Andrew James Scheer is a Canadian politician serving as Member of Parliament for the riding of Regina—Qu'Appelle since 2004. He is Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Official Opposition since 2017. Elected to the riding of Regina—Qu'Appelle at the age of 25, Scheer was re-elected in 2006, 2008, 2011 before becoming the Speaker of the House of Commons at age 32, making him the youngest Speaker in the chamber's history, he held the speaker role for the entirety of the 41st Canadian Parliament. On September 28, 2016, Scheer announced his bid for the leadership of the Conservative Party, running under the slogan "Real conservative. Real leader."Described as a "true blue Tory", compared to former Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Scheer is a staunch opponent of a federal carbon tax and has stated that he would balance the federal budget within two years of forming a government and open up the airline industry to foreign competition. On May 27, 2017, he was elected Leader of the Conservative Party of Canada.
Scheer was born and raised in Ottawa, the son of Mary Gerarda Therese, a nurse, James D. Scheer, a librarian and Roman Catholic deacon, he has two of them sisters. Part of his family is from Romania. Scheer spent summers in his youth with his maternal grandparents in Mississauga. Scheer graduated from Immaculata High School and studied history at the University of Ottawa. While a student, Scheer worked on several political campaigns, including the Unite the Right campaign to merge the Progressive Conservative and Reform parties and Preston Manning's campaign to lead the Canadian Alliance, he worked in the correspondence department of the Office of the Leader of the Opposition under Stockwell Day. Scheer worked on Ottawa city councillor Karin Howard's youth advisory committee. Scheer ran as a school trustee for the Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board in the 2000 Ottawa municipal elections, but lost to incumbent Kathy Ablett; as of 2019, this remains the only election Scheer has lost. After meeting his future wife Jill Ryan at university, Scheer moved to her hometown of Regina and finished his BA at the University of Regina.
In Regina, Scheer worked as an insurance broker, a waiter, in the constituency office of Canadian Alliance MP Larry Spencer. Scheer was elected at age 25 as a Conservative candidate in the federal election of 2004, in the riding of Regina—Qu'Appelle, beating New Democratic Party MP Lorne Nystrom—the longest-serving member of the House of Commons at the time—by 861 votes. Near the end of the race, Scheer accused Nystrom of being soft on child pornography, he was re-elected in the federal election of 2006, once again defeating Nystrom, this time by a margin of 2,740 votes. In April 2006, during the 39th Canadian Parliament, Scheer was named as Assistant Deputy Chairman of Committees of the Whole, one of three deputy speakers and one of the youngest Members of Parliament to serve in that role in Commonwealth history, he sponsored a bill that would create minimum sentences for those convicted of motor vehicle theft called Bill C-343, An Act to amend the Criminal Code,On November 21, 2008, during the 40th Canadian Parliament, he was named Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons and Chairman of Committees of the Whole, succeeding New Democrat MP Bill Blaikie.
When the Conservative Party won a majority at the federal election in 2011, Scheer's experience as Deputy Speaker led many to consider him the front-runner to be elected Speaker of the House of Commons. On June 2, 2011, Scheer defeated Denise Savoie, the lone opposition candidate and only woman in the sixth round of balloting. Scheer became the youngest House Speaker in Canadian history and the first speaker to represent a Saskatchewan riding. Liberal MPs, who opposed Scheer's candidacy, criticized the NDP for voting for their own party member instead of tipping the balance toward Conservative MP Lee Richardson based on the MPs' beliefs that Scheer was "Harper's Boy". During his tenure, some individual opposition MPs were critical of some of his decisions. Liberal MP Irwin Cotler questioned his impartially due to a decision over a robocall incident with Campaign Research. NDP Leader Tom Mulcair criticized him for failing to intervene with Conservative MP Paul Calandra, who failed to answer Mulcair's questions during Question Period and instead responded with non-sequiturs about supporting Israel.
In addition, journalists pointed out there were similar incidents with his treatment of other opposition politicians. Scheer responded by stating that previous Speakers have ruled that they have no authority over the content of what politicians say, he is bound by that precedent. During the 2011 Canadian federal election voter suppression scandal, opposition politicians raised concerns over Scheer's interventions to block questions after The Globe and Mail revealed that his riding association loaned $3,000 to Marty Burke while Burke's campaign was under scrutiny by Elections Canada over the incident. Scheer was re-elected in the 2015 federal election in which the Conservative government was defeated, he was appointed Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons by Leader of the Official Opposition and interim Conservative party leader Rona Ambrose. He thought about running for the position of interim Party Leader but was dissuaded by fellow caucus MP Chris Warkentin, who pointed out that the interim leader cannot take the permanent position.
On September 13, 2016, he announced his resignation outside a party caucus meeting in Halifax in order to explore a bid for the leadership of the federal Conservative Party. On Sep
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Stade Canac is a stadium in Quebec City, Quebec. It is used for baseball and is the home field for the Quebec Capitales of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball minor league baseball team. Opened in 1939, it has a capacity of 4,800 and is located within the boundaries of Parc Victoria, a municipal park and recreation area located between the St-Roch district of Quebec City and the south shore of the Saint-Charles River; the ballpark is informally referred to as "Parc Victoria" by local residents though the field only occupies about a quarter of the park's total area. Modest in capacity relative to the size of the city's population, it has been well-attended during Capitales home games. In 1937, then-Premier of Quebec, Maurice Duplessis, a baseball fan, was invited to throw out the ceremonial first pitch of the Quebec Provincial League season in Trois-Rivières. During his visit, he noticed how damaged the stadium had become and decided to allow public funding to be used for the construction of new sport facilities in many Quebec cities.
By doing so, he wanted to create thousands of new jobs during a period of economic struggles. In 1938, following a demand by a group representing the Quebec Athletics, the government agreed to build a new baseball stadium in Quebec City and in early April 1938, construction work began in Parc Victoria; the stadium would be completed a few months at the end of the 1938 baseball season. On May 14, 1939, a first baseball game was held at the new stadium. Then-mayor of Quebec City, Lucien Borne, was in attendance, which saw more than 5,000 people attend that game with the Athletics winning their first game at the stadium 6-5 against Trois-Rivières; the first Quebec player to hit a home run at Stade Municipal was Roland Gladu who would go on to play in the Majors for the Boston Braves in 1944. In 1941, the Athletics joined the Canadian–American League and became an affiliate of the Brooklyn Dodgers. From 1943 through 1945, baseball was not played at the stadium due to World War II. After the end of the war baseball was once again played at Stade Municipal.
Under new ownership, the Athletics were renamed the Alouettes. They became an affiliate of the Chicago Cubs in 1946 and of the New York Giants in 1948. However, from 1946 to 1948, the Alouettes were not successful on the field, finishing last every year. In 1948, the Alouettes were sold to businessman Ulysse Ste-Marie. Wanting to get his newly acquired team back on track, he began by changing the team's name to the Quebec Braves. Ste-Marie hired a new manager for his team, Frank McCormick, a former 9-time MLB All-Star for the Cincinnati Reds. During his first year as their manager, the Braves won 90 games, 34 more than the previous year, clinched the 1949 Canadian–American League pennant, however McCormick quit the team after only one year. For the 1950 season, Ste-Marie hired a new manager to replace McCormick, George McQuinn, another former MLB All-Star and for a second straight year the Braves won the Canadian–American League championship; that 1950 Braves squad are still considered today as one of the best minor league teams of all time.
In 1951, the Braves quit the Canadian–American League to join the Provincial League, becoming an affiliate of the Boston Braves/Milwaukee Braves. On July 15, 1953, with Warren Spahn as their starting pitcher, Milwaukee played an exhibition game against Quebec at Stade Municipal. Two years on May 31, 1955, Milwaukee came to Stade Municipal to play another exhibition game; this time, they had baseball legend Hank Aaron in their lineup where Aaron was the only player to hit a home run during that game. In 1955, the Provincial League and the Quebec Braves ceased operations. During their seven year-existence, the Braves were considered a dynasty winning a total of six championships. In 1957, Quebec City found itself without a professional baseball team a Minor Leagues in North America were going through a tough time. However, Hugues Beaudoin, a Quebec City resident, founded the Quebec Indiens. With only amateur players from Quebec in its lineup, the Indiens played their first seasons in the Mauricie League.
A few years they joined a new version of the Provincial League. During their final year in 1970, the Indiens' lineup was made up of only professional American and Latino players. Throughout the years, the Quebec Indiens won a total of three championships. In 1969, the Montreal Expos joined Major League Baseball and became the first non-American major baseball team. Two years in 1971, they established their Double-A affiliate in Quebec, where the team was named the Québec Carnavals in honour of the famous Carnaval de Québec. After a difficult inaugural season, the Carnavals finished the 1972 season with a 75-64 record, just 2½ games behind the Trois-Rivières Aigles while breaking the existing attendance record for the Eastern League with a total admissions of 142,818 people throughout their season. In 1973, future Baseball Hall of Fame catcher Gary Carter joined the team and would go on to finish the season with 15 home runs while producing a total of 68 runs batted in. During that same campaign, Quebec City fans were introduced to another future Expos All-Star player, pitcher Steve Rogers.
The 1974 season was exceptional for the Carnavals. They managed to clinch their division pennant and five of their outfielders would go on to play in Major League Baseball, Warren Cromartie, Jesus Bombo Rivera, Tony Scott, Ellis Valentine and Jerry White. In 1975, the Carnavals began to experience extreme financial struggles at which François Bonetto became the new team owner and changed the team's name, as the Québec Carnavals became the Quebec Metros. During the 1976 campaign, young rising star, Andre Dawson, played in only 40 ga
Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball
The Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball known as the Can-Am League, is a professional, independent baseball league with teams in the Northeast United States and Eastern Canada, founded in 2005 as a reorganization of its predecessor, the Northeast League. The Can-Am League operates in cities not directly served by Major or Minor League teams and is not affiliated with either; the league office is in North Carolina. Though a separate entity, the league shares a commissioner and director of umpires with the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball; the Can-Am League was created when the Northeast League was renamed in 2005. The Northeast League played four seasons as an independent league. At the end of the 1998 season, the Northeast League was merged with the Northern League and became that league's East Division. Although the East Division did not play the teams that were in the Northern League during the regular season, the respective divisions played each other in an all-star game every summer and in a league championship series every fall from 1999 until 2002.
The Northeast League became its own entity again for the 2003 season and continued play for one additional year before the renaming of the league. The Allentown Ambassadors folded days before the 2004 season began, forcing the Northeast League to field a traveling team called the Aces. For the 2005 season, the Northeast League accepted the Worcester Tornadoes as a new eighth team. However, three weeks before the start of the 2005 season, the Bangor Lumberjacks folded, forcing the team to create another traveling team, this time called The Grays; the league has operated a traveling team whenever necessary to provide an number of teams. However, doing so forces the other franchises to host more home games to provide a season of the same length. To obviate such disruptive last-minute schedule changes in the future, the Northeast League adopted a new charter, giving the league new powers to ensure that its franchises are solvent, renamed itself the Canadian-American Association. For 2006, the Can-Am League added two teams.
The new Sussex Skyhawks replaced the Elmira Pioneers, which moved into the amateur New York Collegiate Baseball League. There were now eight teams without a traveling team. For 2007, the Atlantic City Surf joined from the Atlantic League, the league re-established The Grays, after a year of dormancy, as a tenth team. At the end of that season, both the New Haven County Cutters and the North Shore Spirit suspended operations, reducing the league to eight teams. Many New Haven player contracts were sold to Nashua, while many Spirit players were placed on waivers. For 2008, which had lost its franchise in the International League, joined the Can-Am League as the Rapidz, an eighth franchise, displacing the Grays. After the 2008 season, Rapidz management declared bankruptcy; the league declared its intention to operate the Ottawa franchise in 2009. The league changed the team's name back to Rapids, a spelling used during the team's founding. However, the Commissioner stated the need for a "fresh start" and opened a contest to select a new name for the team.
The winning name was "Voyageurs". Still the Atlantic City franchise was terminated, as a sale fell through. On March 30, 2009, the league announced that it would shrink to six teams rather than having two league-operated teams; the Nashua Pride franchise was sold and was known in 2009 as the American Defenders of New Hampshire because of the military tie-ins of its new ownership group. During the 2009 season the Defenders were locked out of Holman Stadium and forced to play their last home games on the road, bringing doubt to the future of baseball in Nashua; the Quebec Capitales would go on to win their second League Championship. On December 19, 2009, league directors preliminarily gave approval to transfer the membership of the American Defenders of New Hampshire from Nashua, New Hampshire, to Pittsfield, Massachusetts for play in the 2010 season. Final approval was granted by the city for use of Wahconah Park on February 1; the ownership group headed by Buddy Lewis had a lease on Wahconah Park for a team in the New England Collegiate Baseball League, transferred the current lease for play in the Can-Am League.
Dan Duquette, current Executive Vice-President of Baseball Operations for the Baltimore Orioles, is part of the ownership group, known as Boston Baseball All-Stars LLC. The team was renamed the Pittsfield Colonials. After the 2010 season the Sussex franchise was folded after its ownership group decided to focus its resources on the New Jersey Jackals, their primary team, could not find a buyer. In its place, the league awarded the Rockland Boulders a franchise, added the Newark Bears from the Atlantic League, formed the New York Federals as a traveling team. Pittsfield's franchise charter was rescinded after the 2011 season and the Colonials folded after ownership could not find partners; the Brockton Rox moved to the Futures Collegiate Baseball League after the 2011 season. At the end of the 2012 season the Worcester charter was rescinded and the league decided to try to find new owners for the Tornadoes, but failed to do so and awarded the franchise instead to a Trois-Rivières, group. Beginning in 2012, Can-Am League clubs played 18 to 20 games per season against opponents from the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, with which it shares a commissioner.
After the 2013 season, Newark announced it would not compete in the 2014 season and the team was folded altogether. In 2014, the Can-Am League announced that a fifth team, based in Ottawa, would join the league for 2015
The Rockland Boulders are an American independent professional baseball team based in Pomona, New York in Rockland County. They are a member of the Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball known as the Can-Am League; the team was one of three teams joining the league for the 2011 season, joining former Atlantic League champions the Newark Bears and New York State League team the New York Federals. The Boulders played their first game on May 26, 2011, against the Bears at Bears & Eagles Riverfront Stadium; the team played their first home game at Palisades Credit Union Park on June 16 defeating the Brockton Rox, 3-1 in front of a sold-out crowd. The "Boulders" name refers to Rockland County's plethora of boulders in its landscape; the team's primary color, alludes to the former Brooklyn Dodgers, which used Bear Mountain State Park for spring training during World War II. The red honors the neighboring Rockland County Fire Training Center. Boulder Bird is the official team mascot and "Disco" Seth Cantor is the team's play-by-play announcer.
On May 26, 2011 the Boulders won their first official game by a score of 11-5 over the Newark Bears after coming back from a 4-1 deficit. On July 24, 2011, in the bottom of the ninth inning with two outs, Joe Hage hit a walk-off grand slam at Le Stade Municipal in Quebec City, Canada to give Rockland a 7-4 win over the Quebec Capitales, it was the first grand-slam in Boulders history. On September 4, 2011, the Boulders announced they had signed former New York Mets player Howard Johnson to a two-game contract to play alongside his son, Glen. Both games were played against the Newark Bears. Although the Boulders played their first 20 games away due to construction of the new stadium, they finished their inaugural season second in the league with an attendance of 123,518 tickets sold; the Rockland Boulders signed their first three players Tommy Giles, Eric Flynn and Ryan Mollica, from Suffern in its history in March, 2011. Of these three, Mollica played in 86 games. On August 22, 2013, Boulder's pitcher Charlie Law pitched a complete game no-hitter defeating the New Jersey Jackals with the first no-hitter in franchise history.
On July 7, 2014, Outfielder Jerod Edmondson singled off Ryan Bollinger of the Trois-Rivieres Aigles in the top of the fourth inning at Trois-Rivières, breaking the all-time Can-Am League record for career hits. His 700 career hits breaks the record held by current Toronto Blue Jays outfielder Chris Colabello. On August 25, 2014, the Boulders beat the Trois-Riveres Aigles and clinched the playoffs for the first time in the franchise's history; the Boulders will play the New Jersey Jackals the first round. On September 2, 2014 The best-of-7 Parkway Series between the Rockland Boulders and the New Jersey Jackals began; the Boulders captured their first league championship beating New Jersey 4 games to 2. The Rockland Boulders' stadium is Palisades Credit Union Park, it was known as Provident Bank Park and contains 4,500 seats, 16 luxury and 11 loge boxes. The dimensions of the playing field are 323 feet down the left-field line, 313 feet down the right-field line, power alleys of 383 feet, 403 feet at centerfield.
The park includes a 34-foot x 52-foot scoreboard, as well as a 75-foot ribbon sign board. Other features include special hearing-impaired seating with loudspeakers installed under each seat, a children's playground, community rooms; the park contains an indoor batting cage used by players to warm up prior to games, open to the public during the game. On September 4, 2011, the Rockland Boulders played to the largest crowd in its inaugural season – 6,300 fans – to see former New York Met Howard Johnson become one of the few players to have the opportunity to play in a professional game with their son. In 2012 the Boulders led the league in attendance with 161,375 fans; the Boulders have three radio stations. The stations are WNBR 1260 AM, WLNA 1420 AM, WRCR 1600 AM; the Boulders games are available to watch online on the Can-Am league TV website and some games on Optimum channel 78 in Rockland County or FIOS channel 1. Many of their home games are available on Eleven Sports. Rockland Boulders Rockland Boulders Roster Can-Am League American Association of Independent Professional Baseball official website Rockland Boulder's News Listen Live Watch Rockland Boulders Game
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
The Montreal Expos were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Expos were the first Major League Baseball franchise located outside the United States, they played in the National League East Division from 1969 until 2004. Following the 2004 season, the franchise relocated to Washington, D. C. and became the Washington Nationals. After the minor league Triple-A Montreal Royals folded in 1960, political leaders in Montreal sought an MLB franchise, when the National League evaluated expansion candidates for the 1969 season, it awarded a team to Montreal. Named after the Expo 67 World's Fair, the Expos played at Jarry Park Stadium before moving to Olympic Stadium in 1977; the Expos failed to post a winning record in any of their first ten seasons. The team won its only division title in the strike-shortened 1981 season, but lost the 1981 National League Championship Series to the Los Angeles Dodgers; the team was sold in 1991 by its majority, founding owner, Charles Bronfman, to a consortium headed by Claude Brochu.
Felipe Alou was promoted to the team's field manager in 1992, becoming MLB's first Dominican-born manager. He led the team to four winning seasons, including 1994, where the Expos had the best record in baseball before a players' strike ended the season. Alou became the Expos leader in games managed; the aftermath of the 1994 strike initiated a downward spiral as the Expos chose to sell off their best players, attendance and interest in the team declined. Major League Baseball purchased the team prior to the 2002 season after the club failed to secure funding for a new ballpark. In their final two seasons, the team played 22 home games each year at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On September 29, 2004, MLB announced the franchise would relocate to Washington, D. C. for the 2005 season, the Expos played their final home game in Montreal. The Expos posted an all-time record of 2,753 wins, 2,943 losses and 4 ties during their 36 years in Montreal. Vladimir Guerrero led the franchise in both home runs and batting average, Steve Rogers in wins and strikeouts.
Three pitchers threw four no-hitters: Bill Stoneman, Charlie Lea, Dennis Martínez, who pitched the 13th official perfect game in Major League Baseball history. The Expos retired four numbers in Montreal, nine former members have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, with Gary Carter, Andre Dawson and Tim Raines' plaques depicting them with Expos caps. Professional baseball in Montreal dates back to 1890 when teams played in the International Association. A second attempt at hosting a pro team failed in 1895; the Montreal Royals of the Eastern League played 20 seasons. The Royals were revived in 1928 and were purchased by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1939 to serve as one of their Triple-A affiliates. Under Dodgers' management, the Royals won seven International League championships and three Junior World Series titles between 1941 and 1958. In 1946, Jackie Robinson joined the Royals and led the team to a Junior World Series title in advance of his breaking baseball's colour barrier one year later.
By the late 1950s, the Royals' championship years were past, faced with declining attendance, the team was sold and relocated following the 1960 season as the Dodgers reduced the number of teams they maintained at the AAA level. Upon the Royals' demise, Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau and city executive committee chairman Gerry Snyder began their campaign for a Major League Baseball team; the city, considered a leading candidate to acquire the St. Louis Browns if the team had relocated in 1933, was too late to submit its candidacy for a team as part of the National League's 1962 expansion but presented its bid to the league's owners at the winter meetings in 1967. Aiding Montreal's bid was the fact that Walter O'Malley, who owned the Dodgers and oversaw the Montreal Royals, was the chairman of the NL's expansion committee. On May 27, 1968, National League president Warren Giles announced the league would add expansion teams in San Diego and Montreal at a cost of US$10 million each. With the franchise secured, Snyder built an ownership group of six partners led by financier Jean-Louis Lévesque and Seagram heir Charles Bronfman.
Lévesque was tapped as chairman and the public face of the ownership group since he was a francophone. However, he bowed out, Bronfman took over as chairman; the new group was faced with the immediate problem of finding a suitable facility in which to play for at least two years. Drapeau had promised the NL that a domed stadium would be built by 1971. However, Snyder's successor as executive committee chairman, Lucien Saulnier, told Bronfman that Drapeau could not make such a guarantee on his own authority; as 1968 dragged on without movement from the city on a facility and his group threatened to walk away. While they had more than enough money between them to pay the first installment of the expansion fee, they wanted assurances that a park would be built before proceeding any further with the effort. Delorimier Stadium, which hosted the Royals, was rejected as a temporary facility; the Autostade, home of the Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes, was ruled out due to the prohibitive cost of expanding it and adding a dome, as well as doubts that the city had the right to make the needed renovations to the federally-owned facility.
By August 1968, the NL owners had grown concerned about the unresolved stadium question, putting the franchise's future in doubt. There were rumours of awarding the