Dresden Generating Station
Dresden Generating Station is the first financed nuclear power plant built in the United States. Dresden 1 was activated in 1960 and retired in 1978. Operating since 1970 are Dresden two General Electric BWR-3 boiling water reactors. Dresden Station is located on a 953-acre site in Grundy County, Illinois, at the head of the Illinois River, near the city of Morris, it is northeast of the Morris Operation—the only de facto high-level radioactive waste storage site in the United States. It serves Chicago and the northern quarter of the state of Illinois, capable of producing 867 megawatts of electricity from each of its two reactors, enough to power over one million average American homes. In 2004, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission renewed the operating licenses for both reactors, extending them from forty years to sixty. Between the 1970s and 1996, Dresden was fined $1.6 million for 25 incidents. June 5, 1970: A minor instrumentation error on the Dresden II reactor caused the pressure to appear too high, triggering the turbine to dump steam, which in turn automatically started a SCRAM.
Void collapse in the re-condensing cooling water caused the water level to drop, which triggered an automatic increase in cooling flow. However, the pumps read low suction pressure at the inlet, which caused them to turn off to avoid running dry. One pump turned back on when this signal turned off, feeding water which flowed into the now lower-pressure reactor vessel. At this point, the original spurious signal of high pressure disappeared; the dump valves closed, increasing the back pressure and slowing the inlet flow, while the cooling temperatures caused further void collapse. The core once again began to empty; this again automatically triggered the system to increase the flow rate, which worked properly and began to bring the reactor back to operating conditions. However, the indicator needle on the water depth gauge stuck in the low position, indicating a dangerous condition; the operator began increasing flow in order to raise the water level in the reactor, manually overriding the automatic system.
A second gauge that showed the increasing levels was never checked. The water level rose until it was spilling out of the reactor, causing water to enter the main steam generator, a serious problem. Two minutes the needle unstuck, at which point the operator began reacting to the now high levels by spilling water and closing steam, causing a hydrostatic shock to form in the cooling pipes; this caused further reactions in the automated systems, for the next 30 minutes the water levels and pressures seesawed as the operators attempted to get the reactor back to a stable level. It was not until two hours that the reactor was shut down properly; the movie The China Syndrome bases its initial plot device on this event, with the needle becoming unstuck when the operator taps the gauge. December 8, 1971: Events similar to the ones the year earlier on Dresden II occur on Dresden III. May 15, 1996: Lowering water levels around the nuclear fuel in unit 3 reactor's core prompt a shut down at Dresden Generating Station and placement on the NRC's "watch list" that merit closer scrutiny by regulators.
Dresden was on the NRC watch list six out of nine years between 1987-1996, longer than any of the 70 other operating plants in the nation. July 15, 2011: Plant declared an Alert at 10:16 a.m after a chemical leak of sodium hypochlorite restricted access to a vital area that houses plant cooling water pumps. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity; the 2010 U. S. population within 10 miles of Dresden was 83,049, an increase of 47.6 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U. S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 7,305,482, an increase of 3.5 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Chicago. Both operating units are owned and operated by Exelon, which owns and is responsible for the decommissioning of Unit 1.
Prior to August 3, 2000, all three units were owned by Commonwealth Edison. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Dresden was 1 in 52,632, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. "Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, Illinois". Energy Information Administration, U. S. Department of Energy. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on July 10, 2009. Retrieved 2008-11-19. Http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/nuclear/state_profiles/illinois/il.html#_ftn4 https://www.nrc.gov/info-finder/decommissioning/power-reactor/dresden-nuclear-power-station-unit-1.html "Dresden 2 Boiling Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-19. "Dresden 3 Boiling Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. NRC. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-19
Rock Island County, Illinois
Rock Island County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois, bounded on the west by the Mississippi River. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 147,546, its county seat is Rock Island. Rock Island County is one of the four counties that make up the Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rock Island County was formed in 1831 out of Jo Daviess County, it was named for Rock Island, an island in the Mississippi River now known as Arsenal Island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 451 square miles, of which 428 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Rock Island have ranged from a low of 13 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in July 2006. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.28 inches in January to 4.75 inches in June. Clinton County, Iowa Whiteside County Henry County Mercer County Louisa County, Iowa Muscatine County, Iowa Scott County, Iowa Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 147,546 people, 61,303 households, 38,384 families residing in the county.
The population density was 345.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 65,756 housing units at an average density of 153.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.6% white, 9.0% black or African American, 1.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 4.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.9% were German, 14.2% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 6.8% were Swedish, 5.2% were American. Of the 61,303 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families, 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 40.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,226 and the median income for a family was $58,962. Males had a median income of $42,548 versus $31,917 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $25,071. About 8.7% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. At one time Mississippi Valley Airlines had its headquarters in Quad City Airport in the county. John Deere is headquartered in Moline. East Moline Moline Rock Island Silvis Coyne Center Rock Island Arsenal Buffalo Prairie Campbell's Island Castle Junction Edgington Ginger Hill Illinois City Joslin Taylor Ridge Rock Island County is divided into eighteen townships: National Register of Historic Places listings in Rock Island County, Illinois Quad City International Airport Portrait and Biographical Album of Rock Island County, Illinois: Containing Full-Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of All the Governors of Illinois, of the Presidents of the United States. Chicago: Biographical Publishing Co. 1885.
Official county website Rock Island County Historical Society
LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station
LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station, located 11 miles southeast of Ottawa, Illinois serves Chicago and northern Illinois with electricity. The plant is operated by the Exelon Corporation, its Units 1 and 2 began commercial operation in April 1984, respectively. It has two General Electric boiling water reactors. LaSalle's Unit 1 and Unit 2 together produce 2,320 megawatts, enough electricity for the needs of 2.3 million American homes. Instead of cooling towers, the station has a 2,058 acres man-made cooling lake, a popular fishery — LaSalle Lake State Fish and Wildlife Area — managed by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. The 2010 U.
S. population within 10 miles of LaSalle was 17,643, an increase of 7.1 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U. S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 1,902,775, an increase of 22.6 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Joliet. On February 20, 2006, a "site area emergency" was declared at the plant at 12:28 AM; this was the first SAE declared at a US nuclear plant since 1991. Workers were shutting down Unit 1 for refueling when the plant's turbine control system malfunctioned, SCRAMing the reactor; the reactor had been operating at 6 percent power output at the time. Plant instruments indicated three of 185 control rods used to shut down the reactor were not inserted triggering the emergency declaration. After a reset, the plant's instruments indicated that only one control rod was not inserted, not three; the emergency ended at 4:27 AM with no release of radioactivity. Post trip evaluations have confirmed that all control rods were inserted within four minutes of the reactor SCRAM.
A review indicates the problem was with the indication sensors, that all control rods were inserted at the time of the reactor scram. Follow-up evaluations demonstrated that if the three subject control rods remained withdrawn in a cold shutdown condition, the reactor would have remained adequately shutdown; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at LaSalle was 1 in 357,143, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. Official Site DoE Page NukeWorker "LaSalle County Generating Station, Illinois". Energy Information Administration, U. S. Department of Energy. August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20. "La Salle 1 Boiling Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20. "La Salle 2 Boiling Water Reactor". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. NRC. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20
General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance and oil and gas. In 2018, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 18th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company but has since severely underperformed the market as its profitability collapsed. Two employees of GE—Irving Langmuir and Ivar Giaever —have been awarded the Nobel Prize. During 1889, Thomas Edison had business interests in many electricity-related companies including Edison Lamp Company, a lamp manufacturer in East Newark, New Jersey. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments. In 1889, Morgan & Co. a company founded by J. P. Morgan and Anthony J. Drexel, financed Edison's research and helped merge those companies under one corporation to form Edison General Electric Company, incorporated in New York on April 24, 1889.
The new company acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year. In 1880, Gerald Waldo Hart formed the American Electric Company of New Britain, which merged a few years with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, led by Charles Coffin. In 1887, Hart left to become superintendent of the Edison Electric Company of Missouri. General Electric was formed through the 1892 merger of Edison General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, with the support of Drexel, Morgan & Co. Both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day; the company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for many years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electric's Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed. In 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it remained a part of the index for 122 years, though not continuously.
In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business. GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in Ohio; the lighting division has since remained in the same location. Owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, after purchasing the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, he aimed to expand international radio communications. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales. In 1926, RCA co-founded the National Broadcasting Company, which built two radio broadcasting networks. In 1930, General Electric was charged with antitrust violations and decided to divest itself of RCA. In 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, New York. On January 13, 1928, he made what was said to be the first broadcast to the public in the United States on GE's W2XAD: the pictures were picked up on 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of four GE executives.
The sound was broadcast on GE's WGY. Experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which, along with WGY and WGFM, was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE moved into the new field of aircraft turbo superchargers. GE introduced the first set of superchargers during World War I, continued to develop them during the interwar period. Superchargers became indispensable in the years prior to World War II. GE supplied 300,000 turbo superchargers for use in bomber engines; this work led the U. S. Army Air Corps to select GE to develop the nation's first jet engine during the war; this experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine, demonstrated in the United States in 1941. GE was ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Although, their early work with Whittle's designs was handed to Allison Engine Company. GE Aviation emerged as one of the world's largest engine manufacturers, bypassing the British company, Rolls-Royce plc.
Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs and other products during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the boycott was to protest against GE's role in nuclear weapons production. In 2002, GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Enron Wind was the only surviving U. S. manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2 billion in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009. In 2015, GE Power garnered press attention when a model 9FB gas turbine in Texas was shut down for two months due to the break of a turbine blade; this model uses similar blade technology to GE's newest and most efficient model, the 9HA. After the break, GE developed heat treatment methods. Gas turbines represent a significant portion of GE Power's revenue, represent a significant portion of the power generation fleet of several utility companies in the United States. Chubu Electric of Japan and Électricité de France had units that were impacted.
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, domestic energy production, it directs research in genomics. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U. S. federal agency, the majority of, conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is administered by the United States Secretary of Energy, its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D. C. on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland. Former Governor of Texas Rick Perry is the current Secretary of Energy, he was confirmed by a 62 to 37 vote in the United States Senate on March 2, 2017.
In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission was created to control the future of the project. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry, the Energy Research and Development Administration, tasked to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, energy development programs; the 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, programs of various other agencies.
Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary. In December 1999, the FBI was investigating. Wen Ho Lee was accused of stealing nuclear secrets from Los Alamos National Laboratory for the People's Republic of China. Federal officials, including then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson, publicly named Lee as a suspect before he was charged with a crime; the U. S. Congress held hearings to investigate the Department of Energy's mishandling of his case. Republican senators thought that an independent agency should be in charge of nuclear weapons and security issues, not the Department of Energy. All but one of the 59 charges against Lee were dropped because the investigation proved that the plans the Chinese obtained could not have come from Lee. Lee won a $1.6 million settlement against the federal government and news agencies. In 2001, American Solar Challenge was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
After the 2005 race, the U. S. Department of Energy discontinued its sponsorship. Title XVII of Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorizes the DOE to issue loan guarantees to eligible projects that "avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or improved technologies as compared to technologies in service in the United States at the time the guarantee is issued". In loan guarantees, a conditional commitment requires to meet an equity commitment, as well as other conditions, before the loan guarantee is completed; the United States Department of Energy, the Nuclear Threat Initiative, the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, the International Atomic Energy Agency partnered to develop and launch the World Institute for Nuclear Security in September 2008. WINS is an international non-governmental organization designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive materials and facilities.
On March 28, 2017 a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases "climate change," "emissions reduction," or "Paris Agreement" in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied; the department is under the control and supervision of a United States Secretary of Energy, a political appointee of the President of the United States. The Energy Secretary is assisted in managing the department by a United States Deputy Secretary of Energy appointed by the president, who assumes the duties of the secretary in his absence; the department has three under secretaries, each appointed by the president, who oversee the major areas of the department's work. The president appoints seven officials with the rank of Assistant Secretary of Energy who have line management responsibility for major organizational elements of the Department; the Energy Secretary assigns their duties. Excerpt from the Code of Federal Regulations, in Title 10: Energy:The official seal of the Department of energy "includes a green shield bisected by a gold-colored lightning bolt, on, emblazoned a gold-colored symbolic sun, oil derrick and dynamo.
It is crested atop a white rope. Both appear on a blue field surrounded by concentric circles in which the name
Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant
The Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay near Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland in the Mid-Atlantic United States. It is the only nuclear power plant in the state of Maryland; the plant and operated by CENG, a joint venture between Exelon and Électricité de France, has two 2737 megawatt thermal Combustion Engineering Generation II two-loop pressurized water reactors. Each generating plant produces 850 megawatt electrical net or 900 MWe gross; each plant's electrical load consumes 50 MWe. These are saturated steam plants and are 33% efficient. Only the exhaust of the single high-pressure main turbine is superheated by a two-stage reheater before delivering the superheated steam in parallel to the three low-pressure turbines. Unit 1 uses a General Electric–designed main turbine and generator, while Unit 2 uses a Westinghouse–designed main turbine and generator; the heat produced by the reactor is returned to the bay, which operates as a cooling heat-sink for the plant.
Unit 1 went into commercial service in 1975 and Unit 2 in 1977. The total cost of the two units was 766 million USD. Unit 1 had its two steam generators replaced in 2002 and its reactor vessel closure head replaced in 2006, while unit 2 had its two steam generators replaced in 2003, its vessel closure head replaced in 2007; the water around the plant is a popular place for anglers. Unit 1 & 2 each takes in bay water to cool its steam driven turbine condensers plus other bay-water–cooled primary and secondary system heat exchangers; the bay water is pumped out at a nominal flow rate of 1.2 million gallons per minute per unit for each steam turbine condenser. The water is returned to the bay no more than 12 °F warmer than the bay water. Unlike many other nuclear power plants, Calvert Cliffs did not have to utilize water cooling towers to return the hot water to its original temperature; as the water comes out quickly and creates a sort of artificial rip current, it can be a dangerous place to fish.
CCNPP 3 will only need about 10 % of the bay cooling water volume needed for 2 combined. The increase in fish and shellfish impingement and entrainment will be less than 3.5% over Unit 1 and 2 existing conditions. In February 2009, Calvert Cliffs set a world record for pressurized water reactors by operating 692 days non-stop. In addition, Unit 2's capacity factor in 2008 was a world-record high of 101.37 percent. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity; the 2010 US population within 10 miles of Calvert Cliffs was 48,798, an increase of 86.4 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U. S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 2,890,702, a decrease of 2.0 percent since 2000.
Cities within 50 miles include Washington, D. C.. In 2001, when the Dominion Cove Point LNG plant was scheduled to reopen, many local residents were concerned about the proximity to this nuclear power plant. Residents thought that the FERC did not consider the risks could be caused by an attack or an explosion before opening the plant; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Calvert Cliffs was 1 in 100,000 for Reactor 1 and 1 in 83,333 for Reactor 2, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. Unit 2 at the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant was shut down on September 5, 2013, after a malfunction during testing, it was re-opened September 2013, after the required maintenance was performed. Scientists at Johns Hopkins University became concerned that the discharge of heated cooling water from the plant would be detrimental to a crucial element of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, the bay's famed blue crabs.
In the late 1960s, litigation borne of Congress's National Environmental Policy Act spawned one of the most celebrated environmental cases in American history, Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee, Inc. v. Atomic Energy Commission, forcing the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the environmental impact of building and maintaining such an atomic energy plant. In 2000, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission extended the license of the plant for 20 additional years, making Calvert Cliffs the first nuclear plant in the United States to receive such an extension. President George W. Bush visited the plant in June 2005, the first time a president had visited a nuclear power plant in nearly two decades. UniStar Nuclear Energy announced plans to build a unit of the Evolutionary Power Reactor at this site. UniStar Nuclear Energy, a Delaware limited liability company, was jointly owned by Constellation Energy and Électricité de France, the European builder and supplier of nuclear power plants; the proposed unit would produce twice the energy of each individual existing unit.
See Nuclear Power 2010 Program. On July 13, 2007, UniStar Nuclear Energy filed a partial application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review its plans to build a new nuclear power plant, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant 3 based on the AREVA US Evolutionary Power Reactor, Gener
Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station
Beaver Valley Power Station is a nuclear power plant covering 1,000 acres near Shippingport, United States, 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh. The Beaver Valley plant is operated by FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Corporation; this plant has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. While the Shippingport Reactor has been decommissioned, Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2 are still licensed and in operation. FirstEnergy announced that Beaver Valley is expected to close in 2021 without legislative relief or sale to another utility company; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles, concerned with exposure to, inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles, concerned with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. The 2010 U. S. population within 10 miles of Beaver Valley was 114,514, a decrease of 6.6 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.
S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U. S. population within 50 miles was 3,140,766, a decrease of 3.7 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Pittsburgh; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Beaver Valley was Reactor 1: 1 in 20,833. Beaver Valley 1 was used as the reference design for the French nuclear plant at Fessenheim. Shippingport Reactor - Located adjacent to the Beaver Valley Power Station "Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile". Energy Information Administration, U. S. Department of Energy. 2010. Retrieved 2016-11-01. "Beaver Valley Power Station". Operating Nuclear Power Reactors. U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. April 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-01. Media related to Beaver Valley Power Station at Wikimedia Commons