Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born a prince of the state of Qin, he became Zheng, the King of Qin when he was thirteen China's first emperor when he was 38 after the Qin had conquered all of the other Warring States and unified all of China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of "king" borne by the previous Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty from 221 BC to 210 BC, his self-invented title "emperor", as indicated by his use of the word "First", would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia. During his reign, his generals expanded the size of the Chinese state: campaigns south of Chu permanently added the Yue lands of Hunan and Guangdong to the Chinese cultural orbit. Qin Shi Huang worked with his minister Li Si to enact major economic and political reforms aimed at the standardization of the diverse practices of the earlier Chinese states, he is traditionally said to have banned and burned many books and executed scholars, though a closer examination renders the account doubtful.

His public works projects included the unification of diverse state walls into a single Great Wall of China and a massive new national road system, as well as the city-sized mausoleum guarded by the life-sized Terracotta Army. He ruled until his death in 210 BC during his fourth tour of Eastern China. Modern Chinese sources give the personal name of Qin Shi Huang as Ying Zheng, with Ying taken as the surname and Zheng the given name. In ancient China however the naming convention differed, Zhao may be used as the surname. Unlike modern Chinese names, the nobles of ancient China had two distinct surnames: the ancestral name comprised a larger group descended from a prominent ancestor said to have lived during the time of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors of Chinese legend, the clan name comprised a smaller group that showed a branch's current fief or recent title; the ancient practice was to list men's names separately—Sima Qian's "Basic Annals of the First Emperor of Qin" introduces him as "given the name Zheng and the surname Zhao"—or to combine the clan surname with the personal name: Sima's account of Chu describes the sixteenth year of the reign of King Kaolie as "the time when Zhao Zheng was enthroned as King of Qin".

However, since modern Chinese surnames use the same character as the old ancestral names, it is much more common in modern Chinese sources to see the emperor's personal name written as Ying Zheng, using the ancestral name of the Ying family. The rulers of Qin had styled themselves kings from the time of King Huiwen in 325 BC. Upon his ascension, Zheng became known as King Zheng of Qin; this title made him the nominal equal of the rulers of Shang and of Zhou, the last of whose kings had been deposed by King Zhaoxiang of Qin in 256 BC. Following the surrender of Qi in 221 BC, King Zheng had reunited all of the lands of the former Kingdom of Zhou. Rather than maintain his rank as king, however, he created a new title of huángdì for himself; this new title combined two titles—huáng of the mythical Three Sovereigns and the dì of the legendary Five Emperors of Chinese prehistory. The title was intended to appropriate some of the prestige of the Yellow Emperor, whose cult was popular in the Warring States period and, considered to be a founder of the Chinese people.

King Zheng chose the new regnal name of First Emperor on the understanding that his successors would be successively titled the "Second Emperor", "Third Emperor", so on through the generations. The new title carried religious overtones. For that reason, Sinologists—starting with Peter Boodberg or Edward Schafer—sometimes translate it as "thearch" and the First Emperor as the First Thearch; the First Emperor intended that his realm would remain intact through the ages but, following its overthrow and replacement by Han after his death, it became customary to prefix his title with Qin. Thus: 秦, Qín or Ch‘in, "of Qin" 始, Shǐ or Shih, "first" 皇帝, Huángdì or Huang-ti, "emperor", a new term coined from 皇, Huáng or Huang "shining" or "splendid" and most applied "as an epithet of Heaven", the high god of the Zhou 帝, Dì or Ti, the high god of the Shang composed of their divine ancestors, used by the Zhou as a title of the legendary Five Emperors the Yellow EmperorAs early as Sima Qian, it was common to shorten the resulting four-character Qin Shi Huangdi to 秦始皇, variously transcribed as Qin Shihuang or Qin Shi Huang.

Following his elevation as emperor, both Zheng's personal name 政 and its homophone 正 became taboo. The First Emperor arrogated the first-person Chinese pronoun 朕 for his exclusive use and in 212 BC began calling himself The Immortal. Others were to address him as "Your Highness" in writing. According to the Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, the first emperor was the eldest son of the Qin prince Yiren, who became King Zhuangxiang of Qin. Prince Yiren at that time was residing at the cou

Equestrian at the 1928 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 1928 Summer Olympics included dressage and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions; the competitions were held from 8 to 12 August 1928. Teams were now fielded by three riders, rather than four, the purpose being to reduce pressure on national federations to find that many riders in order to compete for team medals. Riders had to be considered amateurs, defined as either an serving professional officer, or as a gentleman rider as defined by the rules of that rider's national governing body. A total of 121 entries were present from 20 nations: Argentina, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the USA; this was the first appearance for Hungary and Argentina in equestrian events at an Olympics. Additionally, after being shut out from two Olympic competitions, Germany returned to the Games to win a few medals in the equestrian events. Horses were stabled in Hilversum, a town 30 kilometres from Amsterdam and the location of the majority of the equestrian competition, with two jumping competitions taking place in the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam.

The equestrian competitions produced an income of over 150,000 guilders, out of a total of 1,435,000 guilders income for the entire Games. 46 riders competed from 16 different nations, including Olympic medalist Tommaso Lequio di Assaba on Trebecco, who finished 24th, Alphonse Gemuseus, the 1924 Games gold medalists, finishing 8th on Lucette after garnering 2 time penalties. Seven riders went clear over the 720 meter, 16-obstacle course, whose obstacles ranged in height from 1.25–1.40 meters, was considered too easy for an Olympic Games. Three riders went clear in the jump-off, so a second jump-off was held with the obstacles raised to 1.60 meters in height. Gold was given to Capt. Ventura of Czechoslovakia on Eliot; the other two riders had one rail apiece over the second jump-off course, but Pierre Bertran de Balanda's mount Papillon hit the rail with his hind legs garnering only 2 penalties, while Major Kuhn's mount Pepita hit a fence with her front legs, counting as 4 penalty points and thus finishing in bronze-medal position.

29 riders from 12 countries competed in the dressage competition. The test was the same as for the 1924 Olympics, but the 10-minute limit was now raised to 13 minutes, giving the riders much needed time to complete it without losing points for going over the time allowed. Judging created controversy, both due to nationalistic tendencies by judges and the fact that individual judges had differing opinions on what was correct. While there was discussion on how to make it more fair—including dropping the lowest and highest scores, only having one judge from a neutral county, removing 20 points from each score given to a countryman of each judge—no changes were made until after the judging scandal at the 1956 Games. 46 riders from 17 nations competed in the eventing competition. Dressage saw the time allowed for the test raised from 10 to 11 minutes, was now counting for 300 total points rather than 200 seen in the last Games, making it have a huge impact on final placings, since the time allowed for all phases of the Endurance was generous.

There were 8 eliminations on endurance day due to missing flags which were difficult to follow over the flat land. The point system for the Endurance day was kept the same, while the show jumping phase was reduced in importance from 400 to 300 points total; the speed on steeplechase was raised from 550 up to 600 meters a minute. A total of 113 horse riders from 20 nations competed at the Amsterdam Games: Argentina Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United States Equestrianism at the 1928 Amsterdam Summer Games. International Olympic Committee medal database

USC&GS Marmer

USC&GS Marmer was a United States Coast and Geodetic Survey survey ship in commission from 1957 to 1968. Prior to her Coast and Geodetic Survey career, she served as the United States Public Health Service boarding tug USPHS Walter Wyman from 1932 to 1957. Spedden Shipbuilding constructed the ship for the U. S. Public Health Service at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1932 as the boarding tug USPHS Walter Wyman. From 1932 to 1957, Walter Wyman carried Public Health Service personnel tasked with conducting shipboard health inspections to and from ships arriving in the United States; the Public Health Service retired Walter Wyman from service in 1957 and transferred her to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey on 24 May 1957. On 27 May 1957, the Geodetic Survey renamed the vessel USC&GS Marmer, she underwent conversion to a survey ship, followed by sea trials at Curtis Bay in Baltimore in the autumn of 1957. After her successful completion of sea trials, the Coast and Geodetic Survey commissioned her in 1957.

Used for the study of currents, Marmer operated along the United States East Coast until 1968, when she was decommissioned and replaced by the auxiliary survey vessel USC&GS Ferrel