SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Quaestor

A quaestor was a public official in Ancient Rome. The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom, quaestores parricidii were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic, quaestors were elected officials who supervised the state treasury and conducted audits, it was the lowest ranking position in the cursus honorum. However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder. In the Roman Empire, the position, replaced by the praefectus, reemerged during the late empire as quaestor intra Palatium, a position appointed by the emperor to lead the imperial council and respond to petitioners. Quaestor derives from the Latin verb quaero, meaning "to inquire"; the job title has traditionally been understood as deriving from the original investigative function of the quaestores parricidii. Ancient authors influenced by etymology, reasoned that the investigative role of the quaestores parricidii had evolved to include financial matters, giving rise to the similarly-named offices.

However, this connection has been questioned by modern scholars. The earliest quaestors were an office dating back to the Kingdom of Rome. Quaestores parricidii were chosen to investigate capital crimes, may have been appointed as needed rather than holding a permanent position. Ancient authors disagree on the exact manner of selection for this office as well as on its earliest institution, with some dating it to the mythical reign of Romulus. In the Roman Republic, quaestors were elected officials who supervised the treasury and financial accounts of the state, its armies and its officers; the quaestors tasked with financial supervision were called quaestores aerarii, because they oversaw the aerarium in the Temple of Saturn. The earliest origins of the office is obscure, but by about 420 BC there were four quaestors elected each year by the Comitia Tributa. After 267 BC, the number was expanded to ten; the office of quaestor a former broad-striped tribune, was adopted as the first official post of the cursus honorum, the standard sequence that made up a career in public service.

Once elected as quaestor, a Roman man earned the right to sit in the Senate and began progressing through the cursus honorum. Quaestors were not provided any lictors while in the city of Rome, but while in the provinces, they were allowed to have the fasces; every Roman consul, the highest elected official in the cursus honorum, every provincial governor was appointed a quaestor. Some quaestors were assigned to work in the city and others in the provinces where their responsibilities could include being recruited into the military; some provincial quaestors were assigned as staff to military generals or served as second-in-command to governors in the Roman provinces. Still others were assigned to oversee military finances. Lucius Cornelius Sulla's reforms in 81 BC raised the number of quaestors to 20 and the minimum age for a quaestorship was 30 for patricians and 32 for plebeians. Additionally, the reforms granted quaestors automatic membership in the Senate upon being elected, whereas membership in the Senate was granted only after censors revised the Senate rolls, which occurred less than the annual induction of quaestors.

There were at that time twenty Quæstors elected annually. When a Consul took the field with an army, he always had a Quæstor with him; this had become the case so that the Quæstor became, as it were, something between a private secretary and a senior lieutenant to a governor. The arrangement came to have a certain sanctity attached to it, as though there was something in the connection warmer and closer than that of mere official life; this relationship between a consul and a quaestor was similar to that between a client. The quaestor was essential a client to their superior. There was some level of mutual respect between the two individuals, but a defined sense of place and knowledge of each other's roles; this relationship continued past the designated terms of either individual, the quaestor could be called upon for assistance or other needs by the consul. Breaking this pact or doing harm by a former superior would make the quaestor seem dishonorable or treasonous. Constantine the Great created the office quaestor sacri palatii which functioned as the Roman Empire's senior legal official.

Emperor Justinian I created the offices quaesitor, a judicial and police official for Constantinople, quaestor exercitus, a short-lived joint military-administrative post covering the border of the lower Danube. The quaestor sacri palatii survived long into the Byzantine Empire, although its duties were altered to match the quaesitor; the term is last attested in 14th century Byzantium as a purely honorific title. In the early republic, there were two quaestors, their duties were maintaining the public treasury, both taking in funds and

Mount Gulaga

Mount Gulaga Gulaga, known as Mount Dromedary, a mountain located in the south coast region of New South Wales, rises above the village of Central Tilba and is within the Gulaga National Park. At its highest point, it measures 806 metres above sea level. Gulaga is the place of ancestral origin within the mythology of the Yuin people, the Indigenous Australians of the area. Gulaga itself provides a basis for Aboriginal spiritual identity. For the Yuin people it is seen as a place of cultural origin; the mountain is regarded as a symbolic mother-figure providing the basis for the people's spiritual identity. In May 2006 the Gulaga National Park, incorporating the former Wallaga Lake National Park, was handed back to its traditional Aboriginal owners, the Yuin people, in a historic agreement signed by the NSW Environment Minister and the Yuin people; the first Europeans to sight the mountain were the crew of Captain Cook's ship, HMS Endeavour on 21 April 1770. Endeavour passed the mountain at a distance of 15 miles offshore.

Cook named it "Mount Dromedary". In the mid-1800s, Mount Gulaga called Mount Dromedary, became a prominent site of gold mining. Rev. W. B. Clarke first found traces of Alluvium gold in Dignams Creek in 1852. Gold mining became a common activity in the area. A significant amount of gold was found in deposits along streams coming from Mount Gulaga's slopes. Between 1878 and 1920 603 kilograms of gold was found in its slopes. Near the crest of Mount Gulaga, reefs were discovered in 1877; these Pyrite-rich veins which range in size from 15 to 45 centimetres were mined by the Mount Dromedary Gold Mining Company. When Mount Gulaga was an active volcano over 60 million years ago, its peak was 3,000 metres in height. Though the peak has fallen due to shifts in the Earth's crust, the peak can still be seen from anywhere in the Tilba region, it is visible across from many lakes, such as Wallaga Lake National Park or Lake Corunna. Mount Gulaga is made up of a Cretaceous–age igneous rock complex. Mount Gulaga ascends from this rock complex to 797 metres above sea level.

The mountain is composed of banatite rock with an outer rim of Monzonite. Mount Gulaga is located within the 4,673-hectare Gulaga National Park and the area serves as a site for public activity as well as a place of significance for the Aboriginal peoples; the national park provides walkways along the mining roads, which provide views of the coastal lakes. The hike from Tilba to the summit is 11 kilometres. Though it is steep in a few places along the way, it is a leisurely hike, requiring no special hiking equipment. Access to the park is 10 kilometres north of Bermagui; the lakes can be accessed by boat. Boats can be rented from Beauty Point. List of mountains of New South Wales

Trainline

Trainline branded Thetrainline.com, is an independent digital rail and coach ticketing platform. It sells tickets through its website, by telephone, through its mobile app, available on iOS, Windows Phone and Android platforms. Trainline's main offices are in London and Edinburgh, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Trainline was established in 1997 by the Virgin Group, online ticket sales began in 1999. Stagecoach purchased a 49% shareholding. In February 2004 Trainline merged with its main competitor. Stagecoach sold out, with Virgin having a 86% shareholding in the merged company with National Express owning the other 14%. In July 2006, Exponent Private Equity acquired Trainline. In July 2007, Trainline acquired Advanced Smartcard Technologies and ECEBS, signalling a new strategy to enter the smartcard market. Ecebs was subsequently sold to Bell ID in November 2012; the company was bought from Exponent by the private equity firm KKR in January 2015. In August 2015, the company announced.

In 2016, acquired Captain Train and re-branded it as Trainline EU. In June 2019, Trainline was the subject of an initial public offering on the London Stock Exchange. In addition to the online service provided direct to customers operated under its own brands Trainline and Qjump, it provides the website services for eight of the 20 UK train operating companies who sell tickets online under their own brands, as well as providing a rail business travel service direct to a number of large blue chip corporations, travel management companies and travel agents. Trainline provides a call centre service to a number of the customers referred to above. Official website Trainline on Facebook Trainline on Twitter Trainline Contact Number