Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Joseph Lanner was an Austrian dance music composer. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I, Lanner had a lesser-known son, August Lanner, who was just as musically gifted and prodigious as his father. His daughter Katharina became a known international ballet dancer, settling in London where she became an influential choreographer and teacher. Lanner was born in St. Ulrich in Vienna, the success of this string quartet led to its gradual expansion, and in 1824 Lanner was able to conduct a small string orchestra playing Viennese dance music. Such was the success of his orchestra that it was a feature in many Vienna carnivals. It was in 1832 that Lanner allowed his soon-to-be rival Johann Strauss I to deputise in a second, in the same year, Strauss I parted company with Lanner after a concert at one of the Viennese dance establishments, Zum Schwarzen Bock. 19, which indicated a decent level of goodwill and respect for the craft of the two composers, for their charity work Strauss and Lanner accepted the honorary citizenship of Vienna in 1836 and jointly took the Citizens Oath.
The music-loving Viennese however were championing both of two popular dance music composers, and individuals generally identified themselves as Lannerianer or Straussianer. The answer would be to distract the population with music and entertainment, Strauss popularity soon overshadowed Lanner in the early 1840s. Strauss was eager to undertake extensive lucrative tours abroad including England, Lanner succumbed to a typhus infection that racked Vienna in 1843 and died at Döbling on Good Friday,14 April in the same year. Most of Lanners waltzes were dedicated to members of the nobility as evidenced from the titles which was part of the nature of Lanners position at that time. His Styrian Dances, Op.165, was played occasionally at the Vienna New Years Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
Les Lanciers or The Lancers is a square dance, a variant of the Quadrille, a set dance performed by four couples, particularly popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is a dance made up of five figures or tours. It exists in many variants in several countries, widespread though it was throughout Europe, Les Lanciers became less fashionable by the beginning of 20th the century. It has survived as a dance in Denmark to the present day. The Danish dance took its current form before the 1st World War, from the bourgeoisie of Copenhagen it spread through dancing schools in provincial towns and through the landed gentry. It is danced at court, at many University and School Gaudies, Les Lanciers is taught in most of the high schools in Denmark. The five tours of the Danish dance are, La Dorset La Victoria Les Moulinets Les Visites Les Lancers The dances keep getting more advanced, the Kitchen lancers was a more boisterous version of the dance that was popular in the early 20th century. Lancers sets are still danced in Irish set dance, joseph Binns Hart, composer of music for Les Lanciers The Danish music for each part can be found here.
The origins of The Lancers Quadrilles are discussed here,1854 American sheetmusic for Les Lanciers
Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar, and numerous smaller peripheral islands, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot, over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The islands diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC, human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around AD1000 by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa, other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands.
Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by an assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles, the monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, since 1992, the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in an uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair, Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie and the Southern African Development Community. Madagascar belongs to the group of least developed countries, according to the United Nations and French are both official languages of the state.
The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascars development strategy. As of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009-2013 political crisis, in the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy. The islands appellation Madagascar is not of origin, but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. On St. Laurences Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island, polos name was preferred and popularized on Renaissance maps. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the worlds 47th largest country, the country lies mostly between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, and longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros, the nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west
Marcus Ward & Co.
Marcus Ward and Co. was a British publishing company known for its illustrated books for children and adults, as well as its decorative greeting cards. It had its beginnings in 1802, with a partnership between John Ward, James Blow and Robert Greenfield, by the 1820s they owned paper mills in Belfast and Coleraine. Which operated under the name of John Ward and Sons. In the early 1830s Marcus Ward took over the running of the Belfast paper mill, in 1833 Marcus formed a new company, Marcus Ward & Sons, based in Belfast, having a new direction, in stationery and general publishing. Marcus Ward and Sons soon became successful in the area of colour lithography. By the time Marcus died in 1847 his three sons, Francis and John, had taken over the running of the business. In the 1860s Marcus Ward & Co began mass-producing calendars and greeting cards, initially they printed cards for other publishers such as Goodall and Charles Bennett. By the late 1860s they began printing greeting cards under their own name and this venture turned out to be very successful, the company engaging Thomas Crane as artistic director and talented artists such as Kate Greenaway and Walter Crane as illustrators.
In the early years of production they marked the reverse with their trademark. In years the name was printed on the front side of their greeting cards. Marcus Ward & Co. of Belfast, the Oxford History of the Irish Book, Volume IV, The Irish Book in English, 1800-1891. The Splendid Press of Messrs Marcus Ward & Company, scrapalbum. com page on Marcus Ward and Co
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer. He is noted for his facility at word play, There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life. Dodgsons family was predominantly northern English, with Irish connections, most of Dodgsons male ancestors were army officers or Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, named Charles Dodgson, had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin. His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, the older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carrolls father. He went to Westminster School and to Christ Church, Oxford and he reverted to the other family tradition and took holy orders. He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career, instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1830 and became a country parson.
Dodgson was born in the parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire near the towns of Warrington and Runcorn. When Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, and this remained their home for the next 25 years. He was High Church, inclining to Anglo-Catholicism, an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement, Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his fathers values and with the Church of England as a whole. During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home and his reading lists preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect, at the age of seven, he was reading books such as The Pilgrims Progress. He suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that often influenced his life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Richmond Grammar School at nearby Richmond, in 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving, I cannot say.
That any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again, I can honestly say that if I could have been. Secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear, though, he excelled with apparent ease. I have not had a promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby. He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his fathers old college, after waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days when he received a summons home and his mother had died of inflammation of the brain – perhaps meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47
Arabesque (ballet position)
In dance, arabesque is a body position in which a dancer stands on one leg with the other leg turned out and extended behind the body, with both legs held straight. In classical ballet, an arabesque can be executed with the supporting leg en pointe or demi pointe or with foot flat on the floor, the working leg may touch the floor in tendu back or be elevated. Common elevation angles of the leg are 45° and 90°. When the angle is greater than 90° and the body trunk leans forward to counterbalance the working leg. The arms may be held in various positions, Arabesque positions are assigned numeric references in some ballet training systems. In the descriptions below, these arabesques are described from the perspective of the dancer, in the Vaganova method there are four basic arabesque positions. They are described here for a facing point 8. In class practice, the arms are always level with the shoulders, the elbows are always facing downwards. In the first arabesque, the stands in effacé position with the right leg raised in arabesque, the right arm extended to the side.
The gaze follows the line of the arm extended en avant, the dancers face is turned toward point 1. The gaze follows the line of the arm extended en avant, the shoulders are in strong épaulement and the dancers focus is turned to the audience. In arabesque tendue or dégagé, the leg comes from the hip, when the leg is moved or held above 45 degrees or so, the dancer curves the spine both laterally and vertically. The method is to, anchor the shoulders and scapula downward without tension, the sternum must lift without hyperextending the ribcage. Keep the supporting hip forward, as mentioned above, the spine curves to the anterior, keeping the head lifted to focus straight forward to diagonally up. The current standard height and degree for the Vaganova arabesque is 110 degrees, Vaganova method maintains that, in classical ballet, both the supporting and the working legs must be fully turned out through the legs, even in full arabesque. Note that allowing for the dancer to open the hips is distinctly different than some older methods, restraining the hips restricts range of motion, restricting the full curvature of the spine, nor for most dancers, to exhibit an outwardly rotated leg.
Opening the hip allows dancers with lesser mobile bodies to safely achieve greater range of motion in arabesque, in the RAD system, there are three main arabesques. Here they are described for a facing point 6, First arabesque is taken standing en ouvert on the right leg with the left leg extended
Stately quadrille is a term popularly used to describe the constantly shifting alliances between the Great Powers of Europe during the 18th century. The ultimate objective was to maintain the balance of power in Europe to stop any one alliance or country becoming too strong and it takes its name from the quadrille, a dance in which the participants constantly swap partners. That was known as the Diplomatic Revolution, shifting alliances had long been a factor in European politics and were often regarded as responses to shifting power and threat. During the 16th century and the early 17th century, much of the emphasis in European politics had been on restricting the power of Spain, in the second half of the 17th century, Spain was replaced by France as Europes leading power. Several European coalitions were formed against Spain and France, culminating in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the years that followed, they managed to defeat a resurgent Spain, formerly a French ally, in the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
Spain sought an alliance with Austria and gained it in 1725, by 1731 Britain and France were clearly drifting apart. A diplomatic initiative with Austria was begun by the British government, Spain withdrew its friendship with Austria and eventually ended up allied to France again. In 1733, however the Anglo-Austrian Alliance seemed under threat, when the British failed to assist the Austrians in the War of the Polish Succession, Austria had to rely heavily on Russia for assistance and was forced to make huge concessions to France in the 1738 peace treaty. Britain realised that its failure to intervene had allowed France to become too strong, in 1740, Prussia, an emerging power, attacked Austria. Britain and France soon became embroiled in the war, which ended in a stalemate in 1748, despite extensive British funding, it was increasingly disillusioned about the Anglo-Austrian Alliance and began looking for a replacement. In 1756, Austria did what was considered unthinkable by many by abandoning its British connection to form a new alliance with France.
Fearing that Continental Europe would be destabilised and led to war, the concept began to fade in the second half of the 18th century, as Britain and France became the dominant European powers. The failure to prevent the Seven Years War, in which over a million died, was a major factor. After the Napoleonic Wars, a Concert of Europe was set up to create a forum for discussion rather than create shifting alliance patterns, which had a tendency to cause major wars. Treaty of Versailles, the document establishing an alliance between Austria and France Treaty of Paris, one of the treaties which ended the Seven Years War Clark, iron Kingdom, The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600–1947
The cotillion is a social dance, popular in 18th-century Europe and America. Originally for four couples in square formation, it was a version of an English country dance, the forerunner of the quadrille and, in the United States. It was for fifty years regarded as an ideal finale to a ball but was eclipsed in the early 19th century by the quadrille. It became so elaborate that it was presented as a concert dance performed by trained and rehearsed dancers. The German cotillion included more couples as well as plays, each of these was designed to fit a tune of eight or occasionally sixteen measures of 2/4 time. Participants exchanged partners within the network of the dance. Changes included the Great Ring, a circle dance with which the dance often began, as well as smaller Ladies and Gentlemens rings and bottom and sides rings. Other changes included the allemande and moulinet, a complete dance composed of a prescribed order of these was called a set. The cotillion was introduced into England by 1766 and to America in about 1772, there is a reference in Robert Burnss 1790 poem Tam o Shanter to the cotillion brent-new frae France.
In reality many participants simply walked through the figure and changes, seeing these as the dance, on the other hand, some figures required high skill at social dancing and many performances took place at which the majority preferred to watch rather than dance. The quadrille gained fame a few years as a variety of cotillion that could be danced by two couples. However, while the cotillion kept all the dancers in almost perpetual motion, references to the English Cotillion dances persist here and there until the 1840s, but these were more games than fashionable dances, and were often danced to the waltz or the mazurka. The German cotillion was introduced to New York society at a ball with a Louis XV theme given by Mr. William Colford Schermerhorn in the early winter of 1854. Here, waltzes, fun and boisterous behaviour at private parties took on an important role. Finally the term cotillion was used to refer to the ball itself and the cotillion and quadrille became the square dance
Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
Sarah Sophia Child Villiers, Countess of Jersey, was an English noblewoman, and through her marriage a member of the Villiers family. She was the eldest daughter of John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland and her mother was the only child of Robert Child, the principal shareholder in the banking firm Child & Co. Under the terms of his will, the Countess of Jersey was the primary legatee and her husband, George Villiers, added the surname Child by royal licence. Lady Jersey married George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, on 23 May 1804 and her husbands mother, Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, was one of the more notorious mistresses of King George IV when he was Prince of Wales. Her sister Maria married John Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, the 4th Earl of Bessborough and her own affairs, though conducted discreetly, were said to be numerous, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, was thought to be one of her lovers. When asked why he had never fought a duel to preserve his wifes reputation, Lady Jersey was one of the patronesses of Almacks, the most exclusive social club in London, and a leader of the ton during the Regency era.
She was immortalized as Zenobia in Disraelis novel Endymion, Caroline Lamb ridiculed her in Glenarvon, in revenge Lady Jersey had her barred from Almacks, the ultimate social disgrace. This, was unusual since she was notable for acts of kindness and generosity, in politics she was a Tory, although she lacked the passion for politics shown by her cousin Harriet Arbuthnot. On hearing that the Duke of Wellington had fallen from power in 1830 and she reportedly moved heaven and earth against the Reform Act 1832. Lady Jersey was known by the nickname Silence, the nickname was ironic since, famously,38, Berkeley Square, Middlesex now London. The Honourable Frederick William Child Villiers, married Elizabeth Maria van Reede, the Honourable Francis John Robert Child Villiers. Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers, married Nicholas Paul, 9th Prince Esterházy, Lady Clementina Augusta Wellington Child Villiers. Lady Adela Corisande Maria Child Villiers, married Lt. -Col, charles Parke Ibbetson, and had one daughter Adele.
She outlived not only her husband, but six of her seven children, archival material relating to Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
A square dance is a dance for four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances were first documented in 17th-century England but were quite common in France. They came to North America with the European settlers and have undergone considerable development there, in some countries and regions, through preservation and repetition, square dances have attained the status of a folk dance. The Western American square dance may be the most widely known form worldwide, Square dancing is, strongly associated with the United States. Nineteen U. S. states have designated it as their official state dance, the various square dance movements are based on the steps and figures used in traditional folk dances and social dances from many countries. Some of these dances include English Country Dance, Caledonians. Square dancing is enjoyed by people of all ages around the world, in most American forms of square dance, the dancers are prompted or cued through a sequence of steps by a caller to the beat of music.
Modern Western square dances are not learnt as complete routines, the dancers learn basic movements, each with its own distinctive call, terminology, In the United States, in general, people go to square dances and call it square dancing. In England and Scotland, people go to all sorts of dances at some of the dances will be square dances. The majority of dances at such events will be in the form of sets, sets of four. Conversely, people not familiar with the different forms of dance may ask for an evening of square dance meaning simply a barn dance where many different formations of dance are used. It is possible to go to one of square dances. Traditional square dance, which is called old time square dance. Traditional square dance is not standardized and can be subdivided into regional styles, the New England and Appalachian styles have been particularly well documented, both have survived to the present time. There are several styles, some have survived or been revived in recent years. Traditional square dance is presented in alternation with contra dances or with some form of freestyle couple dancing.
One ancestor of New England style square dances is the quadrille, where traditional square dance has been revived, it encompasses a wide range of new choreography. Modern Western square dance, which is called Western square dance, contemporary Western square dance, Modern Western square dance evolved from the Western style of traditional square dance from about 1940 to 1960