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In liberal arts education, the quadrivium consists of the four subjects or arts, taught after teaching the trivium. The word is Latin, meaning four ways, its use for the four subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts, as distinguished from the practical arts; the quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium, consisting of grammar and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered the foundation for the study of theology; the quadrivium was the upper division of the medieval education in the liberal arts, which comprised arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. Educationally, the trivium and the quadrivium imparted to the student the seven liberal arts of classical antiquity; these four studies compose the secondary part of the curriculum outlined by Plato in The Republic and are described in the seventh book of that work. The quadrivium is implicit in early Pythagorean writings and in the De nuptiis of Martianus Capella, although the term quadrivium was not used until Boethius, early in the sixth century.

As Proclus wrote: The Pythagoreans considered all mathematical science to be divided into four parts: one half they marked off as concerned with quantity, the other half with magnitude. A quantity can be considered in regard to its character by itself or in its relation to another quantity, magnitudes as either stationary or in motion. Arithmetic studies quantities as such, music the relations between quantities, geometry magnitude at rest, spherics magnitude inherently moving. At many medieval universities, this would have been the course leading to the degree of Master of Arts. After the MA, the student could enter for bachelor's degrees of the higher faculties. To this day, some of the postgraduate degree courses lead to the degree of Bachelor; the study was eclectic, approaching the philosophical objectives sought by considering it from each aspect of the quadrivium within the general structure demonstrated by Proclus, namely arithmetic and music on the one hand and geometry and cosmology on the other.

The subject of music within the quadrivium was the classical subject of harmonics, in particular the study of the proportions between the musical intervals created by the division of a monochord. A relationship to music as practised was not part of this study, but the framework of classical harmonics would influence the content and structure of music theory as practised in both European and Islamic cultures. In modern applications of the liberal arts as curriculum in colleges or universities, the quadrivium may be considered to be the study of number and its relationship to space or time: arithmetic was pure number, geometry was number in space, music was number in time, astronomy was number in space and time. Morris Kline classified the four elements of the quadrivium as pure, stationary and applied number; this schema is sometimes referred to as "classical education", but it is more a development of the 12th- and 13th-century Renaissance with recovered classical elements, rather than an organic growth from the educational systems of antiquity.

The term continues to be used by the Classical education movement and at the independent Oundle School, in the United Kingdom. Andreas Capellanus Degrees of the University of Oxford Four arts Trivium

Benjamin Walker (actor)

Benjamin Walker Scodelario-Davis, known professionally as Benjamin Walker, is an American actor and stand-up comedian. He may be best known for his title role in the 2012 film Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter, as well as his appearances in the films Kinsey and Flags of Our Fathers, his critically acclaimed role as Andrew Jackson in the musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson. In 2016, he starred as Patrick Bateman in the Broadway musical adaptation of the novel American Psycho. In 2019, he starred as Erik Gelden in the third and final season of Marvel's Jessica Jones from Netflix. Walker was born in Cartersville, the younger of two boys born of Jeannine, a music teacher, Greg Davis, who owned a movie rental store and works in financial services, he took his mother's maiden name as his stage name because there was a Benjamin Davis registered with the Screen Actors Guild. He attended Cartersville High School in Cartersville, the Interlochen Arts Academy near Traverse City, the Juilliard School in New York City.

He graduated from the Juilliard Actor Training Program in 2004. In February 2007, Walker portrayed Bertram Cates in the Broadway revival of Inherit the Wind; the production enjoyed a 10-week run to a full house. The show was nominated including Best Revival. In April 2008, Walker appeared as the Chevalier Danceny in the Roundabout Theatre Company's production of Les Liaisons Dangereuses, he played the inexperienced lover who becomes the sex pawn of the pernicious La Marquise de Merteuil. Described as the "definitive battle of the sexes" by Broadway World, the production enjoyed a full house and was nominated for six Tony awards. In December 2007, Walker starred as Andrew Jackson in the musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson during its world premiere at the Center Theatre Group's Kirk Douglas Theatre in Los Angeles. In 2010, he reprised his role in the musical, first off-Broadway at the Public Theater and at the Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre on Broadway; the musical enjoyed a short, run. It was a critical hit, but was nominated for few awards.

Walker starred in numerous incarnations of the show to great critical acclaim, including Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson: The Concert Version, the thrice-extended return at the Public Theater in March 2010. The production closed on January 2, 2011. From 2012 to 2013, Walker portrayed Brick in a revival of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, his other stage credits include The Arrangements at the Atlantic Theatre Company, the Lincoln Center Theater workshop of Spring Awakening, Lady Windermere's Fan and Juliet, American Psycho. He received a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play nomination for his performance in the 2019 Broadway revival of All My Sons. Walker starred in the short film All Saint's Day, the Savannah College of Art and Design winner for the narrative short category. In 2009, he appeared in The War Boys. In 2010, Walker was cast as Hank McCoy/Beast in X-Men: First Class, but dropped out of the role to star in the Broadway musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson, it was announced in January 2011 that Walker would star as Abraham Lincoln in the film adaptation of Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter.

The film was released in June 2012. Walker told Rolling Stone magazine that he read a number of biographies on Lincoln to prepare for the role, he was cast as Archangel Michael in the film adaptation of Paradise Lost, but production was cancelled in 2012. He starred as Kevin Connolly in the 2012 film Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight. Walker has performed stand-up comedy at Caroline's, Comedy Village, The Comedy Store, his comedy show, Find the Funny, features comics and taped short narratives and skits, is performed in New York City. Walker became engaged to actress Mamie Gummer in 2009, they were married in 2011, they lived in an apartment in Brooklyn. In March 2013, it was announced that they had amicably planned to divorce. Walker began dating his co-star, Kaya Scodelario, during the filming of The King's Daughter in April 2014, they became engaged on December 28, 2014. He and Scodelario married in late 2015 and Walker adopted the surname “Scodelario-Davis”; the couple had a son in November 2016. Benjamin Walker on IMDb Benjamin Walker at the Internet Broadway Database Activities Production detail

Malmö FF

Malmö Fotbollförening known as Malmö FF, Malmö, or MFF, is the most successful football club in Sweden in terms of trophies won. Formed in 1910 and affiliated with the Scania Football Association, Malmö FF are based at Eleda Stadion in Malmö, Scania; the club have won the most Swedish championship titles, 20, a record 23 league titles, a record 14 national cup titles. The club won their first Championship in 1944; the powerhouse of Swedish football in recent years, Malmö FF saw glory in the 1970s, winning five Swedish championships and four Svenska Cupen titles. What is more, MFF is the only club from the Nordic countries to have reached the final of the European Cup, the predecessor of the UEFA Champions League, they were runners-up in the 1979 European Champions Cup final, which they lost 1–0 to English club Nottingham Forest. For this feat, Malmö FF were awarded the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal. Malmö FF is the only Nordic club to have been represented at the Intercontinental Cup in which they competed for the 1979 title.

Malmö FF are the leaders of the overall Allsvenskan table maratontabellen where Malmö FF is the team that has scored the most goals and won the most matches, despite having played fewer seasons than the other two teams in the top three of the table. In recent years the team qualified for two consecutive group stages of the Champions League in 2014 and 2015. In 2019, Malmö played in the knockout stage of the UEFA Europa League, losing 5-1 on aggregate against eventual champions Chelsea; the club colours, reflected in their crest and kit, are sky blue and white, with sky blue shirts and white shorts being the club's traditional kit colours. The main rivals of MFF are fellow regional rivals Helsingborg, historical domestic rival IFK Göteborg and local Division 2 Södra Götaland side IFK Malmö. MFF Support are their official fan club; the club arose from a municipal initiative in 1905 to encourage young people in Malmö to play organised football. One of the youth teams, Bollklubben Idrott known as BK Idrott, was a predecessor to Malmö FF.

BK Idrott joined the newly created football department of IFK Malmö in 1909, but soon left because of issues between the two clubs. On 24 February 1910 the 19 members of BK Idrott founded Malmö FF; the club spent their first ten years in local and regional divisions as there was no official national league competition, playing the majority of their matches in the city division called Malmömästerskapen. They competed in regional competitions in Scania, played matches against Danish clubs. In 1916 Malmö FF reached the final of the Scanian regional competition for the first time, playing against rival Helsingborgs IF but losing 3–4; the club defeated local rival IFK Malmö three times during the season, thus earned the unofficial but much desired title of Malmö's best football club. In 1917 Malmö FF competed in Svenska Mästerskapet for the first time, a cup tournament for the title of Swedish champions, but lost their first match in the second qualifying round 4–1 against IFK Malmö; the club continued to play in the cup until 1922, reaching the quarter-finals in 1920 when they were knocked out by Landskrona BoIS.

The cup was discontinued and the title of Swedish champions was given to the winners of Allsvenskan, first created for the 1924–25 season. In 1920 the Swedish Football Association invited Swedish football clubs to compete in official national competitions. Malmö FF earned a place in Division 2 Sydsvenska Serien, they won this division in the first season, were promoted to Svenska Serien Västra, the highest level of competition in Sweden at the time. However, they were relegated after a single season, found themselves back in Sydsvenska Serien for nearly a decade until they again achieved promotion to Allsvenskan, in 1931; the club achieved mid-table league positions for two seasons, but they were relegated in 1934 as a penalty for breaking amateur regulations. The club had paid their players a small sum of money for each game. Although against the rules, this was common at the time. In addition to relegation to Division 2, the club suffered bans for the entire board of directors and twenty-six players.

The version of events told by Malmö FF and local press suggests that local rival IFK Malmö reported the violation to the Swedish Football Association. This belief has contributed to the longstanding competitive tensions between the clubs; the club made their way back to Allsvenskan in 1937 after two seasons in Division 2. In the same year Eric Persson was elected as chairman after being secretary since 1929, held the position until 1974. Persson is regarded by club leaders and fans as the most important person in the club's history, as he turned the club professional in the 1970s. Under his leadership the club went from being titleless in 1937 to holding ten Swedish championships by the end of the 1974 season. In 1939 the club reached their highest position yet, third place in Allsvenskan, nine points behind champions IF Elfsborg. Malmö FF's first Swedish championship came in 1944, when the club won the penultimate game of the season against AIK before 36,000 spectators at Råsunda; the last game of the season was won 7–0 against Halmstad BK.

For the next nine seasons, Malmö FF finished in the top three in the league. The club won the Swedish Championship in 1949, 1950, 1951 and 1953, were runners-up in 1946, 1948 and 1952; the club won Svenska Cupen in 1944, 1946, 1947, 1951 and 1953, finished as runners-up in 1945. Between 6 May 1949 and 1 June 1951, the team were unbeaten in 49 matches, of which 23 were an unbroken streak of victories; the club finished as runner

Tommi Läntinen

Tommi Pekka Läntinen is a Finnish singer-songwriter. After starting his career in 1980, Läntinen has worked in a number of bands as a vocalist and songwriter—perhaps best known as a lead vocalist of the bands Boycott and Fabrics. At that time Läntinen sang in English, but as he began his solo career in 1993, he started to write his lyrics in Finnish, his debut solo album, Veijareita ja pyhimyksiä, was released in 1994 and his seventh and latest solo album, Isoja aikoja, was released in 2011. With over 144,707 records sold, Läntinen is one of the best-selling male soloists in Finland. Läntinen has a son, born in 1997. In 2015, he divorced his son's mother after thirty years of marriage; the family had moved to Portugal in 2006, but relocated back to Finland in 2010. Läntinen lives in Espoo. Veijareita ja pyhimyksiä Maalla, merellä ja ilmassa! Punainen graniitti Iltavilli Tähtilaiva Popniitti Isoja aikoja Leskinen, JayJay. Tää on myös mun maailma: Tommi Läntinen. Tampere: Aamulehti Kirjat. ISBN 978-952-5601-07-7.

Official website Tommi Läntinen discography at Discogs Tommi Läntinen on IMDb Tommi Läntinen at Elonet

Johnny Tiger

Johnny Tiger is a Florida Western film directed by Paul Wendkos, starring Robert Taylor, Chad Everett, Geraldine Brooks. The Universal Studios film was shot in Central Florida in 1965, with the city of Longwood, Florida substituting for a fictional town in southern Florida adjacent to a Seminole Indian reservation, with additional filming at nearby Sanlando Springs. Titled The Cry of Laughing Owls, the film's title was changed to Johnny Tiger prior to its release, it had its world premiere in Orlando, Florida in 1966. A drama about the conflict between traditional and Americanized Seminoles impacted by a dedicated white teacher on their ways of life. A widowed schoolteacher arrives at a Seminole Reservation in the Florida Everglades with his three children. He's determined to bring the Indians into the modern world of the 20th century, but his contempt for their ways meets with resistance. George Dean, a widowed professor shunned by various colleges and universities because of his reputed arrogance, arrives with his three children at a Florida Indian reservation to teach the Seminoles.

Appalled by the dilapidated schoolhouse, he appeals in vain to Dr. Leslie Frost, the resident public health official. One day Dean's 19-year-old daughter, Barbara, is rescued from a herd of stampeding bulls by Johnny Tiger, the young grandson of the local Seminole chief, Sam Tiger. Observing that the Indian children idolize Johnny, Dean asks him to encourage the youngsters to attend school, but Johnny mocks him and bitterly states that he is only a half-breed Seminole whose mother was a white woman and local barmaid. Realizing that Johnny, despite his hostility, is a man of innate intelligence, Dean urges him to attend school; because of Barbara, Johnny agrees. Caught in the conflict and Barbara run off to get married. Tension between Dean and Sam mounts. Risking his life, Dean races into the fire and finds the old chief holding the child protectively in a wet blanket. Badly burned, Sam Tiger asks Dean to give him back his grandson. Now tolerant of other men's beliefs, Dean accompanies Johnny to the Indian burial ground.

There Johnny promises his dying grandfather to lead his people in the new ways. Robert Taylor as George Dean Geraldine Brooks as Dr. Leslie Frost Chad Everett as Johnny Tiger Brenda Scott as Barbara Dean Marc Lawrence as William Billie Ford Rainey as Sam Tiger List of American films of 1966 Johnny Tiger on IMDb

Lisburn Distillery F.C.

Lisburn Distillery Football Club is a Northern Irish, intermediate football club who are based in Ballyskeagh, County Down NIFL Premier Intermediate League. The club, founded in 1880, originated in west Belfast, where it was based at Grosvenor Park at Distillery Street off the Grosvenor Road until 1971. After sharing Skegoneill Avenue and Seaview for some years, the club moved in 1980 to a permanent new home at New Grosvenor Stadium, County Antrim, on the southern outskirts of Belfast; the club was known as Distillery from its foundation until 1999, when it changed its official name to'Lisburn Distillery' to associate itself more with its adopted borough of Lisburn. However, the club is still colloquially referred to as "Distillery"; the club colour is white. A founder member of the Irish League in 1890, the club was relegated in May 2013. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Neil Harris Jimmy McIntosh Maurice Tadman George Eastham, Sr. Jimmy McAlinden Roy Welsh Billy Hamilton Paul Kirk Tommy Wright Colin McIlwaine & George O'Boyle Irwin Moore Irish League: 6 1895–96, 1898–99, 1900–01, 1902–03, 1905–06, 1962–63 Irish Cup: 12 1883–84, 1884–85, 1885–86, 1888–89, 1893–94, 1895–96, 1902–03, 1904–05, 1909–10, 1924–25, 1955–56, 1970–71 Irish League Cup: 1 2010–11 County Antrim Shield: 14 1888–89, 1892–93, 1895–96, 1896–97, 1899–1900, 1902–03, 1904–05, 1914–15, 1918–19, 1919–20, 1945–46, 1953–54, 1963–64, 1985–86 Gold Cup: 5 1913–14, 1919–20, 1924–25, 1929–30, 1993–94 City Cup: 5 1904–05, 1912–13, 1933–34, 1959–60, 1962–63 Ulster Cup: 2 1957–58, 1998–99 Belfast Charity Cup: 5 1899–00, 1915–16, 1920–21, 1928–29, 1930–31 Dublin and Belfast Inter-city Cup: 1 1947–48 Irish League First Division: 2 1998–99, 2001–02 Irish Intermediate Cup: 3 1892–93†, 1902–03†, 1947–48‡ Steel & Sons Cup: 1 1900–01ƒ George Wilson Cup: 3 1956–57‡, 1981–82‡, 1987–88‡ McElroy Cup: 2 1918–19‡, 1920–21‡† Won by Distillery Rovers ‡ Won by Distillery II ƒ Won by Distillery West End Irish Junior League: 3 1890–91‡, 1892–93‡, 1902–03‡ Irish Junior Cup: 1 1887–88‡‡ Won by Distillery II Official website