The Xinle culture was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning. The culture showed evidence of millet pig domestication; the type site at Xinle was discovered in the Huanggu District of Liaoning. The site is named after an old inn; the site of the ancient settlement was discovered in the grounds of an old accommodation block for an electrical factory. The accommodation block was called the Xinle Dormitory and hence the discovery was named the Xinle Relic; when it was discovered that the settlement was that of a hitherto unknown civilization, the whole civilization was named after the relic and hence became known as the Xinle civilization. Although more recent discoveries in nearby areas have been significant one in Xinmin, the original name has prevailed. In 1973, excavations at the site discovered evidence for some 40 neolithic houses. Artifacts uncovered during the dig included stone tools, jade, bone tools, wood carvings and refined coal.
In 1978, another dig uncovered yet more artifacts including one wooden carving, some 7,200 years old a type of totem worshipped by the clan. No other find in the whole of Shenyang has been older, the find is one of the oldest wooden carvings found anywhere in the world; the excavations discovered two Khitan tombs from 1,000 years ago. In 1984, the Museum of the Xinle Civilization was founded; the museum is divided into two sections and south. The southern section contains displays of the various artifacts unearthed during the various excavations that have taken place on 44-acre site; the northern section contains a reconstruction of a 7,000-year-old Xinle village. Some of the houses in the settlement contain representations of life 7,000 years ago. List of Neolithic cultures of China Hongshan culture Stark, Miriam T. Archaeology of Asia, 2006, ISBN 1-4051-0213-6
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used for smelting iron from its oxides. The bloomery was the earliest form of smelter capable of smelting iron. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of slag called a bloom; this mix of slag and iron in the bloom is termed sponge iron, consolidated and further forged into wrought iron. The bloomery has now been superseded by the blast furnace, which produces pig iron. A bloomery consists of a chimney with heat-resistant walls made of earth, clay, or stone. Near the bottom, one or more pipes enter through the side walls; these pipes, called tuyeres, allow air to enter the furnace, either by natural draught, or forced with bellows or a trompe. An opening at the bottom of the bloomery may be used to remove the bloom, or the bloomery can be tipped over and the bloom removed from the top; the first step taken before the bloomery can be used is the preparation of the charcoal and the iron ore. The charcoal is produced by heating wood to produce the nearly pure carbon fuel needed for the smelting process.
The ore is broken into small pieces and roasted in a fire to remove any moisture in the ore. Any large impurities in the ore can be removed. Since slag from previous blooms may have a high iron content, it can be broken up and recycled into the bloomery with the new ore. In operation, the bloomery is preheated by burning charcoal, once hot, iron ore and additional charcoal are introduced through the top, in a one-to-one ratio. Inside the furnace, carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of the charcoal reduces the iron oxides in the ore to metallic iron, without melting the ore; as the desired product of a bloomery is iron, forgeable, it requires a low carbon content. The temperature and ratio of charcoal to iron ore must be controlled to keep the iron from absorbing too much carbon and thus becoming unforgeable. Cast iron occurs when the iron absorbs 2 % to 4 % carbon; because the bloomery is self-fluxing the addition of limestone is not required to form a slag. The small particles of iron produced in this way fall to the bottom of the furnace, where they combine with molten slag consisting of fayalite, a compound of silicon and iron mixed with other impurities from the ore.
The mixed iron and slag cool to form a spongy mass referred to as the bloom. Because the bloom is porous, its open spaces are full of slag, the bloom must be reheated and beaten with a hammer to drive the molten slag out of it. Iron treated this way is said to be wrought, the resulting iron, with reduced amounts of slag is called wrought iron or bar iron, it is possible to produce blooms coated in steel by manipulating the charge of and air flow to the bloomery. As the era of modern commercial steelmaking began, the word bloom was extended to another sense referring to an intermediate-stage piece of steel, of a size comparable to many traditional iron blooms, ready to be further worked into billet; the onset of the Iron Age in most parts of the world coincides with the first widespread use of the bloomery. While earlier examples of iron are found, their high nickel content indicates that this is meteoric iron. Other early samples of iron may have been produced by accidental introduction of iron ore in bronze smelting operations.
Iron appears to have been smelted in the West as early as 3000 BC, but bronze smiths, not being familiar with iron, did not put it to use until much later. In the West, iron began to be used around 1200 BC. China has long been considered the exception to the general use of bloomeries, it was thought that the Chinese skipped the bloomery process starting with the blast furnace and the finery forge to produce wrought iron: by the 5th century BC, metalworkers in the southern state of Wu had invented the blast furnace and the means to both cast iron and to decarburize the carbon-rich pig iron produced in a blast furnace to a low-carbon, wrought iron-like material. Recent evidence, shows that bloomeries were used earlier in China, migrating in from the west as early as 800 BC, before being supplanted by the locally developed blast furnace. Supporting this theory was the discovery of'more than ten' iron digging implements found in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qin, whose tomb is located in Fengxiang County, Shaanxi.
Smelting in bloomery type furnaces in West Africa and forging of tools appeared in the Nok culture by 500 BC. The earliest records of bloomery-type furnaces in East Africa are discoveries of smelted iron and carbon in Nubia and Axum that dated to between 1,000–500 BC. In Meroe there are known to have been ancient bloomeries that produced metal tools for the Nubians and Kushites and produced a surplus for sale. Early European bloomeries were small, smelting less than 1 kg of iron with each firing. Progressively larger bloomeries were constructed in the late 14th century, with a capacity of about 15 kg on average, though exceptions did exist; the use of waterwheels to power the bellows allowed the bloomery to become hotter. European average bloom sizes rose to 300 kg, where they levelled off until the demise of the bloomery; as a bloomery's size is increased, the iron ore is exposed to burning charcoal for a longer time. When combined with the strong air blast required to penetrate the large ore and charcoal stack, this may cause part of the iron to melt and become saturated with carbon in the process, producing unforgeable pig iron which requires oxidation to be reduced into cast iron and iron.
This pig iron was considered
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
National Museum of China
The National Museum of China flanks the eastern side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The museum's mission is to educate about the arts and history of China, it is directed by the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the largest museums in the world, with over eight million visitors in 2017, the National Museum of China was the second-most visited art museum in the world, just after the Louvre; the museum was established in 2003 by the merging of the two separate museums that had occupied the same building since 1959: the Museum of the Chinese Revolution in the northern wing and the National Museum of Chinese History in the southern wing. The building was completed in 1959 as one of the Ten Great Buildings celebrating the ten-year anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, it complements the opposing Great Hall of the People, built at the same time. The structure sits on 6.5 hectares and has a frontal length of 313 metres, a height of four stories totaling 40 metres, a width of 149 metres.
The front displays ten square pillars at its center. After four years of renovation, the museum reopened on March 17, 2011, with 28 new exhibition halls, more than triple the previous exhibition space, state of the art exhibition and storage facilities, it has a total floor space of nearly 200,000 m2 to display. The renovations were designed by the German firm Gerkan and Partners; the museum, covering Chinese history from the Yuanmou Man of 1.7 million years ago to the end of the Qing Dynasty, has a permanent collection of 1,050,000 items, with many precious and rare artifacts not to be found in museums anywhere else in China or the rest of the world. Among the most important items in the National Museum of China are the "Simuwu Ding" from the Shang Dynasty, the square shaped Shang Dynasty bronze zun decorated with four sheep heads, a large and rare inscribed Western Zhou Dynasty bronze water pan, a gold-inlaid Qin Dynasty bronze tally in the shape of a tiger, Han Dynasty jade burial suits sewn with gold thread, a comprehensive collection of Tang Dynasty tri-colored glazed sancai and Song Dynasty ceramics.
The museum has an important numismatic collection, including 15,000 coins donated by Luo Bozhao. The museum has a permanent exhibition called The Road to Rejuvenation, which details the glorious course of achieving national prosperity and reveals how the people chose Marxism, the Communist Party of China and the reform policy, it attests to the Chinese priority of holding high the socialism and of remaining committed to the Chinese socialist road and theory. Because of its central location in Tiananmen Square, the front of the museum has been used since the 1990s for the display of countdown clocks relating to occasions of national importance, including the 1997 transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong, the 1999 transfer of sovereignty of Macau, the beginning of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the opening of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai. A three-month exhibition of the luxury brand Louis Vuitton in 2011 led to some complaints of commercialism at the museum, with Peking University professor Xia Xueluan stating that as a state-level public museum, it "should in fact only be dedicating itself to non-profit cultural promotion."
However Yves Carcelle and Chief executive officer of Louis Vuitton Malletier defended the exhibition by stating: "What's important is what you are going to discover. I think before money, there's history: 157 years of creativity and craftsmanship."Some critics have alleged the museum's modern historiography tends to focus on the triumphs of the Communist Party, while minimizing or ignoring politically sensitive subjects such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. List of most visited art museums List of museums in China Forbidden City National Palace Museum State Administration of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture Kirk A. Denton, Exhibiting the Past: Historical Memory and the Politics of Museums in Postsocialist China, pp. 33–39, 45–74. Official Website
Princeton University Art Museum
The Princeton University Art Museum is the Princeton University's gallery of art, located in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1882, it now houses over 92,000 works of art that range from antiquity to the contemporary period; the Princeton University Art Museum dedicates itself to supporting and enhancing the University's goals of teaching and service in fields of art and culture, as well as to serving regional communities and visitors from around the world. Its collections concentrate on the Mediterranean region, Western Europe, the United States, Latin America; the museum has a large collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles and Roman mosaics from Princeton University's excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture and stained glass; the collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the nineteenth century, there is a growing collection of twentieth-century and contemporary art. Photographic holdings are a particular strength, numbering over 27,000 works from the invention of daguerreotype in 1839 to the present.
The museum is noted for its Asian art gallery, which includes a wide collection of Chinese calligraphy, ancient bronze works, jade carvings, as well as porcelain selections. In addition to its collections, the museum mounts regular temporary exhibitions featuring works from its own holdings as well as loans made from public and private collections around the world. Admission is free and the museum is open Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday, 10:00 am to 5:00 pm, Thursday, 10:00 am to 9:00 pm, Sunday 12:00 to 5:00 pm. A new building for the museum will be constructed on the same site over the course of three years starting in 2020 with David Adjaye serving as architect; the first art work owned and displayed by the College of New Jersey was a full-length portrait of Jonathan Belcher, the Governor of the province of New Jersey who had promoted the establishment of the College. The portrait was a donation from Belcher himself, given shortly before the College moved in 1756 to the newly built Nassau Hall.
It was joined by a portrait of King George II, who had issued the letters patent establishing the College. The two portraits hung in the central prayer hall, were displayed alongside various antiquities and objects of natural history; the two paintings were destroyed during the 1777 Battle of Princeton and further objects were lost in the 1802 Nassau Hall fire, but the College continued its commitment to collecting and teaching from works of art and historical note. The creation of the Art Museum in a more formal sense took place under the leadership of James McCosh, who served as president of the College of New Jersey from 1868–88; the Scottish McCosh brought with him from Europe new progressive academic disciplines, including the history of art. By 1882, McCosh charged William Cowper Prime, a Princeton alumnus and founding trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, George B. McClellan, the Civil War general and Governor of New Jersey, with creating a curriculum in the subject, they argued: "The foundation of any system of education in Historic Art must be in object study.
A museum of art objects is so necessary to the system that without it we are of opinion it would be of small utility to introduce the proposed department.” The intention was to go beyond the fields of art and classics to include, “many other branches of the collegiate course.” They anticipated, “large future growth,” as the College could “look with confidence to her sons, in all parts of the world,” for future donations. The museum, what is now the Department of Art and Archaeology, were formally created in 1882, with Allan Marquand, of the Princeton Class of 1874, serving as the inaugural lecturer in the new department and director of the museum, a position he would hold until his retirement in 1922. Marquand was instructor in Latin and logic at the College and was the son of Henry Gurdon Marquand, a major benefactor of the College and one of the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the collections of the museum were held in Nassau Hall, along with the growing natural history collection of professor Arnold Henry Guyot, part of, still on display in Guyot Hall.
A new purpose-built fireproof Romanesque Revival Museum was designed by A. Page Brown and completed in 1890 on the site of the current museum. On completion of the building the museum received the Trumball-Prime collection of pottery and porcelain from William Prime and his wife. Early additions included the purchase of a large collection of Cypriot pottery from the Metropolitan Museum in 1890, purchases of Etruscan and South Italian pottery. Marquand established an endowment from his own resources to enable further purchases and it was augmented by a donation from Edward Harkness. Frank Jewett Mather joined the faculty in 1910 and succeeded Marquand as museum director in 1922, he was a collector of Medieval and Renaissance art but led the university to large holdings of paintings and prints, including the 1933 bequest of several thousand objects by Junius Spencer Morgan II, of the Princeton Class of 1888. In 1923, the first of many expansions of the Art Museum was completed with the addition of the Venetian Gothic McCormick Hall, designed by Ralph Adams Cram and donated by the family of Cyrus McCormick, Jr.
Class of 1879 and Harold Fowler McCormick, Class of 1895. The new building enabled the older structure to be devoted to the museum, led to the creation of a hall of casts on the ground floor; as Marquand had before him, Mather augmented the museum's collections through the use of his personal fortune, with con
The Hongshan culture was a Neolithic culture in the Liao river basin. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, dated from about 4700 to 2900 BC; the culture is named after a site in Hongshan District, Chifeng. The Hongshanhou site was discovered by the Japanese archaeologist Torii Ryūzō in 1908 and extensively excavated in 1935 by Kōsaku Hamada and Mizuno Seiichi. In northeast China, Hongshan culture was preceded by Xinglongwa culture, Xinle culture, Zhaobaogou culture, which may be contemporary with Xinle and a little later. Yangshao culture was in contemporary with Hongshan culture; these two cultures interacted with each other. Hongshan burial artifacts include some of the earliest known examples of jade working; the Hongshan culture is known for its jade pig dragons and embryo dragons. Clay figurines, including figurines of pregnant women, are found throughout Hongshan sites. Small copper rings were excavated; the archaeological site at Niuheliang is a unique ritual complex associated with the Hongshan culture.
Excavators have discovered an underground temple complex—which included an altar—and cairns in Niuheliang. The temple was constructed with painted walls. Archaeologists have given it the name Goddess Temple due to the discovery of a clay female head with jade inlaid eyes, it was an underground structure, 1m deep. Included on its walls are mural paintings. Housed inside the Goddess Temple are clay figurines as large as three times the size of real-life humans; the exceedingly large figurines are deities, but for a religion not reflective in any other Chinese culture. The existence of complex trading networks and monumental architecture point to the existence of a "chiefdom" in these prehistoric communities. Painted pottery was discovered within the temple. Over 60 nearby tombs have been unearthed, all constructed of stone and covered by stone mounds including jade artifacts. Cairns were discovered atop two nearby two hills, with either round or square stepped tombs, made of piled limestone. Entombed inside were sculptures of tortoises.
It has been suggested that religious sacrifice might have been performed within the Hongshan culture. Just as suggested by evidence found at early Yangshao culture sites, Hongshan culture sites provide the earliest evidence for feng shui; the presence of both round and square shapes at Hongshan culture ceremonial centers suggests an early presence of the gaitian cosmography. Early feng shui relied on astronomy to find correlations between the universe; some Chinese archaeologists such as Guo Da-shun see the Hongshan culture as an important stage of early Chinese civilization. Whatever the linguistic affinity of the ancient denizens, Hongshan culture is believed to have exerted an influence on the development of early Chinese civilization; the culture have contributed to the development of settlements in ancient Korea. The representatives of the Hongshan Culture location Niuheliang identified 3 different Y-chromosome subclades haplotypes: N1, C and O3a. List of Neolithic cultures of China Xinglonggou Allan, The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9 Chang, Kwang-chih.
The Archaeology of Ancient China, ISBN 0-300-03784-8 Nelson, Sarah Milledge, The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall, ISBN 0-415-11755-0 Hongshan culture china.org.cn Discussion of Hongshan culture