulp mills up to the 70s, but stricter regulation forced the mills to treat their wastewaters, thus the lake recovered. The southernmost part of Haukivesi is Haapavesi, most of its southern shoreline is covered by the city of Savonlinna. Water flows via Matarinsalmi sound into Haapavesi, from where it flows through several channels into the Pihlajavesi part of Saimaa. Linnansaari National Park is located in the middle of the lake; the name Haukivesi means "pike water", indeed, the lake is known as a good place to catch pikes, in addition to bream and zander. However, there are restrictions on fishing because of the national park and protection of the endangered Saimaa ringed seal. Media related to Haukivesi at Wikimedia Commons

First Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia)

The First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is located on 21st and Walnut Streets, built in an array of architectural styles of leading Philadelphia architects. The First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia was organized around 1692. Religious services began in a building known as the "Barbadoes Warehouse", located on the northwest corner of Second and Chestnut Streets. For a time, both Baptists and Congregationalists shared this facility with the Presbyterians. In 1704, the congregation moved to the south side of High Street at the corner of Bank Street. Here the first Presbyterian church in Philadelphia was established. In 1793, it was renovated and made more spacious and elegant. Twenty-seven years it was abandoned, due to unsafe conditions and the encroachment of the surrounding business district. A new church was erected at Washington Square. At this church, in 1837, came the formation of the New School Assembly, from which emerged the Second Church. During the 1920s, the church decided to relocate again due to the decay of city's Old City historic area.

In 1929, the congregation merged with Calvary Presbyterian Church and moved to Locust Street near Fifteenth Street. The merged congregation kept the name First Presbyterian Church; when the historic First and Second Presbyterian Churches in Philadelphia joined to form one church in 1949, the united congregation adopted the name of the First Church and occupied the fourth building of the Second Church. The architect Henry Augustus Sims designed the present building at 21st and Walnut Streets and attended the dedication in October 1872; the interior of the church building has admirable craftsmanship. The stone carvings were done in place from raw Ohio stone provided by William Armstrong of Philadelphia. Henry Augustus Sims noted exceptional work; the two stone carvers he recommended to the Church Building Committee were recent immigrants to America. They had come with letters of introduction and their first collaboration involved finishing the carvings in a small church in Delaware which Sims admired.

Both men arrived from Great Britain and they left their distinctive marks on many American buildings. Alexander Milne Calder and John William Kitson spent nearly two years completing the interior, the exterior follies and the two elaborate doorway carvings. Calder's work attracted the attention of some important men in Philadelphia and led directly to his appointment as a carver for the Philadelphia City Hall project, capped by Calder's famous statue of William Penn; the City Hall project consumed a good portion of Calder's working career, but he completed other noted works for tombs and commemorative statues, including one of General Meade now located in Fairmount Park. Kitson's work at Second Church established his reputation as an artist known for interior stonework and bird carving, he formed the New York City firm of Ellin and Kitson. Some of their works there include the Tilden Home, the William Vanderbilt Home, The Equitable Insurance Building, Grace Church and Trinity Church; the oldest stained glass windows were in place in 1872.

A wide range of makers and styles appears. The first of the three floor level windows at the south end of the east transept was placed in memory of Robert Hobart Smith, ordained an elder of the Second Church in 1827, it was placed in the church in 1872 when the building was dedicated and is attributed to J. & G. H. Gibson of Philadelphia; the center medallion displays the IHS monogram. This ancient symbol derives from the first three letters of the name Jesus in uppercase Greek characters, here transliterated into Gothic script; the middle window by Gibson and dated from 1872, memorializes James Hunter Cole who died in 1844. At the top of the lancet, a Greek cross surmounted by a crown symbolizes the victory of the cross; the oval center medallion bears a text from Isaiah, "In the Lord have I righteousness and strength". In the bottom panel, the Bible is opened to the text at Isaiah 45:24; the left-most window of this group attributed to Gibson and dated from 1872, was placed in memory of Robert Smith, an elder who died in 1838.

The center medallion contains an anchor forming a cross. The anchor cross is an ancient Christian symbol found in early tombs, signifying hope as the anchor of faith; the derivation comes from Hebrews 6:19. The southernmost window in the east aisle, by Magee & Smith of Philadelphia, was placed in 1872, it memorializes Isaac Snowden, a ruling elder who died in 1835. The top trefoil contains the crown and palms of victory over death; the medallions in the lights bear a text from Psalm 37:37, "Mark the perfect man, behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace". Next to the Snowden window is a marble plaque in memory of George Whitefield and Gilbert Tennent, the founders of the Second Church; the tablet hung behind the pulpit of the Second Church when it was located at Seventh and Arch Streets. It is the only relic preserved from that building; the Alice Niles Miller window was placed in 1872. It was the work of Wailles of Newcastle upon Spence of Montreal. In the left lights, a standing angel holds a scythe and a sheaf of wheat, symbolizing a life cut down.

On the right, an angel holds a crown representing victory over death. In the quatrefoil, at the top, a seated angel holds the text, "She has done what she could"; these are the Lord's words from the story of the woman who poured precious fragrance over Jesus' head in Mark 14:8. The Mary Grier Bartol window was placed in 1965 by Wille