A county-level municipality, county-level city, or county city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions. Known as prefecture-controlled city. Most county-level cities were created in the 1990s by replacing counties. A county-level city is a "city" and "county"; as such it is a city, a municipal entity, a county, an administrative division of a prefecture. County-level cities are not "cities" in the strictest sense of the word, since they contain rural areas many times the size of their urban, built-up area; this is because the counties that county-level cities have replaced are themselves large administrative units containing towns and farmland. To distinguish a "county-level city" from its actual urban area, the term "市区", or "urban area", is used. In France, an equivalent of a county-level city is an agglomeration community. While the idea of a "city" being a unit consisting of several "towns" is not a common one in English-speaking world, a somewhat similar naming convention is used for local government areas in some parts of Australia.
For example, in New South Wales such a unit may be called a "city", consist of "towns". E.g. City of Blue Mountains is made of a number of towns. Another example would be "municipal government" in the Canadian province of Ontario. Small municipalities and towns, along with urban, sub-urban and rural areas were merged or integrated into a "super" area, in part to obtain economies in administrative overhead by not having for each city and town individual library commissions, fire fighting units, health care, other social services common to all areas. So for example, there has been for less than 10 years the "Municipality of Chatham-Kent" wherein the Corporation of the City of Chatham serves as the "seat" for the newly Chatham-Kent merged municipality; this agglomeration includes all of the "townships" in the county of Kent, with cities and towns like Wallaceberg, Dresden, Wheatley. This "amalgamation" as it is referred to, was controversial when it was "forced" upon the constituents through provincial legislation.
Today, instead of each city having its own mayor and city councillors, there is a council with representatives from the various areas surrounding Chatham city. As of September 2018, there are 375 county-level cities in total: A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefecture-level cities. Examples include, Qianjiang and Jiyuan. Administrative divisions of China Counties of the People's Republic of China Prefecture-level city List of cities in China
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. The term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase; the term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West Asia-Australian monsoons; the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area; the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção from Arabic mawsim, "perhaps via early modern Dutch monson."
Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago. More studies of plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon beginning 15–20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; the monsoon has varied in strength since this time linked to global climate change the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago. During ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed; when this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean.
It is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma, 1.83 Ma, 0.68 Ma, 0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, as the Indonesian through flow warms the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. During the weak LC, there is the possibility of reduced intensity of the Indian winter monsoon and strong summer monsoon, because of change in the Indian Ocean dipole due to reduction in net heat input to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian through flow, thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a little less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of plants and crops can flourish; the Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands. See photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, as it is essential to use all the rain, available for growing crops. Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean; these temperature imbalances happen. Over oceans, the air temperature remains stable for two reasons: water has a high heat capacity, because both conduction and convection will equilibrate a hot or cold surface with deeper water. In contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection.
Therefore, bodies of water stay at a more temperature, while land temperature are more variable. During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but land temperatures rise more quickly; as the land's surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean remains at a lower temperature than the land, the air above it retains a higher pressure; this difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land and it flows back toward the ocean. However, when the air rises, while it is still over the land, the air cools; this decreases the air's ability to hold water, this causes precipitation over the land. This is. In the colder months, the cycle is reversed; the land cools faster than the oceans and the air over the land has higher pressure than air over the ocean. This causes the air over the land to flow to the ocean; when humid air rises over the ocean, it cools, this causes precipitation over the oceans.
(The cool air flows towards the land to complete the cy
Sansha is a prefecture-level city of Hainan province of the People's Republic of China. It is located on Woody island and administers several island groups and undersea atolls in the South China Sea including the Spratly Islands, the Paracel Islands, Macclesfield Bank, Scarborough Shoal, a number of other ungrouped maritime features; the entire territory is disputed, the PRC's de facto control over the area varies. Foreign reaction to the declaration was not positive; the United States Department of State called the change in the administrative status of the territory "unilateral", the move has received criticism from nations engaged in the South China Sea dispute the Philippines and Vietnam. Sansha has equal administrative status to a prefecture-level city, was created on 24 July 2012. Reports in 2012 in the China daily stated that the establishment of Sansha was an upgrade of the administrative status of these island groups from the previous county-level Administrative Office. Subsequent developments have turned Sansha city into a small town with a small non commercial airport and a small harbor with two sets of breakwaters.
Sansha administers a group of 260 islands and beaches located in the Spratlys, Xisha islands and Zhongsha islands. See History of Woody island In March 1953, as talks were proceeding with the French on the handing over of Hainan and territories south of Guangdong to the People's Republic of China, the Chinese State Council authorized the establishment of a separate "Guangdong Province Paracels and Zhongsha Islands Authority" as a county-level administrative division on Woody Island. However, the island continued to support a threadbare population of fisherfolk at that time. In March 1959, during China's Cultural Revolution, when Revolutionary Committees were being set up across the country, this authority was upgraded to the "Guangdong Province Paracels and Zhongsha Islands Revolutionary Committee". In October 1984, the administration of Sansha consisting of Yong xing dao and other islands in the South China sea was transferred to Hainan; this coincided with the establishment of Hainan as a separate administrative region.
In September 1988,the authority's name was changed to the "Hainan Province Paracels and Zhongsha Islands Authority". On 25 December 2006, Woody Island'census-town's' first-ever "Residents' and Fishermen's Congress" was held. Three representatives at the township and village levels were selected to represent the census-town's Neighborhood Committee of the North and South Villages; the Neighborhood Committee began work on Woody Island the following day with an office at the Border Guards of the Paracels' Police Station. These were the first actual subdivisions created within the county-level authority; the prospect of the establishment of a "city" on Woody Island was first publicized on 19 November 2007 in a report by Mingpao, a Hong Kong-based newspaper, through a telephone interview with a Mr. Zhang of the Propaganda Department of Wenchang, Hainan; this report claimed that a county-level city was to be established by the PRC State Council in November 2007 to administer three disputed archipelagos in the South China Sea: the Paracel Islands, Macclesfield Bank and the Spratly Islands.
This was to replace the county-level "Paracels and Zhongsha Islands Authority". The city of Wenchang would provide logistics to the to-be-established city. On 23 July 2012 the PRC Central Military Commission announced it had authorized the People's Liberation Army Guangzhou Military Command to form a "garrison command" in Sansha City; the troops would be responsible for managing the city's national defence mobilisation, military reserve, carrying out military operations. On 24 July 2012, the PRC established the city of Sansha in Yongxing Island. Sansha is governed by a municipal congress of 60 delegates directly elected, with a standing committee of 15 members, it is further subdivided into 3 islands-districts at county-level, 3 towns/management committees at the township-level, further into 11 residential communities at village-level, based on the island groups: Less than 1000 people live in Sansha city. They tend to practice fishing, selling products to the occasional cruise ship whose tourists visit the island.
In November 2016, the Hainan government started to allow large companies to register themselves in Sansha, by providing extensive tax benefits to them. This resulted in 157 large multinational companies registering themselves in Sansha. In 2016, a government school and a public library were opened in the island for children of the islanders. In the same year, a desalinating plant was established to provide drinking water to the island's residents. Airports are built on several islands in Sansha City, including Yongxing Island, Meiji Island, Yongshu Island and Zhubi Island, all of which are capable for planes sizing up to 4E standards, theoretically capable of landing Boeing 777s as diversion airports. In practice, only Yongxing Island see scheduled commercial services, onboard Boeing 737 operated by Hainan Airlines; the second stage of a greening project for Sansha was announced on 30 June 2014. It states: "According to the investment plan, 18 million yuan will be used to build desalination systems and grow trees on Xishazhou Island in the hope of turning the island into a new oasis."
The article makes references to the greening of: Ganquan Island - W Crescent
The Spratly Islands are a disputed group of islands and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea. The archipelago lies off the coasts of the Philippines and southern Vietnam. Named after the 19th-century British whaling captain Richard Spratly who sighted Spratly Island in 1843, the islands contain less than 2 km2 of occurring land area spread over an area of more than 425,000 km2; the Spratlys are one of the major archipelagos in the South China Sea which complicate governance and economics in this part of Southeast Asia due to their location in strategic shipping lanes. The islands have no indigenous inhabitants, but offer rich fishing grounds and may contain significant oil and natural gas reserves, as such are important to the claimants in their attempts to establish international boundaries; some of the islands have civilian settlements, but of the 45 islands, cays and shoals that are occupied, all contain structures that are occupied by military forces from Malaysia, China, the Philippines and Vietnam.
Additionally, Brunei has claimed an exclusive economic zone in the southeastern part of the Spratlys, which includes the uninhabited Louisa Reef. The Spratly Islands were, in 1939, coral islets inhabited by seabirds. Despite the Spratly Islands consisting of 18 islands, according to a Chinese 1986 source, the Spratly Islands consist of 14 islands or islets, 6 banks, 113 submerged reefs, 35 underwater banks, 21 underwater shoals; the northeast part of the Spratlys is known as Dangerous Ground and is characterised by many low islands, sunken reefs, degraded sunken atolls with coral rising abruptly from ocean depths greater than 1,000 metres – all of which makes the area dangerous for navigation. The islands are all of similar nature; the Spratly Islands contain no significant arable land, have no indigenous inhabitants, few of the islands have a permanent drinkable water supply. Natural resources include fish, guano and natural gas. Economic activity has included commercial fishing, guano mining and gas exploitation, more tourism.
The Spratlys are located near several primary shipping lanes. In 1987, China installed a small military structure on Fiery Cross Reef on the pretext to build an oceanic observation station and install a tide gauge for the Global Sea Level Observing System. After a deadly skirmish with the Vietnamese Navy, China installed some military structures on more reefs in the vicinity of the Philippines and Vietnamese occupied islands and this led to escalating tensions between these countries and China over the status and "ownership" of reefs; the islands and cays, listed in descending order of occurring area, are: The total area of archipelago's occurring islands is 177 ha and 200 ha with reclaimed land. The Spratly Islands consist of islands, reefs and shoals that consist of biogenic carbonate; these accumulations of biogenic carbonate lie upon the higher crests of major submarine ridges that are uplifted fault blocks known by geologists as horsts. These horsts are part of a series of parallel and en half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks.
The long axes of the horsts, rotated fault blocks and half-grabens form well-defined linear trends that lie parallel to magnetic anomalies exhibited by the oceanic crust of the adjacent South China Sea. The horsts, rotated fault blocks, the rock forming the bottoms of associated grabens consist of stretched and subsided continental crust, composed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata that include calc-alkalic extrusive igneous rocks, intermediate to acid intrusive igneous rocks, siltstones, dark-green claystones, metamorphic rocks that include biotite–muscovite–feldspar–quartz migmatites and garnet–mica schists; the dismemberment and subsidence of continental crust into horsts, rotated fault blocks and half-grabens that underlie the Spratly Islands and surrounding sea bottom occurred in two distinct periods. They occurred as the result of the tectonic stretching of continental crust along underlying rooted detachment faults. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Oligocene, the earliest period of tectonic stretching of continental crust and formation of horsts, half-grabens, rotated fault-blocks occurred in association the rifting and sea-floor spreading that created the South China Sea.
During the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene additional stretching and block faulting of continental crust occurred within the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground. During and after this period of tectonic activity and other marine life colonised the crests of the horsts and other ridges that lay in shallow water; the remains of these organisms accumulated over time as biogenic carbonates that comprise the current day reefs and cays of the Spratly Islands. Starting with their formation in Late Cretaceous, fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments accumulated within the numerous submarine half-grabens that underlie sea bottom within the Dangerous Ground region; the geological surveys show localised areas within the Spratly Islands region are favourable for the accumulation of economic oil and gas reserves. They include thick sequences of Cenozoic sediments east of the Spratly Islands. Southeast and west of them, there exist thick accumulations of sediments that might contain economic oil and gas reserves lie closer to the Spratly Islands.
In some cays in
Red Detachment of Women (ballet)
The Red Detachment of Women is a Chinese ballet which premiered in 1964 and was made one of the Eight Model Operas which dominated the national stage during the Cultural Revolution. It is best known in the West as the ballet performed for U. S. President Richard Nixon on his visit to China in February 1972. Adapted from the earlier 1961 film of the same title under the personal direction of Zhou Enlai, which in turn adapted from the novel by Liang Xin, it depicts the liberation of a peasant girl in Hainan Island and her rise in the Chinese Communist Party; the novel was based on the true stories of the 100+ member strong all-female Special Company of the 2nd Independent Division of Chinese Red Army, first formed in May 1931. As the communist base in Hainan was destroyed by the nationalists, most of the members of the female detachment survived because they were women and easier to hide among the local populace who were sympathetic to their cause. After the communist victory in China, the representatives of the surviving members were taken to Beijing and inspected and praised by Mao Zedong.
In 2014, Lu Yexiang, the last member of red detachment of women, died in Hainan. The ballet was adapted to a Beijing opera in 1964, as with the ballet itself, both stage and film versions were produced; the 1970 film version of the ballet made Xue Jinghua and Liu Qingtang superstars along with a dozen other artists who were cast as protagonists in other model plays of the time. It is one of the so-called eight model plays, the only plays and operas permitted in China during the Cultural Revolution. With The White Haired Girl, it is regarded as a classic Chinese ballet, its music is familiar to every Chinese person who grew up during that time, it was made into a film in 1972 again, is now part of the permanent repertoire of the National Ballet of China. Despite its political overtones and the historical background when it was created, it remains a favorite of music and ballet lovers nearly 30 years after the Cultural Revolution in China. Many numbers were based on the folk songs of Hainan Island, a place that, with its coconut trees rustling in tropical wind, evokes much romantic ethos.
Though there are unmistakable elements of Chinese music, the music of this ballet was performed with a Western symphony orchestra. It was written as a collaboration, with music by Du Mingxin, Wu Zuqiang, Wang Yanqiao, Shi Wanchun and Dai Hongcheng, choreography by Li Chengxiang, Jiang Zuhui and Wang Xixian. On 25 December 2015 Chinese Choreographer WEN Hui, the German Director and Dramaturge Kai Tuchmann, the author ZHUANG Jiayun premiered their work RED at the Power Station of Art in Shanghai. RED is a reinterpretation of The Red Detachment of Women and it analyses this model opera/ballet as a politico-cultural symbol that became part of the collective consciousness during the Cultural Revolution. Since its premiere in China RED is touring around Europe. Place: Yelinzhai, Hainan Island, China Time: The Ten-Year Civil War Main Characters: Hong Changqing, Commissar of the Red Detachment of Women Wu Qinghua, daughter of a peasant a soldier, the Commissar Lian Zhang the Company Commander Xiao Pang, or "Little Pang," the Messenger Nanbatian "the Tyrant of the South" Ou Guangsi, Nanbatian's Lackey In his dungeon, the despotic landlord, has imprisoned his tenants who are unable to pay their exorbitant rents.
Wu Qinghua, daughter of a poor peasant, is chained to a column. Lao Si comes with the order of Nanbatian to sell Wu. Lao Si releases Wu from the chain. While Lao Si is in an unguarded moment, Wu kicks him, he loses his balance and falls. Wu manages to escape. Major numbers: Pas de deux of two inmates Immediately after the prologue. Night has fallen in the coconut forest and Wu Qinghua is running away from Lao Si and his lackeys, she is soon recaptured. Nanbatian and his entourage arrive; the Tyrant whips Wu. A thunderstorm approaches, so Nanbatian and his followers leave and Wu is left for dead. Hong Changqing, the Commissar, Xiao Pang, the Messenger, who are on a reconnaissance mission in disguise, pass by, they point her the way to the camp of the Red Army. Major numbers: Dance of Lao Si and his lackeys Wu Qinghua's Solo No. 1 Wu Qinghua's fight with Lao Si Wu Qinghua's fight with Nanbatian Group dance of slaves Wu Qinghua's Solo No. 2 Pas de trois of Hong Changqing, Wu Qinghua and Xiao Pang In the camp of the Red Army beside the Wanquan River, a newly formed Detachment of Women is being trained.
Wu Qinghua arrives to meet Hong Xiao Pang, who introduce her to others. In a solo dance, Wu tells the Red Army soldiers the enormity of Nanbatian's crimes, she ceremoniously receives a rifle and is accepted as a member of the Women's Detachment. With determination, they plan to liberate the peasants and slave girls under the oppression of Nanbatian. Major numbers: Group dance of the Detachment members Rifle drill of the Detachment members Hong Changqing's bayonet dance Group bayonet dance of the Detachment members A young women soldier's solo Five-inch dagger dance of the Red Guards Group dance of all Wu Qinghua's solo In the luxurious manor of Nanbatian, an extravagant birthday celebration for the Tyrant is going on in the garden before his house. Mountains of gifts are brought in. Hong Changqing, disguised as a wealthy merchant from southeast Asia, arrives on the scene and dignified, to congratulate Nanbatian on his birthday. Meanwhile, the
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban
Hǎikǒu is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province, China. It is situated by the mouth of the Nandu River; the northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu. Administratively, Haikou is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, covering 2,280 square kilometres. There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city. Haikou was a port city. Today, more than half of the island's total trade still goes through its ports; the city is home to Hainan University. The hanzi characters comprising the city's name, 海口, mean mouth/port, respectively. Thus, the name "Haikou" is a word for "seaport" - similar to Portsmouth in England. Haikou served as the port for Qiongshan, the ancient administrative capital of Hainan island, located some 5 km inland to the south east. During its early history Haikou was a part of Guangdong province. In the 13th century it became a military post under the Ming dynasty.
The port is located west of the mouth of Hainan's principal river. When Qiongshan was opened to foreign trade under the Treaty of Tianjin in 1858, Haikou started to rival the old administrative city, it was known internationally based on the local dialect. In 1926, Haikou overtook Qiongshan in population and it was declared a separate administrative city. Haikou was developed as a port during the Sino-Japanese War when the Japanese invaded and occupied Hainan Island from early 1939 to 1945; the city and island of Hainan stayed under the control of the Nationalists until April 1950, when it fell to the Communists during the Landing Operation on Hainan Island. Since 1949, Haikou has maintained its position as Hainan's main port, handling more than half of the island's total trade, it has replaced Qiongshan as the island's administrative capital. In 1988, Haikou was made a prefecture-level city as well as the capital of the newly created Hainan Province. Haikou old town contains the oldest buildings in the city and was built by wealthy Chinese from the mainland and some "overseas Chinese" who had returned to their homeland.
The houses are a mixture of styles including Portuguese and Southeast Asian. The streets used to be divided into different areas selling Chinese and western medicine, for silk and bespoke clothes, one for fresh fish and meat, others for the sale of incense, paper and other goods. Various projects are under discussion to decide the best way to restore and preserve these historical buildings. Haikou is situated on the north coast of Hainan Island, by Haikou Bay, facing the Leizhou Peninsula across the Qiongzhou Strait that stretches west from Beibu Bay near Vietnam to the James Shoal bordering the South China Sea to the west. Most of the city is completely flat and only a few metres above sea level, it has an area of 2,304.84 km2. The Meishe River winds through the east side of the city flowing northward to the Haidian River; the northern part of Haikou City, the district of Haidian Island, is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a tributary of the Nandu River. The district is accessed by one of four bridges, the largest being Haikou Century Bridge, which connects the Guomao district with Haidian Island at the estuary of the Haidian River.
From east to west the remaining three road connections are provided by the Renmin and Xinbu Bridges. Directly to the northeast of Haikou and to the east of Haidian Island is Xinbu Island. Further information: Hainan#Annual fogHaikou is on the northern edge of the torrid zone, is part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. April to October is the active period for tropical storms and typhoons, most of which occur between August and September. May to October is the rainy season with the heaviest rainfall occurring in September. Despite its location 378 km south of the Tropic of Cancer, the city has a humid subtropical climate, falling just short of a tropical climate, with strong monsoonal influences; as of 2018, Haikou has the second best air quality among major cities nationally, preceded only by Lhasa, Tibet. However, since 2009, due to an increase in the number of automobiles, there has been somewhat worsening air pollution. According to the 2005 statistical book issued by the National Bureau of Statistics, Haikou scored the highest among China's main cities in air quality, with 366 days of ambient air quality equal to or above grade II, with only 0.033 milligrams/m2 of particulate matter, 0.003 milligrams/m2 of sulphur dioxide, 0.013 milligrams/m2 of nitrogen dioxide.
In 1995, the Haikou city government began an initiative to improve the quality of life for its residents. With the approval of the World Health Organization, Ministry of Health, a ten-point plan was undertaken to address such issues as: Community health care Vaccinations for children Waste recycling Green belts and urban trees Environmentally friendly construction Public toilets Sewage treatment Communications Noise pollutionThe groundwater is of international standard, is classified as mineral water. By 2004, the city had established 43 new community health service centers reaching 85 percent of the population; the initiative has increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to 2,000 hectares, with trees lining 40 percent of its roads. Noise pollution has d