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In the slave societies of the Americas, a quadroon or quarteron was a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry. Similar classifications were octoroon for one-eighth hexadecaroon for one-sixteenth black. Governments of the time sometimes incorporated the terms in defining rights and restrictions; the use of such terminology is a characteristic of hypodescent, the practice within a society of assigning children of mixed unions to the ethnic group which the dominant group perceives as being subordinate. The racial designations refer to the number of full-blooded African ancestors or equivalent, emphasizing the quantitative least, with quadroon signifying that a person has one-quarter black ancestry; the word quadroon was borrowed from the French quarteron and the Spanish cuarterón, both of which have their root in the Latin quartus, meaning "a quarter". The Spanish cognate cuarterón is sometimes used to describe someone whose racial origin is three-quarters white and one-quarter Indian in Caribbean South America.

Quadroon was used to designate a person of one-quarter African/Aboriginal ancestry, equivalent to one biracial parent and one white or European parent. In Latin America, which had a variety of terms for racial groups, some terms for quadroons were morisco or chino, see casta; the term mulatto was used to designate a person, biracial, with one pure black parent and one pure white parent, or a person whose parents are both mulatto. In some cases, it was used as a general term, for instance on US census classifications, to refer to all persons of mixed race, without regard for proportion of ancestries; the term octoroon referred to a person with one-eighth African/Aboriginal ancestry. As with the use of quadroon, this word was applied to a limited extent in Australia for those of one-eighth Aboriginal ancestry, as the government implemented assimilation policies on the Stolen generation. Terceron was a term synonymous with octoroon, derived from being three generations of descent from an African ancestor.

The term mustee was used to refer to a person with one-eighth African ancestry. The term sacatra was used to refer to one, seven-eighths black or African and one-eighth white or European; the term mustefino refers to a person with one-sixteenth African ancestry. The terms quintroon or hexadecaroon were used. In the French Antilles, the following terms were used during the 18th century: In Latin America, the terms griffe or sambo were sometimes used for an individual of three-quarters black parentage, i.e. the child of a Mulatto parent and a black parent. During the antebellum period in the United States, abolitionists featured mulattoes and other light-skinned former slaves in public lectures in the North, to arouse public sentiments against slavery by showing Northerners slaves who were visually indistinguishable from them; this prevented them, the audience, from putting slaves into a category of "other", not related to them in their society

My Indigo (album)

My Indigo is the debut studio album by Dutch singer and songwriter Sharon den Adel with her solo musical project My Indigo. It was released on 20 April 2018; the track listing of the debut album was released on 31 January 2018 by Within Temptation fansite DontTearMeDown. After returning from Within Temptation latest tour, going through a writer's block while composing songs for their next album, having undisclosed personal problems, den Adel decided to compose for herself as a form to cope with these problems; as the sound differed from what the singer is known for in the metal scene and after seeing the results, it was decided to release these songs publicly as a solo project album. The singer revealed that the familiar problems consisted on her father's illness and death. Fearing a permanent loss of her creativity to write for her band and not being able to reach the needed feelings for that again, den Adel stated she could find inspiration in this situation itself while composing more introspective and soul searching songs.

The singer noted that while Within Temptation songs are more "combative and big", the songs in this project are "smaller, much more direct and vulnerable", which has enabled her to achieve the other extreme of her songwriting without affecting her work with the band. The singer took inspiration from both contemporary music and 80s songs she grew up with, as a form of revisiting her youth and her personal journey; the composing process was different, as den Adel sometimes worked upon the lyrics first and just on giving it melodies and vocal lines, the opposite process of what she used to do previously. The name of the project and album came from the "light" but "moody" feeling that the color provides, as according to the singer it fitted well the main atmosphere of the songs; the first single entitled My Indigo, was released on November 10, 2017. The song "Firelight" was composed for the album, but it was considered too dark to fit the release at that time and put on hold. After some reworking, it ended up appearing on Within Temptation's seventh studio album Resist, released in 2019.

Music critic Mike Ainscoe, from Louder Than War, called the album "vulnerable", "introspective" and stated that its main signature is den Adel's emotional vocals. Ainscoe noted an "Euro glossiness that’s glazed with contemporary pop" and a heavy influence of eighties music on the songs, with some reggae influences as on the track "Indian Summer". Besides that, he considered the album safe and not too far from den Adel's comfort zone as a musician, finished his review commenting that the singer "revealed a hidden and meditative side that flies below the Within Temptation power and bravado."Leigh Sanders, from Express & Star, was positive about the album in her 7 out of 10 review. Sanders considered the record "a delicious slice of electronic pop with thumping beats", praising den Adel's vocals and citing the track "Crash and Burn" as the highlight of the album, while noting some commodities from her metal career as percussion plays a key role. Sanders concluded her review alleging that "it is these expressive and exciting bursts of thunder that make each track more than just another pop song."Metal Hammer's Lisa Gratzke was positive about the album, praising the lyrics and technical aspects while noting some indie pop influences.

Gratzke highlighted the fact that the album was a "way out of crisis" and concluded her review commenting that it is "a beautiful excursion into unfamiliar realms, a mild summer breeze, enchanting with its lightness and still existing depth". The track listing has a different track list "Out of the Darkness" is track 3 on the digital release but track 5 on the cd release. Sharon den Adel – lead vocals Will Knox – guitars, backing vocals Martijn Konijnenburg – keyboards Teus Nobel – trumpet Kevin de Randamie – voice-over on track 2 Daniel Gibson – keyboards, programming Daniel Barkman – additional production Björn Engelmann – mastering Michael Ilbert – mixing

Fuscous flycatcher

The fuscous flycatcher is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family, the only member of the genus Cnemotriccus. It breeds from Colombia and Venezuela south to Bolivia and Argentina, on both Trinidad and Tobago; the fuscous flycatcher ranges in northern and eastern South America, including the entire Amazon Basin, the Guianas. This species is found in scrubby areas; the nest is made of twigs and bark placed in a tree fork. The typical clutch is three white eggs; the fuscous flycatcher weighs 11.9 g, with a long tail. The upperparts are plain brown with two buff wing bars. There is an obvious long whitish supercilium, the bill is black; the breast is grey-brown and the abdomen is pale yellow. Sexes are similar. There are other races, differing in the tone of the underpart colour. Fuscous flycatchers are inconspicuous birds, tending to keep to undergrowth perches from which they sally forth to catch insects; the call is a light chip, the song a chip-weeti-weeti-weetiyee, replaced in southern races by an explosive version at dawn, pit-pit-peedit.

Ffrench, Richard. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2. Hilty, Steven L. Birds of Venezuela. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5. Fuscous flycatcher videos on the Internet Bird Collection Photo.


Toyobo Co. Ltd. is one of Japan's top makers of fibers and textiles, including synthetic fibers and natural fibers, such as cotton and wool. Toyobo was established in 1882 by Eiichi Shibusawa as a cotton-spinning company in a context of post-Meiji Restoration. By the 1930s, Toyobo was the world's largest cotton-spinning company. In the 1960s, the company started to manufacture synthetic films. In August 2013, Toyobo bought the Spanish company Spinreact for 22.3 million euros. In 2015, Toyobo provided 40% of the yarn for airbags worldwide, 50% of Japan's food packaging films. In March 2017, Toyobo introduced Cocomi, a t-shirt that tracks a driver's heartbeats and activates an alarm if somnolence is detected. In August 2017, Toyobo established a new group in Europe, Toyobo Chemicals Europe GmbH, with a focus on marketing specialty chemical products, a new manufacturing base for airbag fabrics. In March 2018, Toyobo paid $66 million to settle a case of defective bullet proof vests sold to the US Government between 2001 and 2005.

Toyobo's textiles are designed for clothing, home furnishings, for industrial uses. Textiles include spandex yarn for apparel, polyurethane fiber for pantyhose, yarns for airbags and tire cords and synthetic fibers for apparel. Toyobo is engaged in the spinning, knitting, dyeing and the wholesaling and trading of textiles in Japan and internationally. Toyobo manufactures plastic films and resins. Biochemical products such as reagents, medical products, purification devices are manufactured by the company; the company operates across Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, United States, Germany and is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, being a component of the Nikkei 225 stock index. Biodefense Official global website

Romania in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010

Romania participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 and selected their entry through a national final, organised by TVR. On 9 December TVR announced details on the Romanian national final, Selecţia Naţională 2010, with an open call for songs held from 9 November to 14 January. On 25 to 27 January a 15-member jury of composers, press, radio professionals and television personalities would select between 12 and 15 songs to progress to a single televised show. New for 2010 is the introduction of the right for jury members to change the performing artists of each song. Should artists be changed they have between 28 January and 5 February to re-record the song. TVR received 117 entries for the contest at the close of the submission period, of which 111 complied with contest rules. TVR announced the 16 finalists on 25 January, after there was an equal score in the lowest placings of the jury's list; the finalists included Luminita Anghel, the 2005 Romanian entry, last year's runner-up Cătălin Josan, participants in last year's contest Zero, four-time participant in Selecţia Naţională Paula Seling, two time participant in the Norwegian national selection Melodi Grand Prix Ovi Martin.

TVR will record presentation videos for each entry between 19 February. These promotional videos will be broadcast from 20 February until 5 March in the lead up to the live contest on 6 March; the final was held on 6 March 2010 at the Globus Circus Arena in Bucharest, hosted by Horia Brenciu and Valentina Pelinel. The final results will be a 50/50 mix of jury preferences. Regional juries will be introduced this year; the televote was free of charge. Shortly after "Playing with Fire" won Selecţia Naţională 2010 there were reports that the song, performed by Paula Seling and Ovi, aka Ovi Cernăuţeanu, was registered in Norway as being co-written by a Norwegian composer, Simen Eriksrud, which would have broken TVR regulations as participants and songwriters must all be Romanian; this was followed by calls for the song to be disqualified and a new national final held to select another song. Eriksrud Ovi's producer, confirmed that Ovi was the only songwriter, with Eriksrud and Ovi only sharing publishing rights as his producer.

Marina Almasan, the Romanian Head of Delegation, confirmed on 11 March that Ovi was the only writer of the song, after consulting with TONO, the Norwegian copyright association, Ovi's record label, the Romanian Copyright Office. Paula and Ovi are taking part in an extensive European promotion tour before Eurovision, promoting their Eurovision song "Playing with Fire", in March and April 2010; the duo's first locations were Chişinău, where they appeared on the Muz-TV music channel, going on to Belgium and Greece. In between promotion the duo shot scenes in the medieval city of Alba Iulia in Romania and in Vienna, Austria for the music video of "Playing with Fire"; the video employs the first such use of the technology in a Eurovision music video. The video was released in April 2010; the duo's promotion continued into April, however due to the 2010 eruptions of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, Ovi was unable to leave his home in Norway after the closure of Norwegian airspace due to volcanic ash in the aftermath of the eruptions.

As such, Paula toured by herself, giving TV appearances in Macedonia. With the reopening of Norwegian airspace the duo were reunited in Turkey, where they appeared on the Beyaz Show talk show as well as a special Eurovision show, Eurovision 2010'a dogru on TRT Müzik, appearing alongside the Greek entry Giorgos Alkaios and Friends; the duo will perform together at the UK Eurovision Preview Party in London on 2 May. Romania competed in the second semi-final of the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 on 27 May, performing 10th on stage, following the Netherlands and preceding Slovenia. At the end of the voting Paula and Ovi had received 104 points, finishing 4th in the 19-song line-up and qualified for the final on 29 May. At the final on 29 May Romania performed 19th following France and preceding Russia. At the end of the voting Paula and Ovi had received 162 points, finishing 3rd out of the 25 competing countries, matching Romania's best finish in the Eurovision Song Contest achieved in 2005. After the EBU released the split results of the televoting and jury points from across Europe, it was revealed that Romania had finished third in the public televote in the second semi-final, behind Azerbaijan and Turkey.

However Romania placed only 8th with the national juries. In the final however Romania only placed 6th in the public televote, but came 3rd with the national juries, bringing up their placing to 3rd overall

Dear Boss letter

The "Dear Boss" letter was a message written by the notorious unidentified Victorian serial killer known as Jack the Ripper. Addressed to the Central News Agency of London. Dated 25 September 1888, the letter was postmarked and received by the Central News Agency on 27 September; the letter itself was forwarded to Scotland Yard on 29 September. Although unlikely to have been written by the actual murderer, the "Dear Boss" letter was the first piece of correspondence received in which the author signed his name as Jack the Ripper resulting in the unidentified killer being known by this name. Written in red ink, the two-page "Dear Boss" letter contains several spelling and punctuation errors, although the overall motivation of the author is evidently to both mock police investigative efforts and to threaten further murders; the letter itself reads: Dear Boss, I keep on hearing the police have caught me but they wont fix me just yet. I have laughed when they talk about being on the right track; that joke about Leather Apron gave me real fits.

I am down on whores and I shant quit ripping them. Grand work. I gave the lady no time to squeal. How can they catch me now. I want to start again. You will soon hear of me with my funny little games. I saved some of the proper red stuff in a ginger beer bottle over the last job to write with but it went thick like glue and I cant use it. Red ink is fit enough I hope ha. ha. The next job I do I shall clip the ladys ears off and send to the police officers just for jolly wouldn't you. Keep this letter back till I do a bit more work give it out straight. My knife's so sharp I want to get to work right away if I get a chance. Good Luck. Yours Jack the RipperDont mind me giving the trade name PS Wasnt good enough to post this before I got all the red ink off my hands curse it. No luck yet, they say. Ha ha Initially, this letter was considered to be just one of many hoax letters purporting to be from the murderer. However, following the discovery of the body of Catherine Eddowes in Mitre Square on 30 September, investigators noted a section of the auricle and earlobe of her right ear had been severed, giving credence to the author's promise within the letter to "clip the lady's ears off".

In response, the Metropolitan Police published numerous handbills containing facsimiles of both this letter and the Saucy Jacky postcard in the hope that a member of the public would recognise the handwriting of the author. Numerous local and national newspapers reprinted the text of the "Dear Boss" letter in whole or in part; these efforts failed to generate any significant leads. Following the publication of the "Dear Boss" letter and the Saucy Jacky postcard, both forms of correspondence gained worldwide notoriety; these publications were the first occasion in which the name "Jack the Ripper" had been used to refer to the killer. The term captured the imagination of the public. In the weeks following their publication, hundreds of hoax letters claiming to be from "Jack the Ripper" were received by police and press alike, most of which copied key phrases from these letters. In the years following the Ripper murders, police officials have stated that they believed both the "Dear Boss" letter and the Saucy Jacky postcard were elaborate hoaxes most penned by a local journalist.

These suspicions received little publicity, with the public believing the press articles that the unknown murderer had sent numerous messages taunting the police and threatening further murders. This correspondence became one of the enduring legends of the Ripper case. However, the opinions of modern scholars are divided upon which, if any, of the letters should be considered genuine. However, the "Dear Boss" letter is one of three named most as having been written by the killer, a number of authors have tried to advance their theories as to the Ripper's identity by comparing handwriting samples of suspects to the writing within the "Dear Boss" letter. Like many documents related to the Ripper case, the "Dear Boss" letter disappeared from the police files shortly after the investigation into the murders had ended; the letter may have been kept as a souvenir by one of the investigating officers. In November 1987, the letter was returned anonymously to the Metropolitan Police, whereupon Scotland Yard recalled all documents relating to the Whitechapel Murders from the Public Record Office, now The National Archives, at Kew.

In 1931, a journalist named Fred Best is reported to have confessed that he and a colleague at The Star newspaper named Tom Bullen had written the "Dear Boss" letter, the Saucy Jacky postcard, other hoax messages purporting to be from the Whitechapel Murderer—whom they together had chosen to name Jack the Ripper—in order maintain acute public interest in the case and maintain high sales of their publication. In 1993, the handwriting of the "Dear Boss" letter was compared to that of the purported diary of James Maybrick; the report noted that the "characteristics of the Dear Boss letter follow upon the Round Hand writing style of the time and exhibit a good writing skill."In 2018, a forensic forensic linguist based at the University of Manchester named Andrea Nini stated his conviction that both the "Dear Boss" letter and the Saucy Jacky postcard had been written by the same individual. Commenting upon his conclusions, Dr Nini stated: "My conclusion is that there is strong linguistic evidence that these two were written by the same person.

People in the past had expressed this tentative conclusion, on the basis of similarity of handwriting, but this had not been established with certainty." Begg, Paul. The Complete J